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1.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 37(2): e1232, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352002

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aumento de la población adulta mayor es uno de los grandes cambios demográficos en Chile, por lo que resulta necesario establecer abordajes terapéuticos eficaces para prevenir caídas y, consecuentemente, la dependencia funcional en este grupo etario. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de un programa kinésico de prevención de caídas mediante fortalecimiento muscular de extremidad inferior en adultos mayores de 65 años con alteración del equilibrio, en comparación con el programa kinésico convencional. Métodos: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado no farmacológico, incluyó un grupo experimental y un grupo control con 25 participantes en cada grupo. La modalidad del tratamiento experimental es más educativa y participativa que el convencional. La eficacia de cada tratamiento fue evaluada mediante la variación de parámetros de equilibrio estático y dinámico al segundo y tercer mes de tratamiento (resultados principales). Resultados: Los resultados secundarios fueron: fuerza, potencia y diámetro pierna - muslo. Se evaluó la eficacia de ambos programas por el modelo multinivel, se consideraron las variables tiempo y tratamiento. Resultados: Hubo mejorías significativas en parámetros de equilibrio estático y dinámico con ambos tratamientos. La eficacia del tratamiento experimental fue superior a la del convencional en parámetros de potencia muscular y aumento de diámetros de ambos muslos y pierna izquierda. El factor tiempo de tratamiento aportó significativamente a la eficacia. Conclusiones: Ambos tratamientos mejoran los parámetros de equilibrio, pero el tratamiento experimental es más eficaz sobre parámetros de potencia muscular. Con su modalidad educativa y participativa este tratamiento podría optimizar resultados para prevenir caídas del adulto mayor en el nivel primario de atención(AU)


Introduction: The increase in the older adult population is one of the great demographic changes in Chile, a reason why it is necessary to establish effective therapeutic approaches to prevent falls and, consequently, functional dependence in this age group. Objective: To assess the efficacy of a kinesthetic program for the prevention of falls through lower limb muscle strengthening in adults over 65 years of age with impaired balance, in comparison with the conventional kinesthetic program. Methods: Nonpharmacological randomized clinical trial including an experimental group and a control group, with 25 participants each. The modality of experimental treatment is more educational and participatory than the conventional one. The efficacy of each treatment was assessed based on the variation of static and dynamic balance parameters at the second and third months of treatment (main results). Secondary outcomes included strength, power, and leg-thigh diameter. The efficacy of both programs was assessed using the multilevel model; the variables time and treatment were considered. Results: There were significant improvements in static and dynamic balance parameters with both treatments. The efficacy of the experimental treatment was higher than the conventional one in parameters of muscular power and increase in diameters of both thighs and the left leg. The factor time of treatment contributed significantly to efficacy. Conclusions: Both treatments improve balance parameters, but the experimental treatment is more effective regarding muscle power parameters. With its educational and participatory modality, this treatment could optimize results to prevent falls in the older adult at the primary level of care(AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Exercise , Quadriceps Muscle , Isometric Contraction , Chile
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 212-217, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280066

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive technique that is used in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and the monitoring of physical activity. Objective: To determine the influence of sexual, anthropometric and ergospirometric factors on muscle oxygenation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius, obtained by NIRS during a stress test. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study (10 women). Two Humon Hex® devices were placed on the dominant side of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles to measure muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2). The stress test was performed on a treadmill with electrocardiographic control and measurement of oxygen consumption. SmO2 was obtained at rest and after maximum effort during the stress test. In addition, the height, weight, skinfold and waist contour were measured. Bioimpedance was used to obtain the percentages of fat mass and muscle mass, which were used to calculate the relative fat mass (RFM). Results: The SmO2 of both muscles at rest is higher in males than in females. At maximum effort, the SmO2 of the quadriceps is similar in both groups. The SmO2 of both muscles is positively related to height, body mass, percentage of mass muscle and waist contour, and negatively with percentage of mass fat, RFM and skinfold thickness. The negative correlation between fat percentage and oxygen saturation is more evident in females. It was observed that the variables that quantify maximum effort are not related to the SmO2 values, except for the correlation between HR max and SmO2 of the gastrocnemius muscle in males. Conclusion: The SmO2 of recreational athletes is influenced by the location of the device and the fat mass of the subjects. The biggest differences between the sexes are in the gastrocnemius muscle. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test .


RESUMEN Introducción: La espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) es una técnica no invasiva usada en la evaluación de la oxigenación tisular y en la monitorización de la actividad física. Objetivos: Determinar la influencia de factores sexuales, antropométricos y ergoespirométricos sobre la oxigenación muscular de cuádriceps y del gastrocnemio, obtenidos por NIRS durante un test de esfuerzo. Métodos: Participaron en este estudio 20 individuos saludables (10 mujeres). Se colocaron dos dispositivos Humon Hex® en el lado dominante de los músculos cuádriceps y gastrocnemio para medir la saturación de oxígeno muscular (SmO2). El test de esfuerzo fue realizado en una cinta ergométrica con control electrocardiográfico y medición del consumo de oxígeno. La SmO2 fue obtenida en reposo y después de esfuerzo máximo durante el test. Además, fueron medidos altura, peso, pliegues cutáneos y contorno de la cintura. Fue usada bioimpedancia para obtener los porcentuales de masa grasa y masa muscular, que fueron usados para calcular la masa grasa relativa (MGR). Resultados: La SmO2 de ambos músculos en reposo es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. En el esfuerzo máximo la SmO2 del cuádriceps es semejante en los dos grupos. La SmO2 de ambos músculos es positivamente relacionada con altura, masa corporal, porcentual de masa muscular y contorno de la cintura y negativamente relacionada con el porcentaje de masa grasa, MGR y espesor de los pliegues cutáneos. La correlación negativa entre el porcentual de grasa y la saturación de oxígeno es más evidente en las mujeres. Se observó que variables que cuantifican el esfuerzo máximo no está relacionadas con los valores SmO2, excepto por la correlación entre FCmáx y SmO2 del músculo gastrocnemio en sexo masculino. Conclusión: La SmO2 de los atletas recreativos es influenciada por la localización del dispositivo y por la masa grasa de los individuos. Las mayores diferencias entre los sexos están en el músculo gastrocnemio. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios diagnósticos - Investigación de un examen para diagnóstico .


