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1.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 265-275, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741964

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a complex multifaceted illness that affects different patients in discrete ways. For a number of cancers the use of chemotherapy has become standard practice. Chemotherapy is a use of cytostatic drugs to cure cancer. Cytostatic agents not only affect cancer cells but also affect the growth of normal cells; leading to side effects. Because of this, radiotherapy gained importance in treating cancer. Slaughtering of cancerous cells by radiotherapy depends on the radiosensitivity of the tumor cells. Efforts to improve the therapeutic ratio have resulted in the development of compounds that increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells or protect the normal cells from the effects of radiation. Amifostine is the only chemical radioprotector approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but due to its side effect and toxicity, use of this compound was also failed. Hence the use of herbal radioprotectors bearing pharmacological properties is concentrated due to their low toxicity and efficacy. Notably, in silico methods can expedite drug discovery process, to lessen the compounds with unfavorable pharmacological properties at an early stage of drug development. Hence a detailed perspective of these properties, in accordance with their prediction and measurement, are pivotal for a successful identification of radioprotectors by drug discovery process.


Subject(s)
Amifostine , Computer Simulation , Cytostatic Agents , Drug Discovery , Drug Therapy , Humans , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Radiation Tolerance , Radiotherapy , United States Food and Drug Administration
2.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017; 72 (1): 53-61
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-187518

ABSTRACT

Background: Honey is recognized as having different biological properties including antioxidant effects. Phenolic acids and flavonoids are the main antioxidant in this apiary product


Objectives: In this study eight samples of Sabalan honey were screened to evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content


Methods: Antioxidant activity of honey samples was determined by DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl hydrazyl] method and p-carotene bleaching assay, total phenolic and flavonoid by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride methods, in addition, in all samples, some physico-chemical parameters [pH, acidity, diastase activity, existence or nonexistence of HMF] were measured according to Iranian National Standardization N92. Data were analyzed using ANOVA [one-way]


Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content of honeys ranged respectively from 15.71- 41.58 [mg GAE/l00g honey] and 3.80-13.20 [mg QE/100g honey]. Antioxidant activity was between 23.19%-94.25%, p-carotene bleaching inhibition 69.54%-85.69%, pH ranged from 3.63-3.83, Acidity 11.99-20.50 mEq/kg, diastase activity of all samples was negative except sample No. 1. All samples had positive HMF results


Conclusions: Regarding the above results, it could be concluded that the honey samples have significant antioxidant activity. All parameters of physicochemical test were according to the international specifications except diastase and HMF tests, which may be due to improper processing and storage condition, heating treatment, old honey,etc.


Subject(s)
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Phenols/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e16067, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839450

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of the antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and cytotoxicity to murine macrophages of a series of 2-chloro-N-arylacetamide derivatives. All compounds were active, except one (compound 3). Compound 5 presented the most promising results, showing good antileishmanial activity (CI50=5.39±0.67 µM) and moderate selectivity (SI=6.36), indicating that further development of this class is worthwhile. Preliminary QSAR studies, although not predictive, furnished some insights on the importance of electronic character of aryl substituent to biological activity, as well as an indirect influence of hydrophobicity on activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Leishmania mexicana/isolation & purification , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Macrophages/cytology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285245

ABSTRACT

The human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) plays a critical role in the metabolism, transport and clearance of xenobiotics in the liver and intestine. The hPXR can be activated by a structurally diverse of drugs to initiate clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. In this article, in silico investigation was performed on a structurally diverse set of drugs to identify critical structural features greatly related to their agonist activity towards hPXR. Heuristic method (HM)-Best Subset Modeling (BSM) and HM-Polynomial Neural Networks (PNN) were utilized to develop the linear and non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship models. The applicability domain (AD) of the models was assessed by Williams plot. Statistically reliable models with good predictive power and explain were achieved (for HM-BSM, r (2)=0.881, q LOO (2) =0.797, q EXT (2) =0.674; for HM-PNN, r (2)=0.882, q LOO (2) =0.856, q EXT (2) =0.655). The developed models indicated that molecular aromatic and electric property, molecular weight and complexity may govern agonist activity of a structurally diverse set of drugs to hPXR.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Humans , Models, Statistical , Molecular Weight , Neural Networks, Computer , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Receptors, Steroid , Chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries , Chemistry , Static Electricity
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 375 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846629

