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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 67-73, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is currently considered a chronic inflammatory disease involving NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation and retinal microglial pyroptosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling induces pyroptotic death of retinal microglia under high-glucose conditions. Methods: Retinal microglia were stimulated by high glucose levels for 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and caspase-1 activity were detected in vitro. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β, activated microglia marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1), NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved gasdermin D were examined. Subsequently, retinal microglia were pretreated with the inhibitors of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling prior to stimulation with high glucose, and their molecular and functional changes were evaluated. Results: High-glucose (25, 50, or 100 mM) stimulation decreased cell viability, but enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, high glucose upregulated the protein expression of interleukin-1β, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved gasdermin D. However, pretreatment with the inhibitors of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling inhibited high glucose (25 mM)-induced cytotoxicity, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis of retinal microglia. Conclusions: NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling may modulate retinal microglia-related inflammation and pyroptosis under high-glucose conditions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Atualmente, a retinopatia diabética é considerada uma doença inflamatória crônica envolvendo a ativação de inflamassomas NLRP3 e piroptose da micróglia da retina. Neste estudo, objetivamos investigar se a sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 induz a morte da micróglia da retina sob condições de alta glicose. Métodos: A micróglia da retina foi estimulada por altos níveis de glicose durante 24 horas. A viabilidade celular, a liberação de LDH e a atividade da caspase1 foram analisadas in vitro. Avaliou-se a expressão de citocina pró-inflamatória (IL1β), de marcador de micróglia ativado (Iba1), de NLRP3, de caspase1 clivada e de GSDMD clivada. Subsequentemente, a micróglia da retina foi pré-tratada com inibidores da sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 antes da estimulação com altos níveis de glicose e suas alterações moleculares e funcionais foram avaliadas. Resultados: A estimulação com altos níveis de glicose (25 mM, 50 mM ou 100 mM) diminuiu a viabilidade celular, mas aumentou a liberação de LDH e a atividade da caspase1 de forma dependente da dose. Além disso, os altos níveis de glicose aumentaram a expressão das proteínas IL1β, Iba1, NLRP3, caspase1 clivada e GSDMD clivada. No entanto, o pré-tratamento com inibidores da sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 e a posterior estimulação com altos níveis de glicose (25 mM) induziu citotoxicidade, a ativação de inflamassomas NLRP3 e a piroptose da micróglia da retina. Conclusão: A sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 pode modular a inflamação e a piroptose da micróglia da retina na presença de altos níveis de glicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammasomes , Pyroptosis , Microglia , Interleukin-1beta , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Glucose
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921709

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the extraction of flavonoids from Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms(LRH) and explored its pharmacological effects, such as resisting inflammation, relieving pain, enhancing immunity, and inhibiting pyroptosis, aiming to provide data support and scientific basis for the development and utilization of LRH. Response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from LRH based on the results of single-factor experiments. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of LRH flavonoids were evaluated via inflammation and pain models in mice, such as xylene-induced ear swelling, carrageenan-induced footpad swelling, writhing caused by acetic acid, and paw licking. The effect of LRH flavonoids on the carbon clearance index of monocytes and serum immunoglobulin A(IgA) and IgM levels was analyzed on the immunosuppression model induced by cyclophosphamide in mice. The anti-oxidative effect in vivo of LRH flavonoids on liver superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels was determined based on the chronic/subacute aging model in mice induced by D-galactose. The levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-18 in the supernatant of J774 A.1 mononuclear phagocytes were detected to evaluate the effect of LRH flavonoids on the pyroptosis of mononuclear phagocytes in mice induced by the combination of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and adenosine triphosphate(ATP). Meanwhile, the effect of LRH flavonoids on the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway was also explored. The optimum conditions for the extraction of LRH flavonoids are listed below: extraction temperature of 65 ℃, the ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction time of 60 min, a material-liquid ratio at 1∶25, and the yield of LRH flavonoids of 0.553%. RSM determined the multiple quadratic regression equation model of response value and variables as follows: the yield of LRH flavonoids=0.61-0.48A+0.1B+0.029C-0.014D+0.32AB+0.04AC-0.012AD-0.02BC+0.037BD-0.031CD-0.058A~2-0.068B~2-0.069C~2-0.057D~2. LRH flavonoids could effectively inhibit ear swelling and footpad swelling, reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, and delayed the paw licking response time in mice. Additionally, LRH flavonoids could improve the carbon clearance index in immunosuppressed mice, potentiate the activities of SOD and CAT and reduce MDA levels in the liver of aging mice induced by D-galactose, and effectively inhibit macrophage pyroptosis by decreasing the levels of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. The results reveal that LRH flavonoids possess excellent pharmacological activities such as resisting inflammation and oxidation, relieving pain, and enhancing immunity. They can inhibit pyroptosis by enhancing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The results of this study can underpin the pharmacological research, development, and utilization of LRH.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Animals , Edema/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lonicera , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pain/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921664