RESUMO Introdução: A espectroscopia de infravermelho próximo (NIRS) é uma técnica não invasiva usada na avaliação da oxigenação tecidual e no monitoramento da atividade física. Objetivos: Determinar a influência de fatores sexuais, antropométricos e ergoespirométricos sobre a oxigenação muscular do quadríceps e do gastrocnêmio obtidos por NIRS durante um teste de esforço. Métodos: Participaram deste estudo 20 indivíduos saudáveis (10 mulheres). Dois dispositivos Humon Hex® foram colocados no lado dominante dos músculos quadríceps e gastrocnêmio para medir a saturação de oxigênio muscular (SmO2). O teste de esforço foi realizado em uma esteira com controle eletrocardiográfico e mensuração do consumo de oxigênio. A SmO2foi obtida em repouso e depois de esforço máximo durante o teste. Além disso, foram medidos estatura, peso, dobras cutâneas e contorno da cintura. A bioimpedância foi usada para obter os percentuais de massa gorda e massa muscular, que foram usados para calcular a massa gorda relativa (MGR). Resultados: A SmO2de ambos os músculos em repouso é maior em homens do que em mulheres. No esforço máximo, a SmO2do quadríceps é semelhante nos dois os grupos. A SmO2de ambos os músculos é positivamente relacionada com estatura, massa corporal, percentual de massa muscular e contorno da cintura e negativamente relacionada com a porcentagem de massa gorda, MGR e espessura das dobras cutâneas. A correlação negativa entre o percentual de gordura e a saturação de oxigênio é mais evidente nas mulheres. Observou-se que variáveis que quantificam o esforço máximo não estão relacionadas com os valores SmO2, exceto pela correlação entre FCmáx e SmO2do músculo gastrocnêmio no sexo masculino. Conclusão: A SmO2dos atletas recreativos é influenciada pela localização do dispositivo e pela massa gorda dos indivíduos. As maiores diferenças entre os sexos estão no músculo gastrocnêmio. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Quadriceps Muscle/metabolism , Body Composition , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Exercise Test
3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(2): 243-248, jun./dez. 2021. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293206

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o músculo reto femoral é o músculo mais frequentemente lesado do grupo quadríceps durante chutes e corridas repetitivas, apesar de suas avulsões serem raras. A dor localizada na coxa proximal e a incapacidade de flexionar o quadril e/ou estender o joelho associado à história do paciente de contração violenta ou alongamento forçado do grupo muscular do quadríceps femoral podem indicar uma avulsão do reto femoral. Objetivo: relatar um caso e revisar a literatura acerca desta lesão incomum. Materiais e Métodos: revisão do prontuário, registro fotográfico do método diagnóstico e revisão da literatura. Resultados: homem de 46 anos com dor localizada no quadril esquerdo com irradiação para a coxa por três meses após cair no chão com a região dolorida em um jogo de futebol. A dor começou subitamente uma semana após a queda. A ressonância magnética do quadril apresentava avulsão completa do reto femoral esquerdo, distando 2 cm da espinha ilíaca anterior inferior com efusão líquida adjacente. Conclusão: este relato demonstra a dificuldade de diagnosticar essa lesão, pois o seu exame físico é inespecífico, podendo simular patologias mais complexas, necessitando de exames complementares para seu correto diagnóstico.


Introduction: the rectus femoris muscle is the most frequently injured muscle of the quadriceps group during repetitive kicking and sprinting. Avulsions of the rectus femoris are rare injuries. Pain located at the proximal thigh and disability in flexing the hip and/or extending the knee associated with a patient history of a violent contraction or forceful stretching of the quadriceps femoris muscle group can indicate an avulsion of rectus femoris. Objective: report a case and review the literature about this uncommon lesion. Materials and Methods: we reviewed medical records, photographic records of diagnostic methods, and reviews from the literature. Results: a 46-year-old man with pain located at the left anterior hip with irradiation to the thigh for three months after falling to the ground with the sore region in a soccer game. The pain started suddenly one week after the fall. The MRI of the hip featured complete avulsion of the left rectus femoris, being 2 cm distal from the anterior inferior iliac spine with adjacent liquid effusion. Conclusion: this report demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing this lesion, since its physical examination is non-specific, and it can simulate more complex pathologies, requiring complementary tests for its correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Middle Aged , Tendon Injuries , Thigh , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Quadriceps Muscle
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical results of the application of critical rehabilitation pathway in the rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty.@*METHODS@#From March 2015 to December 2019, 67 patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were included. There were 49 females and 18 males, 42 cases on the left and 25 cases on the right, with an average age of 60 to 81(70.72±5.92) years old. Critical rehabilitation paths included intensive strength and gait rehabilitation exercises. All patients were evaluated before operation and 3, 12 months after operation. The evaluation indexes included stair climbing test (SCT), six minute walk test (6MWT), quadriceps and hamstring strength, range of motion, visual pain scale (VAS), Western Ontario McMasterUniversity Osteoarthritis score(WOMAC).@*RESULTS@#All the patients completed the entire pathway and the assessment. The results of pre-operative, 3 months after surgery and 12 months after surgery were as follows respectively. SCT-up: (16.32±3.58) s, (18.16±2.46) s, (11.00±1.29) s, @*CONCLUSION@#Critical rehabilitation path is safe and effective. The knee function of patients who receive critical rehabilitation path after TKA is significantly improved in the first 12 months after operation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Female , Humans , Knee Joint/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Quadriceps Muscle , Range of Motion, Articular , Recovery of Function
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study mechanism of improvement of stress concentration on patellofemoral joint by stiletto needle releasing lateral patellar retinaculum guided by the theory of Jinshugu() and based on the finite element model of knee joint. and to elucidate the biomechanical mechanism of stiletto needle releasing changing patellar trajectory and reducing patellofemoral joint pressure.@*METHODS@#CT data of knee joint from a normal male (aged 29, heighted 171 cm, weighted 58 kg) was selected. Starting with construction of three-dimensional model of knee joint by using finite element software, the finite element model of knee joint with complete tendonand bone structures were established through several steps, such as geometric reconstruction, reverse engineering, meshing, material assignment and loading analysis. The loading condition was set as 500 N load on knee joint, and the average tensile stress of quadriceps femoris tendon was about 200 N. To simulate the release of lateral patellar retinaculum by stiletto needle at 30 and 90 position of knee flexion in finite element model separately, and to compare the improvement of stress concentration of patellofemoral joint by stiletto needle intervention under different knee flexion conditions.@*RESULTS@#The peak stress of patellofemoral joint and tibiofemoral joint decreased after stiletto needle releasing of patellofemoral lateral retinaculum compared with before intervention, which was(1) knee flexion at 30 degrees:patellar cartilage decreased by 0.498 MPa (decreased 9.06%), femoral trochlea decreased by 0.886 MPa(decreased 16.27%);(2) knee flexion at 90 degrees:patellar cartilage decreased by 0.558 MPa (decreased 8.6%), femoral trochlea decreasedby 0.607 MPa (decreased 9.94%).@*CONCLUSION@#Releasing lateral patellofemoral retinaculum with stiletto needle could effectively alleviate the stress concentration of patellofemoral joint and reduce local stress peak value, which it is helpful to improve patellar trajectory and make stress distribution more uniform.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Knee Joint , Male , Patella , Patellofemoral Joint , Quadriceps Muscle , Range of Motion, Articular
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 613-619, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155774