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas afeta cerca de 6 a 7 millhões de pessoas no mundo, principalmente América Latina. A busca de alternativas terapêuticas para esta enfermidade tem grande relevância para a sociedade, já que as opções atuais são limitadas, sendo disponível apenas o benznidazol (BZD) e nifurtimox. Os derivados nitroheterocíclicos são considerados compostos bioativos com número crescente de estudos na comunidade científica contra seu agente etiológico, o Trypanosoma cruzi. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo a identificação de derivados do 5-nitrofurano com atividade frente a diferentes cepas do T. cruzi, assim como estudar possíveis modo de ação desta classe de compostos. Esta investigação envolve estudos computacionais com o propósito de construir modelos quantitativos de relações estrutura-atividade (QSAR multivariado) que possam auxiliar na previsão de novas estruturas com perfil farmacológico otimizado. No presente trabalho foram realizadas as etapas de planejamento, síntese e identificação de 36 compostos com resultados satisfatórios quanto à identificação estrutural, pureza e rendimento, que foi da ordem de 70%. A determinação da atividade anti-T. cruzi in vitro dos compostos obtidos foi realizada frente às cepas Silvio X10 cl1, Y, Bug 2149 cl10 e Colombiana na forma epimastigota do parasito. A maioria dos compostos analisados apresentou maior capacidade de inibição de crescimento do parasito, comparado ao BZD: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC50 = 29,16 ±2,90 µM, Y - IC50 = 40,40 ±3,37µM, Bug 2149 cl10 - IC50 = 30,63 ±3,21 µM, Colombiana - IC50 = 47,91 ±4,96 µM. O composto mais ativo (BSF-35) apresentou os seguintes valores: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC50 = 3,17 ±0,32 µM, Y - IC50 = 1,17 ±0,12 µM, Bug 2149 cl10 - IC50 = 1,81 ±0,18 µM e Colombiana - IC50 = 3,06 ±0,23 µM. Foram realizados cálculos de propriedades moleculares das estruturas tridimensionais dos compostos, seguido pela análise exploratória de dados por análise de agrupamentos hierárquicos (HCA) e análise de componentes principais (PCA), possibilitando o reconhecimento de padrões do conjunto. Considerando esta análise prévia, foram obtidos modelos QSAR com abordagem multivariada, aplicando algorítmo OPS e método de regressão por quadrados mínimos parciais, PLS. Os melhores modelos gerados foram obtidos considerando os compostos benzenos substituídos para as quatro cepas estudadas. Os descritores que mais influenciaram na análise foram o ClogP (coeficiente de partição) e cargas CHELPG. Considerando as informações obtidas, foram planejados e sintetizados quatro novos compostos com objetivo de obter compostos mais ativos e validar os modelos QSAR. Estes compostos apresentaram alta atividade frente a forma epimastigota das quatro cepas estudadas. Os compostos mais ativos foram avaliados quanto a citotoxicidade frente células LLC-MK2 e apresentaram seletividade até 25 vezes superior ao BZD. Estudos in vitro frente a forma amastigota da cepa Y em células U2OS foram realizados com metodologia fenotípica de análise de alto conteúdo (HCA') e os compostos apresentaram atividade até 64 vezes superior ao BZD e com seletividade de até 50 vezes superior a este fármaco. Quanto à determinação da atividade dos compostos frente às enzimas tripanotiona redutase (TcTR) e glutationa redutase (GR), os compostos analisados não apresentaram atividade relevante, indicando não ser este o mecanismo desta classe de compostos. Com finalidade de explorar outro possível mecanismo de ação dos compostos 5-nitrofurânicos, foi realizada a análise de potencial de redução da membrana mitocondrial, porém a morte parasitária não foi atribuída à despolarização da membrana em estudos simultâneos com iodeto de propídio