ABSTRACT

Pyroptosis is a pro-inflammatory programmed cell death, and its role in cardiac inflammatory response has become a hot topic. The activation of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain like receptor protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome is an important mechanism for pyroptosis induced by cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 1(caspase-1). The existing studies have shown that cardiomyocyte pyroptosis participates in the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases and the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated cardiomyocyte pyroptosis has been most widely studied. Also, the intervention in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cardiomyocyte pyroptosis contributes to ameliorating myocardial injury, which may be the main mechanism of many traditional Chinese medicines in exerting the cardio-protective effects. Therefore, this paper reviewed the studies on cardiomyocyte pyroptosis mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome and put forward the importance of exploring traditional Chinese medicine intervention in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocytes, Cardiac , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pyroptosis
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2647-2655, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921147

ABSTRACT

Cell death occurs in various tissues and organs in the body. It is a physiological or pathological process that has different effects. It is of great significance in maintaining the morphological function of cells and clearing abnormal cells. Pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necrosis are all modes of cell death that have been studied extensively by many experts and scholars, including studies on their effects on the liver, kidney, the heart, other organs, and even the whole body. The heart, as the most important organ of the body, should be a particular focus. This review summarizes the mechanisms underlying the various cell death modes and the relationship between the various mechanisms and heart diseases. The current research status for heart therapy is discussed from the perspective of pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Necrosis , Pyroptosis
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 329-341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878261

ABSTRACT

Pyroptosis is a form of programmed cell death which is closely related to the inflammatory response, mediated by Gasdermin protein and depends on the activity of cysteine aspartate specific protease (caspase). Pyroptosis is typically characterized by swelling and rupture of cell membrane, release of proinflammatory factors and cell contents from the plasma membrane to the extracellular environment, which aggravates inflammatory response. During the inflammatory response, NLRP3, caspase, Gasdermin D (GSDMD) and IL-1β play important roles in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of pyroptosis in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, pressure overload-induced ventricular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy, myocarditis, arrhythmia and so on, and summarize the potential treatment targeting pyroptosis. It will provide the basis for prevention and treatment of clinical cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Caspases , Humans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Pyroptosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922611

ABSTRACT

As a form of new programmed cell death, pyroptosis is divided into a canonical pyroptosis pathway and a non-canonical pyroptosis pathway. In recent years, it is reported that non-canonical pyroptosis is closely related to inflammatory reactions, which directly affects the occurrence, development, and outcome of sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, respiratory disease, nerve system inflammatory disease, and other inflammatory diseases. When the cells were infected with Gram-negative bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), it can induce the activation of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase(caspase)-4/5/11 and directly bind to the cells to cleave gasdermin D (GSDM-D) into the active amino-terminus of GSDM-D. The amino-terminus of GSDM-D with membrane punching activity migrates to the cell membrane, triggering the rupture of the cell membrane, and the cell contents discharge, leading to the occurrence of non-canonical pyroptosis. After activation of caspase-11, it also promotes the canonical pyroptosis, activates and releases interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, which aggravated inflammation. Caspase-4/5/11, GSDM-D, Toll-like receptor 4 and high mobility group protein B1 are the key molecules of the non-canonical pyroptosis. Exploring the mechanisms of non-canonical pyroptosis and the related research progresses in inflammatory diseases intensively is of great significance for clinical prevention and treatment of the relevant diseases.