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives There are no consensus of the ideal technique to provide analgesia in knee ligament reconstructions. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of postoperative pain in these patients under different modalities of analgesia. Method Randomized and controlled clinical trial of patients undergoing reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) with flexor tendons between December 2013 and 2014. All patients underwent spinal anesthesia and rescue analgesia with tramadol. The groups C, M, R0,375 and R0,25 was compared with only the previously described technique, subarachnoid morphine (100░µg), or Femoral Nerve Block (BNF) with 25░mL of 0.375% ropivacaine and 0.25%, respectively. Pain intensity at 6, 12 and 24░hours, age, sex, rescue analgesia, adverse reactions and satisfaction were evaluated. Results Among the 83 eligible patients, a predominance of males (85.7%) was observed, between 28 and 31 years. The group C requested more opioid (27.3%) than the other groups, without significance when compared. There were no significant differences in pain intensity at 6, 12 and 24░hours. There was a higher incidence of urinary retention in the M group (23.8%) than in the R0,375 (0%) and prolonged quadriceps motor block in the R0,375 group (30%) than in the M and C groups (0%), with statistical significance (p░<░0.05). Conclusion There was no difference in the intensity of postoperative pain in patients submitted to ACL reconstruction with flexor tendons under the analgesic modalities evaluated, despite the predominance of urinary retention in the M group and motor block in the R0,375 group.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos Não há consenso sobre qual é a técnica ideal para prover analgesia em reconstruções ligamentares de joelho. Objetivou‐se comparar a intensidade da dor pós‐operatória desses pacientes sob diferentes modalidades de analgesia. Método Ensaio clínico randomizado e controlado de pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com tendões flexores entre dezembro de 2013 e 2014. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a raquianestesia e analgesia de resgate com tramadol. Compararam‐se os grupos C, M, R0,375 e R0,25; aos quais se ofertou apenas a técnica anteriormente descrita, morfina subaracnóidea (100 µg) ou bloqueio de nervo femoral com 25 mL de ropivacaína 0,375% e 0,25%, respectivamente. Avaliou‐se intensidade da dor em 6, 12 e 24 horas, idade, sexo, analgesia de resgate, reações adversas e satisfação. Resultados Entre os 83 pacientes elegíveis, observou‐se predomínio do sexo masculino (85,7%) entre 28 e 31 anos. O Grupo C solicitou mais opioide (27,3%) do que os demais grupos, sem significância quando comparados. Não houve diferenças significativas na intensidade da dor em 6, 12 e 24 horas. Houve maior incidência de retenção urinária no Grupo M (23,8%) do que no R0,375 (0%) e de bloqueio motor prolongado do quadríceps no Grupo R0,375 (30%) do que nos Grupos M e C (0%), com significância estatística (p< 0,05). Conclusão Não houve diferença na intensidade da dor pós‐operatória nos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de ligamento cruzado anterior com tendões flexores sob as modalidades analgésicas avaliadas, apesar do predomínio de retenção urinária no Grupo M e bloqueio motor no Grupo R0,375.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Femoral Nerve , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Morphine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Urinary Retention/chemically induced , Quadriceps Muscle/drug effects , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Analgesia/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(2): 142-148, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127744

ABSTRACT

A prescrição de exercícios para o ganho de força e potência muscular é utilizado com o objetivo de ajudar na reabilitação de lesões musculares e para o aprimoramento físico nas práticas esportivas. Dentre as técnicas que são apontadas como possíveis condutas que poderiam auxiliar no fortalecimento muscular e potência destaca-se a Liberação Miofascial. Deste m o do, o estudo buscou analisar e comparar um programa de treinamento para ganho de potência muscular com fortalecimento muscular resistido isolado e os resultados de sua combinação com a Liberação Miofascial. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, transversal, analítico, de caráter experimental, comparativo, controlado e randomizado. A amostra foi composta por 11 mulheres com idade de 18 a 40 anos subdivididas em dois grupos de intervenção. As intervenções ocorerram 3 vezes por semana durante 4 semanas. Os membros do Grupo controle realizaram apenas o fortalecimento muscular com exercício de agachamento a partir de 0 º de flexão de joelhos até o limite de 90º de flexão e retornando ao grau 0. As voluntárias do Grupo Liberação Miofascial associado ao treino de força inicialmente foram submetidas a intervenções de Liberação Miofascial dos músculos quadríceps bilateralmente e posteriormente ao treino de fortalecimento muscular descrito no grupo controle. Foram avaliadas as variáveis distância do salto vertical e carga suportada em 1 Repetição Máxima. A estatística inferencial utilizada foi através do t este T de Student emparelhado para verificar a diferença entre as médias do antes e depois dos tratamentos em cada grupo. Para verificar as diferenças em relação às técnicas utilizadas em grupos diferentes foi realizado o teste T de Student não compartilhado. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos no que se refere a carga máxima suportada em 1 Repetição Máxima (p=0,484), mesmo sendo essa diferença numericamente de 3,31kg a mais de ganho para o Grupo que utilizou a Liberação Miofascial associada ao treino de força, e não foi encontrada diferença significativa (p=0,068) entre a distância de salto vertical nos grupos, apesar desta distânicia ser 4,35 cm maior também no grupo Liberação Miofascial associada ao treino de força. Foi possível demonstrar, desta form a, que a liberação miofascial não otimiza o ganho da potencia muscular associado ao exercício resistido . Desta forma, através dos resultados deste estudo, não é possível recomendar a utilização da LM como um recurso para ser utilizado pré treino com objetivo de ganho de potência muscular...(AU)


The prescription of exercises to gain muscle strength and power is used to help in the rehabilitation of muscle injuries and for physical improvement in sport practices. Among the techniques that are pointed as possible ways that could help in muscle strengthening and power, Myofascial Release stands out. Thus, the study sought to analyze and compare a training program for muscle power gain with isolated resistance muscle strengthening and the results of its combination with myofascial release. It is a quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical, experimental, comparative, controlled and randomized study. Our sample consisted of 11 women aged 18 to 40 years old, subdivided into two interventio n gro ups. Th e interventions occurred 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Control Group members only perform muscle strengthening with squats from 0º of knee flexion up to the limit of 90º of flexion and return of grade 0. As volunteers of the Myofascial Release Group associated with strength training, t hey were subm it ted t o Myofascial Release of the quadriceps muscles bilaterally and after the muscle st rengt hening t raining described in the control group. The variables vertical jump distance and load supported in 1 Maximum Repetition were evaluated. The inferential statistics used was through the paired Student's T test to verify the difference between the means of before and after treatments in each group. To verify the differences in relation to the techniques used in different groups, the Student's t-test was not shared. T here was n o statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the maximum load supported in 1 Maximum Repeat (p=0.484), even though this difference was numerically 3 .3 1kg m o re gain fo r t he Myofascial Release Group.No significant difference (p=0.068) was found either between t he v ertical jump distance, which was 4.35 cm higher ­ also in the Myofascial Release group. Thus, it was demonstrated that myofascial release does not optimize the gain in muscle power associat ed with resistance exercises. Thus, through the results of this study, it is not possible to recommend the use of SCI as a resource to be used pre-training in order to gain muscle power...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Rehabilitation , Women , Exercise , Potency , Control Groups , Musculoskeletal Manipulations , Quadriceps Muscle , Muscle Strength , Resistance Training , Sports , Therapeutics , Volunteers , Methods , Muscles
8.
ABCS health sci ; 45: [1-4], 02 jun 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097543