Chagas disease affects approximately 6-7 millions people worldwide, especially Latin America. The search for therapeutic alternatives for this disease is of great relevance to society, as current options are limited and there are only two available drugs: benznidazole (BZD) and nifurtimox. The nitroheterocyclic derivatives are considered bioactive compounds with increasing number of studies in the scientific community against its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi. In this sense, this work aims to identify derivatives of 5-nitrofuran with activity against different strains of T. cruzi, and to study possible mode of action of this compounds. This research involves computational studies to obtain models of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR multivariate) that can help predict new structures with optimized pharmacological profile. In this work were carried out the design, synthesis and identification of 36 compounds with satisfactory results regarding the structural identification, purity and yield (approximately 70%). The determination of anti-T. cruzi activity in vitro of the compounds obtained was carried out with Silvio X10 cl1, Y, Bug 2149 CL10 and Colombiana strains of epimastigote form of the parasite. Most of the compounds examined showed greater capacity of growth inhibition of the parasite compared to the BZD (Silvio X10 CL1 - IC 50 = 29.16 ± 2.90 µM, Y - IC50 = 40.40 ± 3,37µM, 2149 CL10 Bug - IC 50 = 30.63 ± 3.21 µM, Colombiana - IC 50 = 47.91 ± 4.96 µM). The most active compound (BSF-35) showed the following values: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC 50 = 3.17 ± 0.32 uM, Y - IC 50 = 1.17 ± 0.12 µM, Bug 2149 CL10 - IC50 = 1, 81 ± 0.18 µM and Colombiana - IC 50 = 3.06 ± 0.23 µM. Calculations were performed for the molecular properties of three-dimensional structures of the compounds, followed by exploratory data analysis by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), allowing the recognition of the set. Considering this preliminary analysis were obtained QSAR models with multivariate approach, using OPS algorithm and regression method of partial least squares, PLS. The best generated models were obtained considering the benzyl substituted compounds for the four strains. The descriptors that most influenced the analysis were ClogP (partition coefficient) and CHELPG charges. Considering the information obtained, four new compounds were designed and synthesized to obtain more active compounds and validate QSAR models. These compounds showed high activity against epimastigote form of the four strains studied. The most active compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against LLC-MK2 cells and the compounds selectivity values were up to 25 times higher than BZD. In vitro studies against amastigote form of the Y strain in U2OS cells were performed with phenotypic method of high content analysis (HCA') and the compounds showed activity to 64 times higher than BZD and selectivity of up to 50 times. The activity of the compounds against trypanothione reductase enzymes (TcTR) and glutathione reductase (GR) showed no significant activity, indicating that this is not the mechanism of this class of compounds. In order to exploit another possible mechanism of action of 5-nitrofuran derivatives, analysis reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was held, however the cell death was not attributed to membrane depolarization in simultaneous studies with propidium iodide


Subject(s)
Biological Phenomena/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Nitrofurans/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Structure-Activity Relationship , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Nifurtimox/administration & dosage , Oxidoreductases , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 847-864, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764593

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Drug Design , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/antagonists & inhibitors , HIV-1 , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/chemistry , HIV-1 , Models, Biological , Molecular Structure , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemistry
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 767-774, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257069