Subject(s)
Caspases , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Pyroptosis , Sepsis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888148

ABSTRACT

This study explored the in vivo effects and mechanisms of the modern classical prescription Supplemented Gegen Qinlian Decoction Formula(SGDF) against diabetic kidney disease(DKD). Sixty rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, SGDF group, and rosiglitazone(ROS) group. The modified DKD rat model was established by employing the following three methods: exposure to high-fat diet, unilateral nephrectomy, and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ). After modeling, rats in the four groups were treated with double distilled water, SGDF suspension, and ROS suspension, respectively, by gavage every day. At the end of the 6 th week of drug administration, all the rats were sacrificed for collecting urine, blood, and kidney tissue, followed by the examination of rat general conditions, urine and blood biochemical indicators, glomerulosclerosis-related indicators, podocyte pyroptosis markers, insulin resistance(IR)-related indicators, and key molecules in the insulin receptor substrate(IRS) 1/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine threonine kinase(Akt) signaling pathway. The results showed that SGDF and ROS improved the general conditions, some renal function indicators and glomerulosclerosis of DKD model rats without affecting the blood glucose(BG). Besides, they ameliorated the expression characteristics and levels of podocyte pyroptosis markers, alleviated IR, and up-regulated the protein expression levels of the key molecules in IRS1/PI3 K/Akt pathway to varying degrees. In conclusion, similar to ROS, SGDF relieves DKD by targeting multiple targets in vivo. Specifically, it exerts the therapeutic effects by alleviating podocyte pyroptosis and IR. This study has preliminarily provided the pharmacological evidence for the research and development of new drugs for the treatment of DKD based on SGDF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Insulin Resistance , Podocytes , Pyroptosis , Rats
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887990

ABSTRACT

To investigate the mechanism of Huanglian Wendan Decoction in intervening impaired glucose tolerance( IGT) rat insulin resistance( IR) based on the pyroptosis pathway of liver cells. The IGT rat model was established by high-fat diet( 20 weeks) combined with high temperature,humidity environment and inactive lifestyle. The experiment was divided into blank group,model group,metformin hydrochloride group( positive group)( 0. 05 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and Huanglian Wendan Decoction group( 7. 8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). After continuous intragastric administration for 4 weeks,the body weight,body length and abdominal circumferences of all the rats were measured,the Lee' s obesity indexes was calculated,and the levels of fasting plasma glucose( FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose( 2 hPG) in each group were measured. Serum insulin levels( FINS) and tumour necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) levels were detected by ELISA,and insulin sensitivity index( ISI) and insulin resistance index( IRI) values were calculated. The expressions of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1( caspase-1),gasdermin D( GSDMD),interleukin-1β( IL-1β) and interleukin-18( IL-18) m RNA and proteins in liver tissues were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expressions of caspase-1 and GSDMD protein in liver tissues. Huanglian Wendan Decoction could effectively reduce the weight of model rats,improve abdominal obesity,FINS,IRI and ISI indexes and correct 2 hPG levels. Compared with blank group,TNF-α levels in serum and caspase-1,GSDMD,IL-1β and IL-18 expressions in liver tissue of model control group were increased significantly. Huanglian Wendan Decoction could effectively reduce TNF-α level in serum,regulate the expressions of caspase-1,GSDMD,IL-1β and IL-18 genes and proteins in liver tissues of IGT rats. The above results showed that the occurrence and development of " obesity-IR-abnormal glucose metabolism-type 2 diabetes mellitus" was closely related to inflammatory response and the classical pyroptosis pathway mediated by caspase-1/GSDMD. The mechanism of Huanglian Wendan Decoction in improving IR may be correlated with reduction of the level of inflammatory factors and the alleviation of the state of pyroptosis,and thus reverse the course of IGT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liver , Pyroptosis , Rats
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879021