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For post-surgical rehabilitation of the anterior cruciate ligament, the medialis and the lateralis vastus need to be worked on for good recovery. There is the discussion about the isometric and isotonic exercises to be used in the rehabilitation phase, and their results diverge in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the activation of the medialis and the lateralis vastus in isometric and isotonic exercises. METHODS: Eleven subjects (seven men and four women) physically active and experienced in resistance training participated in the study. Anamnesis, anthropometric assessment, 10 Repetition maximum (RM) load test, maximum voluntary isometric contraction test and squat test were performed. RESULTS: For the vastus lateralis of the right leg, the electromyographic activity was significantly higher in the maximal isometric voluntary contraction compared to the dynamic squatting (p<0.05). The same was observed for the left leg (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Recruitment of the medial and the lateral vastus in isometric exercises is higher in relation to isotonic exercises.


INTRODUÇÃO: Para a reabilitação pós-cirúrgica do ligamento cruzado anterior, os vastos medial e lateral precisam ser trabalhados visando uma boa recuperação. Discute-se a respeito dos exercícios isométricos e isotônicos a serem utilizados na fase de reabilitação, tendo seus resultados divergentes na literatura. OBJETIVO: Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo é comparar a ativação dos vastos medial e lateral em exercícios isométricos e isotônicos. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 11 sujeitos (sete homens e quatro mulheres), fisicamente ativos e com experiência em musculação. Foi realizada a anamnese, a avaliação antropométrica, o teste de carga de 10 repetições máximas (RM), o teste de contração voluntária isométrica máxima e o teste de agachamento. RESULTADOS: No vasto lateral da coxa direita, a atividade eletromiográfica foi significativamente maior na contração voluntária isométrica máxima em relação ao agachamento dinâmico (p<0,05). O mesmo foi observado na coxa esquerda (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O recrutamento dos vastos medial e lateral em exercícios isométricos é maior em relação a exercícios isotônicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Quadriceps Muscle , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/rehabilitation , Isometric Contraction , Isotonic Contraction , Electromyography
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8770, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089354

ABSTRACT

Early mobilization is beneficial for critically ill patients because it reduces muscle weakness acquired in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive cycle ergometry (PCE) on the nitrous stress and inflammatory cytometry in critically ill patients. This was a controlled, randomized, open clinical trial carried out in a 16-bed intensive care unit. The patients were randomized into four groups: Control group (n=10), did not undergo any therapeutic intervention during the study; PCE group (n=9), lower-limb PCE for 30 cycles/min for 20 min; FES group (n=9), electrical stimulation of quadriceps muscle for 20 min; and FES with PCE group (n=7), patients underwent PCE and FES, with their order determined randomly. The serum levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukins 6 and 10 were analyzed before and after the intervention. There were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between the groups. The results revealed reduced nitric oxide concentrations one hour after using PCE (P<0.001) and FES (P<0.05), thereby indicating that these therapies may reduce cellular nitrosative stress when applied separately. Tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were reduced after the PCE intervention (P=0.049). PCE and FES reduced nitric oxide levels, demonstrating beneficial effects on the reduction of nitrosative stress. PCE was the only treatment that reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive/methods , Cytokines/blood , Critical Illness/therapy , Nitrosative Stress/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intensive Care Units
11.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 27(4): 155-161, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177898

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo evaluaremos si existe regresión de los cambios degenerativos del cuádriceps tras la reparación diferida de una lesión del aparato extensor. La hipótesis es que esta reparación diferida favorece la regresión de cambios degenerativos del cuádriceps, relacionado con la precocidad de la reparación.Estudio experimental en quince ratones BKS machos: se seccionaron completamente ambos tendones patelares. Se definieron tres grupos de cinco animales cada uno, randomizados, según el momento en que se reparó el tendón derecho: Grupo 1: una semana postsección; Grupo 2: dos semanas; y Grupo 3: cuatro semanas postsección. El cuádriceps izquierdo, no reparado, se utilizó como control respectivo para cada grupo. Los animales fueron sacrificados a las cuatro semanas post-reparación. Un patólogo, ciego al estudio, analizó las características macroscópicas e histológicas. El análisis estadístico incluyó test para muestras pareadas e independientes (p<0.05).Macroscopia: hubo tres reparaciones fallidas, dos en el grupo 2 y una en el grupo 3. Solo se observaron diferencias significativas en la longitud cuadricipital del grupo 1 versus su control (p= 0.0422). No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los grupos de intervención, ni contra los controles respectivos en los otros parámetros evaluados.Histología: no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de intervención, ni contra sus controles respectivos.En este modelo experimental, la reparación diferida de una lesión completa del aparato extensor de la rodilla no demostró una reversibilidad de los cambios degenerativos musculares. La precocidad de la reparación se relacionó con menor número de fallas y mayor longitud cuadricipital. Se refuerza la importancia de priorizar la reparación temprana de lesiones completas del aparato extensor de la rodilla


Evaluate the regression of degenerative changes in the quadricipital muscle after a delayed extensor mechanism repair. The hypothesis is that a delayed repair favors the regression of degenerative changes related to the precocity of the repair. Experimental study in fifteen BKS male mice: a complete section of both patellar tendons was made. Animals were randomly divided into three study groups (five mice per group), according to the week after the lesions at which the right quadriceps were repaired: Group 1: one week; Group 2: two weeks, and Group 3: four weeks. Left quadriceps remained unrepaired and was used as the corresponding control for each group. All animals were sacrificed four weeks after the repair. A blind pathologist analyzed macroscopic and histologic evaluations. Statistical analysis included tests for paired and independent samples (p=0.05).Macroscopy: there were three repair failures, two in group 2 and one in group 3. Quadricipital length in group 1 was the only significant difference (p=0.04222) observed between the intervened muscles and their corresponding control. No statistical differences were present between the intervention groups, neither when compared to their corresponding controls for the other macroscopic parameters. Histology: No statistical differences were present between the intervention groups, neither when compared to their corresponding controls for the other macroscopic parameters.A delayed repair of a complete knee extensor mechanism injury in this experimental model did not demonstrate the regression of the degenerative muscle changes. The precocity of the repaired correlated with fewer repair failures and a greater quadricipital length. The present experimental study enhances the importance of an early repair for complete knee extensor mechanism injury