ABSTRACT

The shape and structure of granules are controlled by the granulation process, which is one of the main factors to determine the nature of the solid dosage forms. In this article, three kinds of granules of a traditional Chinese medicine for improving appetite and promoting digestion, namely, Jianwei Granules, were prepared using granulation technologies as pendular granulation, high speed stirring granulation, and fluidized bed granulation and the powder properties of them were investigated. Meanwhile, synchrotron radiation X-ray computed micro tomography (SR-µCT) was applied to quantitatively determine the irregular internal structures of the granules. The three-dimensional (3D) structure models were obtained by 3D reconstruction, which were more accurately to characterize the three-dimensional structures of the particles through the quantitative data. The models were also used to quantitatively compare the structural differences of granules prepared by different granulation processes with the same formula, so as to characterize how the production process plays a role in the pharmaceutical behaviors of the granules. To focus on the irregularity of the particle structure, the box counting method was used to calculate the fractal dimensions of the granules. The results showed that the fractal dimension is more sensitive to reflect the minor differences in the structure features than the conventional parameters, and capable to specifically distinct granules in structure. It is proved that the fractal dimension could quantitatively characterize the structural information of irregular granules. It is the first time suggested by our research that the fractal dimension difference (Df,c) between two fractal dimension parameters, namely, the volume matrix fractal dimension and the surface matrix fractal dimension, is a new index to characterize granules with irregular structures and evaluate the effects of production processes on the structures of granules as a new indicator for the granulating process control and optimization.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fractals , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Synchrotrons , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: For successful adoption of legislation controlling registration and assessment of chemical substances, it is important to obtain sufficient toxicological experimental evidence and other related information. It is also essential to obtain a sufficient number of predicted risk and toxicity results. Particularly, methods used in predicting toxicities of chemical substances during acquisition of required data, ultimately become an economic method for future dealings with new substances. Although the need for such methods is gradually increasing, the-required information about reliability and applicability range has not been systematically provided. METHODS: There are various representative environmental and human toxicity models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Here, we secured the 10 representative QSAR-based prediction models and its information that can make predictions about substances that are expected to be regulated. We used models that predict and confirm usability of the information expected to be collected and submitted according to the legislation. After collecting and evaluating each predictive model and relevant data, we prepared methods quantifying the scientific validity and reliability, which are essential conditions for using predictive models. RESULTS: We calculated predicted values for the models. Furthermore, we deduced and compared adequacies of the models using the Alternative non-testing method assessed for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals Substances scoring system, and deduced the applicability domains for each model. Additionally, we calculated and compared inclusion rates of substances expected to be regulated, to confirm the applicability. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated and compared the data, adequacy, and applicability of our selected QSAR-based toxicity prediction models, and included them in a database. Based on this data, we aimed to construct a system that can be used with predicted toxicity results. Furthermore, by presenting the suitability of individual predicted results, we aimed to provide a foundation that could be used in actual assessments and regulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reproducibility of Results , Social Control, Formal
9.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 14 (Supp.): 69-75
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167980

ABSTRACT

Predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship was performed on the novel4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline and 4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives to explore relationship between the structure of synthesized compounds and their anti-HIV-1 activities. In this way, the suitable set of the molecular descriptors was calculated and the important descriptors using the variable selections of the stepwise technique were selected. Multiple linear regression [MLR] and artificial neural network [ANN] as nonlinear system were used for constructing QSAR models. The predictive quality of the quantitative structure-activity relationship models was tested for an external set of five compounds, randomly chosen out of 25 compounds. The findings exhibited that stepwise-ANN model was more efficient at prediction activity of both training and test sets with high statistical qualities. Based on QSAR models results, electronegativity, the atomic masses, the atomic van der Waals volumes, the molecular symmetry and polarizability were found to be important factors controlling the anti-HIV-1 activity


Subject(s)
Quinolines , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Pyrimidines
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 534-538, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731264

ABSTRACT

With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.


Com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de endoparasitas de equinos da Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de Minas Gerais, 25 animais naturalmente infectados por helmintos foram avaliados. Por meio de necropsias parasitológicas, diferentes endoparasitas foram identificados. A sub - família Cyathostominae apresentou maior incidência, seguido por Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna e Anoplocephala perfoliata. No presente estudo, se não for considerada a espécie Probstmayria vivipara na prevalência, a frequência de Cyathostominae é equivalente a 94,85%. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo, permitiu detectar e identificar diferentes espécies de helmintos em equinos, bem como confirmar a elevada incidência de nematódeos pertencentes à sub-família Cyathostominae na Região Centro-Oeste de Minas Gerais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Pneumocystis/enzymology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Regression Analysis
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Jun; 51(3): 244-252
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154238