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of Huangqin Decoction on ulcerative colitis(UC) pyroptosis, and to explain the mechanism of pyroptosis based on NOD-like receptor thermoprotein domain 3(NLRP3)/cysteine proteinase 1(caspase-1) pathway. The animal model of UC induced with 3% dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) was established. The experimental animals were divided into control group, model group, low-dose(4.55 g·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(9.1 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(18.2 g·kg~(-1)) Huangqin Decoction groups and salazosulfapyridine group(0.45 g·kg~(-1)). While modeling, intragastric administration was given for 7 consecutive days. On the 8 th day, the mice were euthanized, the colon length was collected, and the histopathological changes were observed by HE staining. The content of interleukin-18(IL-18) was observed by ELISA. The content of lactatedehydrogenase(LDH)was determined by microplate method. TUNEL assay kit was used to detect the cell death. The immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC). Western blot was used to detect the expressions of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), caspase-1 and gasdermin D(GSDMD).The experimental study showed that compared with normal group, the LDH content, TUNEL positive staining, inflammatory factors(IL-18, IL-1β), and proteins associated with pyroptosis were significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with model control group, the LDH content, TUNEL positive staining, inflammatory factors(IL-18, IL-1β), and proteins associated with pyroptosis were decreased, and these results were more significant in high-dose groups(P<0.05). The results of HE staining showed that Huangqin Decoction could improve the pathological changes of colon. Huangqin Decoction could inhibit UC cell pyroptosis, and the mechanism may be closely related to NLRP3/caspase-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pyroptosis , Scutellaria baicalensis
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200057, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143218

ABSTRACT

Certain environmental toxins permanently damage the thymic epithelium, accelerate immune senescence and trigger secondary immune pathologies. However, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms and pathways of permanent immune intoxication remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate gene expressional changes of apoptosis-related cellular pathways in human thymic epithelial cells following exposure to snake venom from Bitis gabonica and Dendroaspis angusticeps. Methods: Snake venoms were characterized by analytical methods including reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, then applied on human thymic epithelial cells (1889c) for 24 h at 10 μg/mL (as used in previous TaqMan Array study). Gene expressional changes restricted to apoptosis were assayed by TaqMan Array (Human Apoptosis Plate). Results: The most prominent gene expressional changes were shown by CASP5 (≈ 2.5 million-fold, confirmed by dedicated quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and CARD9 (0.016-fold) for B. gabonica, and BIRC7 (6.46-fold) and CASP1 (0.30-fold) for D. angusticeps. Conclusion: The observed apoptotic environment suggests that pyroptosis may be the dominant pathway through which B. gabonica and D. angusticeps snake venoms trigger thymic epithelial apoptosis following envenomation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Apoptosis , Viperidae/genetics , Epithelial Cells/chemistry , Pyroptosis , Analytical Methods , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of propofol on pyroptosis of macrophages.@*METHODS@#Macrophages derived from bone marrow were extracted and divided into three groups: control group, LPS+ATP group and propofol+LPS+ATP group. The control group was not given any treatment; LPS+ATP group was given LPS 1 μg/mL stimulation for 4 h, then ATP 4 mM stimulation for 1 h; Propofol+LPS+ATP group was given propofol+LPS 1 μg/mL stimulation for 4 h, then ATP stimulation for 1 h. After treatment, the supernatant and cells of cell culture were collected. the cell activity was detected by CCK8 and flow cytometry. The inflammatory cytokines IL-1βand IL-18 were detected by Elisa. Western blot was used to detect the expression of caspase-1 protein and TLR4 on cell membran Immunohistochemical fluorescence was used to detect apoptosis of cells.@*RESULTS@#LPS+ATP significantly decreased the viability of the macrophages and increased the cellular production of IL-1β and IL-18, activation of caspase-1 protein and the expression of TLR-4 on the cell membrane ( < 0.05). Treatment with propofol obviously reversed the changes induced by LPS+ATP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#LPS+ATP can induce pyroptosis of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, and propofol effectively inhibits such cell death, suggesting that propofol anesthesia is beneficial during operation and helps to regulate the immune function of in patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 1 , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , Mice , Propofol , Pyroptosis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of microglial pyroptosis in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.@*METHODS@#An oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of rat microglial cells were cultured in vitro. Western blot was used to measure the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and N-terminal gasdermin D (GSDMD-N) at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after OGD/R. After the microglial cells were transfected with lentivirus-mediated silenced gasdermin D (GSDMD), immunofluorescence assay and Western blot were used to measure the transfection rate of GSDMD. Microglial cell lines were divided into three groups: normal control, negative control, and LV-sh_GSDMD (lentivirus-mediated GSDMD silencing). CCK-8 assay and LDH kit were used to observe the effect of GSDMD silencing on the viability and toxicity of microglial cells at 24 hours after OGD/R. Western blot was used to observe the effect of GSDMD silencing on the levels of caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in the microglial cells at 24 hours after OGD/R.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of the pyroptosis-related proteins caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in microglial cells were upregulated since 0 hour after OGD/R and reached the peak levels at 24 hours. A microglial cell model of lentivirus-mediated GSDMD silencing was successfully constructed. At 24 hours after OGD/R, compared with the normal control group, the GSDMD silencing group had a significant increase in the cell viability and a significant reduction in the cytotoxicity (P<0.05), as well as significant reductions in the protein expression levels of caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in microglial cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lentivirus silencing of the key substrate protein for pyroptosis GSDMD can alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, suggesting that microglial pyroptosis aggravates hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Microglia/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Rats
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To observe the electrophysiological changes of astrocytes in the process of hyperoxia induced apoptosis and analyze the relationship between electrophysiological characteristics and morphological changes.@*METHODS@#Astrocytes were exposed to 90% hyperoxia for 12-72 h. The electrophysiological characteristics of astrocytes in each group were detected by patch clamp technique, and the morphological characteristics of astrocytes were observed at the same time. Then the same batch of astrocytes were collected, and the expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-3, gasdermin D (GSDMD) and gasdermin E (GSDME) were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#From 12 h to 72 h after hyperoxia exposure, the inward current was significantly lower than that of the control group (0.05). At each time point, the morphology of cells changed correspondingly. Western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-1 was increased significantly at 24 h and decreased significantly at 72 h after hyperoxia exposure (0.05), but began to decrease at 48 h (<0.05); GSDME increased gradually at 24 h after hyperoxia exposure (<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Under hyperoxia exposure, the ion channels of astrocytes are damaged, which can maintain the dysfunction of ion homeostasis, activate GSDME, induce the damaged cells to break away from the apoptotic pathway, and mediate the pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Caspase 1 , Humans , Hyperoxia , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Neoplasm Proteins , Phosphate-Binding Proteins , Pyroptosis
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 455-462, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827041