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Patella , Tendon Injuries , Quadriceps Muscle , Knee Joint/surgery
12.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 27(4): 200-207, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1178151

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo describe la técnica de obtención, preparación, implementación y el resultado final del doble injerto de tendón cuadricipital (DTC) en una lesión multiligamentaria de rodilla, con compromiso del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA), cruzado posterior (LCP) y colateral medial (LCM), secundaria a trauma de alta energía.El tratamiento consistió en reconstrucción mediante un injerto cuadricipital autólogo único, dividido en dos para la reconstrucción artroscópica monobanda del LCA y LCP en el mismo tiempo quirúrgico. De esta forma se evitó la toma de injerto múltiple, se disminuyó la morbilidad de sitio donante y la necesidad de utilizar aloinjerto. Otro punto a favor de aplicar esta técnica fue mantener como opción los tendones isquiotibiales para una reconstrucción del complejo ligamentario medial.Proponemos esta técnica de obtención y preparación del injerto doble del tendón cuadricipital (DTC) autólogo para las reconstrucciones monobanda de los ligamentos cruzados (LCA y LCP) en pacientes de baja demanda, con lesiones ligamentarias asociadas, o sin estas. Es un procedimiento original, no descripto en la literatura, técnicamente fácil de reproducir y aplicable


This paper describes an original technique of harvesting, preparation, application and final results of the Double Tendon Quadriceps Graft (DTQ) in a multiligamentary (ACL, PCL and MCL) knee injury, secondary to a high energy trauma.An arthroscopic single bundle ACL/PCL reconstruction was performed with the single autologous quadriceps tendon graft, divided into two applying DTQ technique, at the same surgical time. With the DTQ graft technique multiple grafting, donor site morbidity was avoided and even reduced the allograft need. Another advantage of this technique was to keep the Hamstrings tendons as an option for a medial ligament reconstruction.We propose the autologous Double Tendon Quadriceps graft (DTQ) for single-bundle ACL/PCL arthroscopic reconstructions in low-demand patients, with or without associated collateral ligaments injuries.An original procedure, not described in the literature, technically easy to reproduce and applicable


Subject(s)
Adult , Arthroscopy/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/transplantation , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Knee Joint/surgery
13.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 28, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130791

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory and chronic autoimmune disease that leads to muscle mass loss and functional capacity impairment, potentiated by physical inactivity. Despite evidences demonstrate neuromuscular impairments in RA patients, aging effects may have masked the results of similar previous studies. The aim of study was to verify (i) the effects of RA on functional capacity and muscle properties in middle-aged patients and (ii) the association between age, clinical characteristics, quadriceps muscle properties and functional capacity. Methods: Thirty-five RA women and 35 healthy age-matched women were compared with the following outcomes: (i) physical activity level through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); (ii) timed-up and go (TUG) test; (iii) isometric knee extensor muscular strength; and (iv) vastus lateralis muscle activation and muscle architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) during an isometric test. An independent Student t-test and partial correlation (controlled by physical activity levels) were performed, with p < 0.05. Results: Compared with healthy women, RA presented (i) lower physical activity level (- 29.4%; p < 0.001); (ii) lower isometric knee extensor strength (- 20.5%; p < 0.001); (iii) lower TUG performance (- 21.7%; p < 0.001); (iv) smaller muscle thickness (- 23.3%; p < 0.001) and pennation angle (- 14.1%; p = 0.011). No differences were observed in muscle activation and fascicle length. Finally, the correlation demonstrated that, with exception of TUG, muscle strength and muscle morphology were not associated with age in RA, differently from healthy participants. Conclusion: Middle-aged RA patients' impairments occurred due to the disease independently of the aging process, except for functional capacity. Physical inactivity may have potentiated these losses.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Muscular Atrophy , Exercise , Electromyography/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle , Muscle Strength
14.
Clinics ; 75: e1768, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Menopause marks the end of women's reproductive period and can lead to sarcopenia and osteoporosis (OP), increasing the risk of falls and fractures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of normal and low bone mineral density (BMD) on muscular activity, observed through inflammatory edema when mapping using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the quadriceps muscle of postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 16 older women, who were divided into two groups: osteoporosis group (OG), older women with OP, and control group (CG), older women without OP. The groups were evaluated in terms of nuclear MRI exam before and after carrying out fatigue protocol exercises using an isokinetic dynamometer and squatting exercises. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed that in intragroup comparisons, for both groups, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the T2 signal of the nuclear MRI in the quadriceps muscle after carrying out exercises using both thighs. In the intergroup comparison, no statistically significant difference was observed between the OG and CG, pre- (p=0.343) and postexercise (p=0.874). CONCLUSION: The acute muscular activation of the quadriceps evaluated by T2 mapping on nuclear MRI equipment is equal in women with and without OP in the postmenopausal phase. BMD did not interfere with muscle response to exercise when muscle fatigue was reached.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Postmenopause , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1498-1503, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040160

ABSTRACT

El músculo cuadríceps femoral es un músculo que participa principalmente en los movimientos de la rodilla y también en la cadera, pudiendo ser afectado por alteraciones en el trofismo muscular, tras lesiones de estas articulaciones o afecciones en el tono muscular, como la espasticidad, tras lesiones cerebrovasculares. Cada una de sus cabezas está inervada por ramos del nervio femoral. El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo la identificación y medición de la distancia de los puntos motores (Pm) del músculo cuadríceps femoral, en relación a estructuras anatómicas de relevancia clínica. Se utilizaron 30 miembros inferiores de 23 cadáveres formolizados, de individuos brasileños adultos. El estudio fue realizado en la Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceió, Brasil. Se realizó la disección por planos en la zona medial, anterior y lateral del muslo, identificando a los ramos del nervio femoral para cada componente, músculos recto femoral (mRf), vasto medial (mVm), vasto intermedio (mVint) y vasto lateral (mVlat), localizando cada uno de los Pm. Las mediciones se realizaron con un cáliper marca Mitutoyo de 0,05 mm de precisión. Los datos obtenidos fueron tratados estadísticamente, utilizando para ello, el software STATA (versión 14.1). El mRf, tuvo un promedio de 2,45 ± 1,39 Pm, estando la gran mayoría de los Pm (63 %), en la zona distal del tercio proximal del muslo; el mVm presentó 4,42 ± 2,74 Pm en promedio, encontrándose el 41 % de ellos en el tercio medio del muslo, zona distal; el mVint tuvo 3,99 ± 2,34 Pm en promedio y el 58 % de ellos, se localizaron en la zona proximal del tercio medio del muslo; el mVlat presentó un promedio de 3,88 ± 2,37 Pm y el 50 % de éstos se encontraron en del tercio proximal del muslo. La localización biométrica de los Pm se informa en resultados. La ubicación biométrica de los Pm, favorecerá el quehacer, tanto clínico como quirúrgico, de la zona anterior del muslo.