ABSTRACT

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed on a series of indole amide analogues reported by Dai et al. [Bioorg Med Chem Lett (2003), 13, 1897-1901] to act as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. The multiple regression analysis (MRA) revealed a model showing the significant dependence of the activity on molar refractivity (MR) and global topological charge index (GTCI) of the compounds, suggesting that inhibition of the HDAC by this series of compounds might involve the dispersion interaction with the receptor, where charge transfer between pairs of atoms might greatly help to polarize the molecule. The MRA results were then compared with those obtained by Guo et al. [Bioorg Med Chem (2005), 13, 5424-5434] by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). It was found that MRA gave as good results and had as good predictive ability as CoMFA and CoMSIA. Besides, MRA was also able to throw the light on the physicochemical properties of the molecules that were involved in drug-receptor interactions, while CoMFA and CoMSIA could not. The dispersion interaction between the molecule and the active site of the receptor is suggested to be the main interaction.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylases/chemistry , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Regression Analysis
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Feb; 51(1): 29-36
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154228

ABSTRACT

QSAR study was performed on a series of 1,2-dihydro-4-quinazolinamines, 4,5-dialkylsubstituted-2-imino-1,3-thiazolidine derivatives and 4,5-disubstituted-1,3-oxazolidin-2-imine derivatives studied by Tinker et al. [J Med Chem (2003), 46, 913-916], Ueda et al. [Bioorg Med Chem (2004) 12, 4101-4116] and Ueda et al. [Bioorg Med Chem Lett (2004) 14, 313-316], respectively, as potent, highly selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The iNOS inhibition activity of the whole series of compounds was analyzed in relation to the physicochemical and molecular properties of the compounds. The QSAR analysis revealed that the inhibition potency of the compounds was controlled by a topological parameter 1v (Kier’s first order valence molecular connectivity index), density (D), surface tension (St) and length (steric parameter) of a substituent. This suggested that the drug-receptor interaction predominantly involved the dispersion interaction, but the bulky molecule would face steric problem because of which the molecule may not completely fit in active sites of the receptor and thus may not have the optimum interaction.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxazoles/chemistry , Oxazoles/pharmacology , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazolidines/chemistry , Thiazolidines/pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259670

ABSTRACT

The beta-secretase is one of prospective targets against Alzheimer's disease (AD). A three-dimensional quan titative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of Hydroethylamines (HEAs) as beta-secretase inhibitors was established using Topomer CoMFA. The multiple correlation coefficient of fitting, cross validation and external validation were r2 = 0.928, q(loo)2 = 0.605 and r(pred)2 = 0.626, respectively. The 3D-QSAR model was used to search R groups from ZINC database as the source of structural fragments. As a result, a series of R groups with relatively high activity contribution was obtained to design a total of 15 new compounds, with higher activity than that of the template molecule. The molecular docking was employed to study the interaction mode between the new compounds as ligands and beta-secretase as receptors, displaying that hydrogen bond and hydrophobicity played important roles in the binding affinity between the new compounds and beta-secretase. The results showed that Topomer CoMFA and To pomer Search could be effectively used to screen and design new molecules of HEAs as beta-secretase inhibitors, and the designed compounds could provide new candidates for drug design targeting AD.


Subject(s)
Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Drug Design , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341806