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the expression of pyroptosis- and inflammation-related proteins in the hippocampus of mice with insulin resistance (IR) after aerobic exercise, and to explore the possible mechanism of exercise to improve IR. C57BL/6J male mice of 6 weeks old were randomly fed with normal diet (n = 12) and high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 26) for 12 weeks respectively. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed to determine whether IR occurred in HFD mice. Then the mice were randomly divided into control group (n = 12), IR group (n = 10) and IR + aerobic exercise group (AE, n = 10). Mice in AE group performed a 12-week progressive speed treadmill training after being adapted to the treadmill for one week. After the intervention, the expression of pyroptosis- and inflammation-related proteins in hippocampus was detected by Western blot. The results showed that compared with control group, NFκB, Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), pyroptosis-related proteins like pro-Caspase-1, gasdermin D (GSDMD), GSDMD-N, and inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-18 were significantly increased. The inflammasome-related protein NIMA-related kinase 7 (NEK7) and pyroptosis-related protein Caspase-1 showed an increasing trend, but there was no significant difference. Compared with the IR group, progressive speed treadmill training significantly reduced the expression of NFκB, NLRP3, NEK7, ASC, pro-Caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N, IL-1β, and IL-18 in the hippocampus of mice with IR. These results suggested 12-week progressive speed treadmill training can significantly reduce the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins and inflammatory factors in the hippocampus of mice with IR, and inhibit pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 1 , Gene Expression , Hippocampus , Inflammasomes , Insulin Resistance , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NIMA-Related Kinases , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Pyroptosis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of isoflurane preconditioning on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury mediated by the noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.@*METHODS@#Thirty C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, isoflurane group and I/R group, and in the latter two groups, hepatic I/R injury was induced by clamping the portal vein for 30 min. In isoflurane group, the mice were pretreated with 1.4% isoflurane 30 min before the surgery. The protective effect of isoflurane preconditioning against hepatic I/R injury was evaluated by assessing the pathological score of HE staining of the liver tissue and serum ALT and AST levels. Serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels and the protein expression of GSDMS were detected by ELISA and Western blotting to evaluate the inhibitory effect of isoflurane preconditioning on pyroptosis. Western blotting and immunofluroescence were used to detect the protein expression of caspase-11 in the liver tissues to evaluate the inhibitory effect of isoflurane preconditioning on noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.@*RESULTS@#The Suzuki's score of the liver tissue was significantly higher in I/R group than in the sham group ( < 0.05), while the score in the isoflurane group was significantly lower than that in the I/R group ( < 0.05). Serum ALT and AST levels significantly increased in the sham group ( < 0.05), and were significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly higher in I/R group than in sham group ( < 0.05), and were significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The expression of GSDMD in the I/R group was significantly higher than that in sham group, and was significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The hepatic expression of caspase-11 was significantly higher in I/R group than in sham group ( < 0.05), and was significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Isoflurane preconditioning has protective effect against hepatic I/R injury, which is related to the inhibition of the noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspases, Initiator , Ischemic Preconditioning , Isoflurane , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pyroptosis , Reperfusion Injury