The quadriceps femoris muscle is a muscle that participates mainly in the movements of the knee and also in the hip, being able to be affected by alterations in muscle trophism, after injuries of these joints or muscular tone conditions, such as spasticity, after injuries cerebrovascular. Each of its heads is innervated by branches of the femoral nerve. The objective of this study was to identify and measure the distance of the motor points (MP) of the quadriceps femoris muscle, in relation to anatomical structures of clinical relevance. Thirty lower limbs of 23 formolized corpses of adult Brazilian individuals were used. The study was conducted at the State University of Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceió, Brazil. The dissection was performed by planes in the medial, anterior and lateral thigh, identifying the femoral nerve branches for each component, rectus femoris muscles (Rfm), medial vastus (mVm), vastus intermedius (intVm) and vastus lateralis ( latVm), locating each of the MP. The measurements were made with a Mitutoyo caliper of 0.05 mm accuracy. The data obtained were treated statistically, using the STATA software (version 14.1). The Rfm had an average of 2.45 ± 1.39 MP, the great majority of the MP (63 %) being in the distal area of the proximal third of the thigh; the mVm presented 4.42 ± 2.74 MP on average, with 41 % of them in the middle third of the thigh, distal zone; the intVm had 3.99 + 2.34 MP on average and 58 % of them were located in the proximal area of the middle third of the thigh; the latVm presented an average of 3.88 ± 2.37 MP and 50 % of these were found in the proximal third of the thigh. The biometric localization of the MP is reported in results. The biometric location of the MP, will favor the task, both clinical and surgical of the anterior thigh area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quadriceps Muscle/anatomy & histology , Femur/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks , Brazil , Cadaver , Quadriceps Muscle/innervation , Femur/innervation
16.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 464-473, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058043

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a viabilidade da avaliação por ultrassonografia do quadríceps no pronto-socorro, e avaliar a confiabilidade intra e entre avaliadores para aquisição e análise de imagens de ultrassonografia da espessura e da ecogenicidade muscular em pacientes críticos de trauma. Métodos: Estudo de precisão diagnóstica realizado por meio de exames e avaliações feitos por profissionais de saúde com diferentes níveis de especialização. Dois examinadores (um especialista e um novato) procederam à aquisição de imagens de ultrassom de dez pacientes. Um avaliador experiente, cego quanto aos examinadores, quantificou as imagens obtidas. Em um grupo à parte de dez pacientes, dois avaliadores (um especialista e um novato) quantificaram a espessura do músculo quadríceps femoral, assim como sua ecogenicidade (métodos quadrado ou tracejado) em imagens adquiridas por um examinador. Resultados: Identificou-se excelente confiabilidade quanto à aquisição da imagem e à sua análise (coeficientes de correlação intraclasses > 0,987; p < 0,001). O erro padrão dos valores de mensurações variou de 0,01 a 0,06 cm, para a espessura muscular, e de 0,75 a 2,04 unidades arbitrárias, para ecogenicidade muscular. Os valores de ecogenicidade foram mais elevados quando se utilizou o método quadrado do que quando se utilizou o método tracejado (p = 0,003). Conclusão: A ultrassonografia é um método seguro, viável e confiável para avaliação muscular em pacientes críticos de trauma, independentemente do nível de especialização do avaliador.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the ultrasound assessment of quadriceps in the emergency setting. To assess the intra- and interrater reliability for the acquisition and analysis of ultrasound images of muscle thickness and echogenicity in critically ill trauma patients between health professionals with different levels of expertise. Methods: Diagnostic accuracy study. Two examiners (expert and novice) acquired ultrasound images from ten patients; an experienced, blinded analyst quantified the images. In a separate group of ten patients, two analysts (expert and novice) quantified quadriceps muscle thickness and echogenicity (square or trace method) from images acquired by one examiner. Results: Excellent reliability was found for image acquisition and analysis (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.987; p < 0.001). The standard error of the measurement values ranged from 0.01 - 0.06cm for muscle thickness and from 0.75 - 2.04 arbitrary units for muscle echogenicity. The coefficients of variation were < 6% for thickness and echogenicity. The echogenicity values were higher when using the square technique than when using the tracing technique (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Ultrasound is safe, feasible, and reliable for muscle assessment in critically ill trauma patients, regardless of the assessor's level of expertise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Ultrasonography/methods , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
17.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(3): 227-234, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039884