ABSTRACT

The combined application of statins that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and fibrates that activate PPAR-α can produce a better lipid-lowering effect than the simple application, but with stronger adverse reactions at the same time. In the treatment of hyperlipidemia, the combined administration of TCMs and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in treating hyperlipidemia shows stable efficacy and less adverse reactions, and provides a new option for the combined application of drugs. In this article, the pharmacophore technology was used to search chemical components of TCMs, trace their source herbs, and determine the potential common TCMs that could activate PPAR-α. Because there is no hyperlipidemia-related medication reference in modern TCM classics, to ensure the high safety and efficacy of all selected TCMs, we selected TCMs that are proved to be combined with statins in the World Traditional/Natural Medicine Patent Database, analyzed corresponding drugs in pharmacophore results based on that, and finally obtained common TCMs that can be applied in PPAR-α and combined with statins. Specifically, the pharmacophore model was based on eight receptor-ligand complexes of PPAR-α. The Receptor-Ligand Pharmacophore Generation module in the DS program was used to build the model, optimize with the Screen Library module, and get the best sub-pharmacophore, which consisted of two hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic groups and 19 excluded volumes, with the identification effectiveness index value N of 2. 82 and the comprehensive evaluation index CAI value of 1. 84. The model was used to screen the TCMD database, hit 5,235 kinds of chemical components and 1 193 natural animals and plants, and finally determine 62 TCMs. Through patent retrieval, we found 38 TCMs; After comparing with the virtual screening results, we finally got seven TCMs.


Subject(s)
Acyl Coenzyme A , Metabolism , Animals , Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Blood , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Molecular , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Technology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330342

ABSTRACT

To study the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the stuctures of 29 flavonoids and the inhibitory activity of their multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 1 and 2 by using the comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA). By studying the impact of the combination of different molecular force fields, researchers obtained the molecular force fields that played an important role in inhibiting the activity of MRP1 and MRP2, built the optimized QSAR model, and discussed the structural modification method for flavonoids' multidrug resistance-associated protein inhibitor. The results of the study could not only provide the guidance for new drug R&D, but also help partially discuss the synergy mechanism between MRP1 and MRP2 receptors and traditional Chinese medicines containing flavonoids.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Chemistry , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (6): 1851-1855
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148828

ABSTRACT

Pharmacophore mapping investigations were carried out on a dataset of 36 pyrazole derivatives that demonstrate antiproliferative activity in human ovarian adenocarcinoma A2780 cells. Pharmacophore modeling is a powerful tool for activity prediction of the ligands. Three point pharmacophore model was developed with two hydrophobic groups, one hydrogen bond acceptor, as pharmacophoric features. The pharmacophore hypothesis AHH.14 with R[2] value 0.909 yields a 3D-QSAR model which is statistically significant and best pharmacophore hypothesis. External validation of AHH.14 was performed by activity prediction of test set molecules with squared predictive correlation coefficient of 0.875 was observed between experimental and predicted activity values of test set molecules. AHH.14 pharmacophore model may offer potential for the design of antiproliferative agents via development of lead structures


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163307

ABSTRACT

The matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) inhibitory activities of carboxylic acid based compounds, in presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been analyzed quantitatively in terms of chemometric descriptors. The statistically validated quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models obtained through combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression (CP-MLR) analysis and the participated descriptors in these models provided rationales to explain the inhibitory activities of these congeners. For MMP-13 inhibition activity, the identified descriptors (BEHm1, BELm1 and BEHm8) have highlighted the role of the atomic mass in terms of the highest and lowest eigenvalues derived from Burden matrix. The positive correlation with activity suggested that their higher values are desirable in improving the activity of a compound. Additionally, the descriptor C-027 representing R-CH-X type fragment in a molecular structure advocates the absence of such type of fragment for the improved activity. On the other hand presence of RCO-N< or >N-X=X type fragment (descriptor N-072) would be beneficiary to the MMP-13 inhibitory activity. The structural features, rationalized by the descriptors MSD (Balaban’s mean square distance index), nCrHR (number of ring tertiary C (sp3), H-047 (H attached to C1(sp3)/C0(sp2)) and H-050 (H attached to heteroatom) have imparted positive impact on the MMP-13 w/BSA inhibition activity. The atomic properties such as atomic polarizability and atomic Sanderson’s electronegativity have shown their positive impact on the activity via descriptors BELp4 and GATS3e in respective eigenvalues or lag. The other descriptors, MATS1m and MATS3e, have revealed the negative influence of atomic mass and electronegativity on the of MMP-13 w/BSA inhibition activity. The results obtained from CP-MLR analysis have been supported further through partial least-squares (PLS) study.