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study whether pyroptosis is involved in the bilirubin-induced injury of primary cultured rat cortical microglial cells.@*METHODS@#Primary cultured rat cortical microglial cells were randomly administered with 30 μmol/L bilirubin (bilirubin group), 30 μmol/L bilirubin following 30 μmol/L VX-765 pretreatment (VX-765+bilirubin group), or an equal volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (control group). Modified MTT assay was used to measure the viability of microglial cells. Western blot was used to measure the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins Caspase-1 and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-release assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of microglial cells. EtBr/EthD2 with different molecular weights (394 Da/1 293 Da) was used to measure the size of plasma membrane pores. ELISA was used to measure the level of the inflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in culture supernatant.@*RESULTS@#After bilirubin stimulation, the viability of microglial cells decreased and LDH release increased, both in a time-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the bilirubin group had a significantly higher positive rate of small-molecule EtBr passing through the cell membrane (P0.05). The expression of activated Caspase-1 significantly increased at 0.5 hour after bilirubin stimulation (P<0.05), and that of activated GSDMD significantly increased at 6 hours after bilirubin stimulation (P<0.05). The release of IL-1β significantly increased at 6 hours after bilirubin stimulation and reached the peak at 24 hours (P<0.001). Compared with the bilirubin group, the VX-765+bilirubin group had a significant increase in cell viability (P<0.05) and significant reductions in the expression of activated GSDMD, the pass rate of EtBr, and the release of LDH and IL-1β (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pyroptosis is involved in bilirubin-induced injury of primary cultured microglial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bilirubin , Caspase 1 , Cell Survival , Interleukin-1beta , Pyroptosis , Rats
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is under development as an oncolytic virus due to its preferential replication in cancer cells and oncolytic activity, however the viral components responsible have not yet been determined. In this study the effects of VSV wild-type (wt) and M51R-mutant matrix proteins (M51R-mMP) on apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy pathways, in an esophagus cancer cell line (KYSE-30) were investigated. METHODS: The KYSE-30 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1 plasmids encoding wt or M51R-mMP, and apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy were evaluated 48 and 72 hours after transfection. RESULTS: KYSE-30 cells transfected with VSV wt and M51R-mMPs significantly reduced cell viability to < 50% at 72 hours post-transfection. M51R-MP significantly increased the concentration of caspase-8 and caspase-9 at 48 and 72 hours post-transfection, respectively ( p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were detected following transfection with the VSV wt plasmid. Moreover, VSV wt and M51R-mMP transfected cells did not change the expression of caspase-3. VSV wt and M51R-mMPs did not mMP change caspase-1 expression (a marker of pyroptosis) at 48 and 72 hours post-transfection. However, M51R-mMP and VSV wt transfected cells significantly increased RIP-1 (a marker of necroptosis) expression at 72 hours post-infection ( p < 0.05). Beclin-1, a biomarker of autophagy, was also induced by transfection with VSV wt or M51R-mMPs at 48 hours post-transfection. CONCLUSION: The results in this study indicated that VSV exerts oncolytic activity in KYSE-30 tumor cells through different cell death pathways, suggesting that M51R-mMP may potentially be used to enhance oncolysis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Oncolytic Viruses , Plasmids , Pyroptosis , Transfection , Vesicular Stomatitis , Viral Structures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. This phenomenon has been recently reported to play an important role in radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein that regulates cell growth and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cx43 on X-ray-induced pyroptosis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).@*METHODS@#HUVECs, Cx43 overexpression, and Cx43 knockdown strains were irradiated with 10 Gy. Proteins were detected using western blot analysis. Cell pyroptosis was evaluated using the fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of caspase assay (FLICA) and propidium iodide staining through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cell morphology and cytotoxicity were detected by scanning electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase release assay, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Irradiation with 10 Gy X-ray induced pyroptosis in the HUVECs and reduced Cx43 expression. The pyroptosis in the HUVECs was significantly attenuated by overexpression of Cx43 as it decreased the level of active caspase-1. However, interference of Cx43 expression with siRNA significantly promoted pyroptosis by increasing the active caspase-1 level. Pannexin1 (Panx1), a gap junction protein regulates pyroptosis, and its cleaved form is used to evaluate channel opening and active state. The level of cleaved Panx1 in the HUVECs and Cx43 knockdown strains increased in the presence of X-ray, but decreased in the Cx43 overexpression strains. Furthermore, interference of Panx1 with siRNA alleviated the upregulation of pyroptosis caused by Cx43 knockdown.@*CONCLUSION@#Results suggest that single high-dose X-ray irradiation induces pyroptosis in the HUVECs. In addition, Cx43 regulates pyroptosis directly by activating caspase-1 or indirectly by cleaving Panx1.