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do exercício passivo precoce em cicloergômetro na espessura muscular (EM) do quadríceps femoral (EMQ) de pacientes críticos admitidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) de um hospital universitário terciário. O método utilizado foi um estudo-piloto randomizado controlado conduzido em uma amostra de 24 pacientes (51±18,11 anos, 16 do sexo masculino), com 24 a 48 horas de ventilação mecânica (VM), aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle (n=12), que recebeu a fisioterapia convencional; e grupo-intervenção (n=12), que recebeu o exercício passivo em cicloergômetro, uma vez ao dia, durante o período de sete dias do protocolo, em adição à fisioterapia convencional. A EMQ foi mensurada através da ultrassonografia. A primeira medida ultrassonográfica foi realizada entre as primeiras 48 horas de VM e a segunda ao término do protocolo. Não houve diferenças significativas na EMQ esquerda (27,29±5,86mm vs. 25,95±10,89mm; p=0,558) e direita (24,96±5,59mm vs 25,9±9,21mm; p=0,682) do grupo-controle e na EMQ esquerda (27,2±7,38mm vs 29,57±7,89mm; p=0,299) e direita (26,67±8,16mm vs 28,65±8,04mm; p=0,381) do grupo-intervenção. Na comparação entre os grupos, não houve alterações significativas em relação à EMQ esquerda (3,61±1,07mm; p=0,248) e a EMQ direita (2,75±0,85mm; p=0,738). Os resultados deste estudo-piloto demonstraram que a aplicação precoce do exercício passivo em cicloergômetro não promoveu mudanças significativas na espessura da camada muscular avaliada. No entanto, nossos achados sinalizam que a fisioterapia convencional foi capaz de preservar a EMQ de pacientes críticos admitidos em UTI.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos del ejercicio pasivo precoz en cicloergómetro en el espesor muscular (EM) del cuádriceps femoral (EMC) de pacientes críticos ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) de un hospital universitario terciario. Se utilizó como método un estudio piloto aleatorizado controlado con una muestra de 24 pacientes (51±18,11 años, 16 varones), con 24 a 48 horas de ventilación mecánica (VM), quienes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo de control (n=12), que recibió fisioterapia convencional; y grupo intervención (n=12), que recibió el ejercicio pasivo en cicloergómetro una vez al día durante el período de protocolo de siete días, además de la fisioterapia convencional. El EMC se midió por ecografía. La primera medición ecográfica se realizó entre las primeras 48 horas de VM, y la segunda al final del protocolo. No hubo diferencias significativas en el EMC izquierdo (27,29±5,86 mm vs. 25,95±10,89mm; p=0,558) y derecho (24,96±5,59mm vs 25,9±9,21mm; p=0,682) del grupo de control; y en el EMC izquierdo (27,2±7,38mm vs 29,57±7,89mm; p=0,299) y derecho (26,67±8,16mm vs 28,65±8,04mm; p=0,381) del grupo intervención. En la comparación entre grupos, no hubo cambios significativos en el EMC izquierdo (3,61±1,07 mm; p=0,248) y en el EMC derecho (2,75±0,85 mm, p=0,738). Los resultados de este estudio piloto demostraron que la aplicación precoz del ejercicio pasivo en cicloergómetro no promovió cambios significativos en el espesor de la capa muscular evaluada. Sin embargo, nuestros hallazgos indican que la fisioterapia convencional pudo preservar el EMC de pacientes críticos ingresados en la UCI.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early passive cycling exercise on quadriceps femoris thickness (QFT) in critically ill patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care university hospital. A controlled randomized pilot study was conducted with a sample of 24 patients (51±18.11 years, 16 male), on mechanical ventilation (MV) from 24 to 48 hours, who were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=12), receiving conventional physical therapy; and an intervention one (n=12), receiving passive cycle ergometer, once a day, throughout seven days of protocol, in addition to conventional physical therapy. The QFT was measured by ultrasonography. The first ultrasonographic measurement was performed within 48 hours after the start of MV, and the second at the end of the protocol. There were no significant differences in QFT of the left (27,29±5,86mm vs 25,95±10,89mm; p=0,558) and right (24,96±5,59mm vs 25,9±9,21mm; p=0,682) in the control group, and in QFT of the left (27,2±7,38mm vs 29,57±7,89mm; p=0,299) and right (26,67±8,16mm vs 28,65±8,04mm; p=0,381) in the intervention group. There were no significant between-groups differences for left QFT (3,61±1,07mm; p=0,248) and right QFT (2,75±0,85mm; p=0,738). The results of this pilot study demonstrate that application of early passive cycle ergometer exercises has not significantly change the muscle layer thickness. However, our findings indicate that conventional physical therapy is able to preserve the quadriceps femoris thickness in critically ill patients admitted in ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Early Ambulation , Quadriceps Muscle/anatomy & histology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Muscular Atrophy/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , Ultrasonography , Physical Therapy Modalities/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 952-958, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013011

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY PURPOSE In this prospective observational study, we aimed to investigate the role of the maximum compressed (MC) and uncompressed (UC) thickness of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QFMT) measured by ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of nutritional risk in intensive care patients (ICPs) with different volume status. METHODS 55 patients were included. Right, left, and total ucQFMT and mcQFMT measurements were obtained by a standard USG device within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. Clinical examination and the USG device were used to determine the volume status of the patients. SOFA, APACHE II, modified NUTRIC scores, and demographic data were collected. RESULTS There was a significant difference between the nutritional risk of patients in terms of left, right, and total mcQFMT measurements (p=0.025, p=0.039; p=0.028, respectively), mechanical ventilation requirement (p=0.014), presence of infection (p=0.019), and sepsis (p=0.006). There was no significant difference between different volume statuses in terms of mcQFMT measurements. In the multi-variance analysis, mcQFMT measurements were found to be independently associated with high nutritional risk (p=0.019, Exp(B)=0.256, 95%CI=0.082-0.800 for modified NUTRIC score ≥ 5), and higher nutritional risk (p=0.009, Exp(B)=0.144, 95%CI=0.033-0.620 for modified NUTRIC score ≥ 6). a Total mcQFMT value below 1.36 cm was a predictor for higher nutritional risk with 79% sensitivity and 70% specificity (AUC=0.749, p=0.002, likelihood ratio=2.04). CONCLUSION Ultrasonographic measurement of total mcQFMT can be used as a novel nutritional risk assessment parameter in medical ICPs with different volume statuses. Thus, patients who could benefit from aggressive nutritional therapy can be easily identified in these patient groups.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Neste estudo observacional prospectivo, objetivamos investigar o papel da espessura do músculo quadríceps femoral (QFMT) comprimido (mc) e não comprimido (uc) medida pela ultrassonografia (USG) na detecção do risco nutricional em pacientes de terapia intensiva (ICPs) com status de volume diferente. MÉTODOS Cinquenta e cinco pacientes foram incluídos. As medidas direita, esquerda e total de ucQFMT e mcQFMT foram obtidas por um dispositivo USG padrão nas primeiras 48 horas após a admissão na UTI. O exame clínico e o dispositivo USG foram usados para determinar o status volumétrico dos pacientes. Sofa, Apache II, escores Nutric modificados e dados demográficos foram coletados. RESULTADOS Houve diferença significativa entre o risco nutricional dos pacientes em termos de medidas da QTFMT esquerda, direita e total (p=0,025, p=0,039; p=0,028, respectivamente), necessidade de ventilação mecânica (p=0,014), presença de infecção (p=0,019) e sepse (p=0,006). Não houve diferença significativa entre os diferentes status de volume em termos de medidas de mcQFMT. Na análise de variância múltipla, verificou-se que as medidas da FCFMT estavam independentemente associadas a alto risco nutricional (p=0,019, Exp (B)=0,256, 95%CI=0,082-0,800 para escore Nutric modificado ≥ 5) e maior risco nutricional (p=0,009, Exp (B)=0,144, 95%CI=0,033-0,620 para o escore Nutric modificado ≥ 6). O valor total de mcQFMT abaixo de 1,36 cm foi um preditor de maior risco nutricional com sensibilidade de 79% e especificidade de 70% (ASC=0,749, p=0,002, razão de verossimilhança = 2,04). CONCLUSÃO A medida ultrassonográfica do mcQFMT total pode ser usada como um novo parâmetro de avaliação de risco nutricional em ICPs médicas com diferentes status de volume. Assim, pacientes que podem se beneficiar de uma terapia nutricional agressiva podem ser facilmente identificados nesses grupos de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Nutritional Status/physiology , Ultrasonography/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/pathology , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Nutrition Assessment , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Critical Illness , Risk Assessment , APACHE , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Malnutrition/pathology , Malnutrition/diagnostic imaging , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 712-718, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002282