Subject(s)
Carboxylic Acids/analogs & derivatives , Carboxylic Acids/analysis , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Linear Models , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Molecular Structure , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Aug; 50(4): 278-283
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148608

ABSTRACT

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed on a large series of thiourea derivatives reported by Kang et al. [Bioorg Med Chem Lett (2009), 19, 1950-55 & 6063-68], acting as anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) agents. The activity of the compounds was found to be significantly correlated with their hydrophobic property and three indicator variables I1, I2 and I3, the first two specifying a negative effect of an alkyl and an aromatic group, respectively on their R-moiety and the third one specifying a negative effect of their Ar-moiety having a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring. The whole set containing 85 compounds was divided into two subsets: the training set and the test set containing 61 and 24 compounds, respectively. For the training set, the correlation coefficient (r) and the square of cross-validated correlation coefficient (r2cv) were found to be 0.926 and 0.83, respectively. The correlation obtained suggested that anti-HCV activity of the compounds would depend on their hydrophobic property, conformational flexibility and the steric effects of an alkyl or an aromatic group on the R-moiety. This suggested that the molecules might have significant hydrophobic interactions with the receptor which might be aided by their conformational flexibility, but hindered sterically by an alkyl or an aromatic group on their R-moiety. Using the correlation obtained, some new compounds having activity higher (>8.0) than the most active compound in the existing series were predicted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiourea/chemistry , Thiourea/pharmacology
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 120-125
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147295

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with many cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms is biochemically characterized by a significant decrease in the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Plant-derived metabolites, including alkaloids have been reported to possess neuroprotective properties and are considered to be safe, thus have potential for developing effective therapeutic molecules for neurological disorders, such as AD. Therefore, in the present study, thirteen plant-derived alkaloids, namely pleiocarpine, kopsinine, pleiocarpamine (from Pleiocarpa mutica, family: Annonaceae), oliveroline, noroliveroline, liridonine, isooncodine, polyfothine, darienine (from Polyalthia longifolia, family: Apocynaceae) and eburnamine, eburnamonine, eburnamenine and geissoschizol (from Hunteria zeylanica, family: Apocynaceae) were analyzed for their anti-cholinergic action through docking with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as target. Among the alkaloids, pleiocarpine showed promising anti-cholinergic potential, while its amino derivative showed about six-fold higher anti-cholinergic potential than pleiocarpine. Pleiocarpine and its amino derivative were found to be better inhibitors of AChE, as compared to commonly used drugs tacrine (brand name: Cognex) and rivastigmine (brand name: Exelon), suggesting development of these molecules as potential therapeutics in future.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cholinergic Antagonists/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Ligands , Models, Chemical , Models, Molecular , Phytotherapy , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Feb; 50(1): 72-79
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147289

ABSTRACT

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular modeling study were performed on a series of 3,4-dihyro-1-isoquinolinamines and thienopyridines reported by Beaton et al. [Beaton et al. (2001) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 11, 1023-1026, 1027-1030] as potent, highly selective inhibitors of two isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) — neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), in order to find the physicochemical properties that governed their activity and the mode of interaction with the receptors, so that still more potent compounds in the series could be suggested. A multiple regression analysis revealed that nNOS and eNOS inhibition potency of these compounds could be controlled by their hydrophobic property and molar refractivity, respectively. Thus, nNOS and eNOS inhibition was indicated to involve the hydrophobic interaction and steric effects, respectively, suggesting some structural differences of the two isoforms of NOS. Based on the correlations obtained, some new, more potent compounds belonging to the series were predicted. These compounds were then docked into the receptors to see their interactions and find out the docking scores. The docked structures of two representative compounds, whose interaction energies with nNOS and eNOS, respectively were found to be the lowest, were given as an example to exhibit the possible orientation of the compounds to interact with the receptors.


Subject(s)
Amines/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Models, Chemical , Models, Molecular , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/ultrastructure , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/antagonists & inhibitors , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Thienopyridines/chemistry
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