Subject(s)
Caspase 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Genetics , Metabolism , Connexins , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Radiation Effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Pyroptosis , X-Rays
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 846-854, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781390

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) on pyroptosis of macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AGE-alb (1, 2, 4 and 6 g/L) and control albumin (C-alb, 4 g/L) for 24 h, or preincubated with MCC950 (1 μmol/L) for 1 h and then treated with AGE-alb (4 g/L) for 24 h. Cell viability and caspase-1 activity were measured by MTT and assay kits, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 in media were detected. Cell death degree was evaluated by TUNEL and Hoechst 33342/PI staining. The protein levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), procaspase-1 and cleaved caspase-1 were assessed by Western blot. The results showed that AGE-alb treatment caused obvious decrease in cell viability and increases in LDH leakage and the percentages of TUNEL- or PI-positive cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, AGE-alb promoted IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, upregulated NLRP3 expression, and increased caspase-1 activity especially at the dose of 4 and 6 g/L. However, MCC950 (an NLRP3 inhibitor) pretreatment inhibited significantly the decrease in cell viability and the increases in LDH leakage and percentages of TUNEL- or PI-positive cells induced by AGE-alb. Furthermore, MCC950 attenuated obviously AGE-alb-induced IL-1β and IL-18 secretion and caspase-1 activation. These results indicate that AGE-alb may induce macrophage pyroptosis, and the mechanism is at least partially by activating NLRP3-caspase-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Caspase 1 , Gene Expression Regulation , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Genetics , Pyroptosis , Serum Albumin , Pharmacology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 375-385, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886280

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant capacity, inflammation and apoptotic cell death (through expression of cleaved-caspase 3) in lung tissue samples of diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) was made up of healthy rats. Group 2 (diabetes group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days.Group 3 (diabetes plus melatonin group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days and then they received melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day between 28thand 35thdays of the study. Results: Tissue MDA and MPO levels were found to be significantly higher in diabetes group compared to control group (p<0.05) whilst administration of melatonin was found to significantly lower this increase down to normal levels (p<0.05). Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was more severe in diabetics whereas administration of melatonin alleviated this hyperplasia. Cleaved caspase 3 activity was severe in hyperplastic BALT in diabetic rats however in lowered down to moderate level when melatonin was administered. Conclusion: The melatonin caused an increase in antioxidant capacity and decreased the expression of cleaved-caspase 3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Caspase 3/analysis , Pyroptosis/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Peroxidase/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Caspase 3/drug effects , Glutathione/analysis , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
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