ABSTRACT

El nervio femoral (NF) se describe originándose desde el plexo lumbar (L2, L3 y L4) y en su recorrido emite ramos destinados a cada una de las porciones del músculo cuádriceps femoral (mCF), los cuales nacen de forma aislada o bien, a partir de troncos comunes. El detalle de la distribución del NF en el mCF, permite disminuir riesgos asociados a diferentes intervenciones quirúrgicas llevadas a cabo en la zona anterior del muslo. Con el propósito describir la distribución del NF en los componentes del mCf. Se utilizaron 15 miembros inferiores formolizados, 10 del lado izquierdo y 5 del lado derecho, de individuos adultos, Brasileños, localizados en los Laboratorios de Anatomía de la Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceió, Brasil. El NF se clasificó en cuatro tipos de acuerdo a su ramificación y distribución. El Tipo II se subdividió en 3 subtipos y se presentó en 60 % de las muestras y el tipo III en 20 %. El NF se dividió de medial a lateral hasta en 5 ramos (R1,R2,R3,R4,R5), donde el R1 fue el más medial. El R1 dio origen en promedio a 2,47 ramos secundarios (Rs) y a 2,58 ramos terciarios (Rt), en 13,3 % el R1 no emitió Rs. En 73,3 % inervó a sólo a un componente del mCF; el R2 dio origen en promedio a 3,93 Rs y a 3,58 Rt. En 26,7 % inervó a sólo a un componente del mCF; el R3 dio origen en promedio a 3,33 Rs y a 2,0 Rt. En 80 % inervó a sólo a un componente del mCF. La distribución de R4 y R5 se muestran en el texto. Resultados biométricos de origen, diámetro y longitud de los ramos mencionados son mostrados en tablas. Los datos obtenidos en esta investigación complementan el conocimiento de la anatomía regional, pudiendo ser utilizados por la clínica quirúrgica y para efectuar tratamientos que mejoren trastornos neurológicos que afectan a la región.


The femoral nerve (FN) is described as originating from the lumbar plexus (L2, L3 and L4) and in its course it emits branches destined to each one of the quadriceps femoral muscle (QFm), which are originated in an isolated way or, from common trunks. The detail of the distribution of the FN in the QFm, allows to diminish risks associated with different surgical interventions carried out in the anterior thigh area. With the purpose of describing the distribution of FN in the QFm components. Fifteen formalized lower limbs were used, 10 on the left side and 5 on the right side of adult individuals, Brazilians, located in the Anatomy Laboratories of the State University of Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas (UNCISAL) , Maceió, Brazil. The FN was classified into four types according to its branch and distribution. Type II was subdivided into 3 subtypes and presented in 60 % of the samples and type III in 20 %. The FN was divided from medial to lateral in 5 branches (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5), where B1 was the most medial. The B1 gave rise to an average of 2.47 secondary branches (sB) and to 2.58 tertiary branches (tB), in 13.3 % the B1 did not emit sB. In 73.3 %, only one component of the QFm was invested; B2 gave rise to an average of 3.93 sB and 3.58 tB. In 26.7 %, it invested only one component of the QFm; B3 gave rise to an average of 3.33 sB and 2.0 tB. In 80 %, it invested only one component of the QFm. The distribution of B4 and B5 are shown in the text. Biometric results of origin, diameter and length of the mentioned branches are shown in tables. The data obtained in this research complements the knowledge of the regional anatomy, being able to be used by the surgical clinic and to carry out treatments that improve neurological disorders that affect the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quadriceps Muscle/innervation , Femoral Nerve/anatomy & histology , Brazil
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(2): 165-170, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990316

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: With high-resolution real-time ultrasonography we investigated the muscle architectural parameters of vastus lateralis in healthy volunteers. PURPOSES: We determined the reproducibility and validity of ultrasonography and the role of the ultrasonographer in assessing muscle architecture. We proposed the most appropriate clinical parameters for objective measurements and an ultrasound protocol of muscle architecture. METHODS: We conducted an intraobserver and interobserver study. We investigated 21 healthy male volunteers. The subjects were independently evaluated by four different operators using high-resolution real-time ultrasonography. To assess the reproducibility of ultrasound examinations, four operators repeated measurements using the same ultrasound device. Muscle thickness, muscle volume, muscle fiber pennation angle, and subcutaneous adiposity of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured. RESULTS: Intra-observer (ICC 0.92-0.97), interobserver (ICC 0.78-0.92) reproducibility was good to excellent for all measurements. CONCLUSION: Simple, reproducible, non-invasive ultrasound measurements of muscle structure easily demonstrated differences in muscle morphology. With a protocol and with objective and repeatable measurements, sonographers from different backgrounds could obtain an objective measurement of ultrasound images with little differences and low variability in results, thanks to the upgrading of diagnostic ultrasound imaging and their clinical skills.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Nós utilizamos ultrassonografia de alta resolução em tempo real para investigar os parâmetros da arquitetura muscular do vasto lateral em voluntários saudáveis. PROPÓSITO: Nós determinamos da reproduzibilidade e validade da ultrassonografia e o papel do ultrassonografista na avaliação da arquitetura muscular. Nós propomos os parâmetros clínicos mais apropriados para uma medição objetiva e um protocolo de ultrassonografia para arquitetura muscular. MÉTODOS: Nós conduzimos um estudo intra-observador e inter-observador. Investigamos 21 voluntários saudáveis do sexo masculino. Os participantes foram avaliados de forma independente por quatro operadores diferentes usando ultrassonografia de alta-resolução em tempo real. Para avaliar a reprodutibilidade dos exames de ultrassonografia, quatro operadores repetiram as medições usando o mesmo equipamento de ultrassonografia. A espessura e o volume do músculo, o ângulo de penação da fibra muscular, adiposidade subcutânea do músculo vasto lateral foram medidos. RESULTADOS: A reprodutibilidade intra-observador (ICC 0,92-0,97) e inter-observador (ICC 0,78-0,92) foi boa a excelente para todas as medições. CONCLUSÃO: Medições de ultrassonografia simples, reprodutíveis e não-invasivas da estrutura muscular demostraram facilmente as diferenças na morfologia muscular. Seguindo um protocolo e com medições objetivas e reproduzíveis, ultrassonografistas com diferentes formações e experiências podem conseguir uma medição objetiva de imagens de ultrassonografia com poucas diferenças e pouca variação nos resultados graças à melhoria da qualidade nos exames de diagnóstico por imagem de ultrassonografia e das habilidades clínicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Ultrasonography/standards , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/methods
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