Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 200
Filter
2.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e01052018, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349026

ABSTRACT

Ammonium quaternary compounds are widely used in poultry and swine production as disinfectants in the control of pathogens. They act on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, enveloped fungi and viruses. However, in some conditions of pH and presence of organic matter can be inactivated. This study evaluated the action of ammonium quaternary compounds at 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 dilutions against Salmonella enterica serovarTyphimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in the presence of three different organic matter simulators, fetal bovine serum, skim milk and whole milk concentration of 1, 3, 5, and 7% and at pH 6 and 9, with 15 min of contact. It was possible to verify that the organic matter simulators adjusted in the same conditions of contact time and percentage, in the in vitro tests, presented different results and the fetal bovine serum did not inactivate the disinfectant. However, the best result against S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was obtained at pH 6 at the dilution of 1:1,000 in all organic matter simulators.


Subject(s)
Salmonella enteritidis , Containment of Biohazards , Salmonella enterica , Organic Matter , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Swine , Birds , In Vitro Techniques , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Milk , Disinfectants , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200859, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286923

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Due to its ability to arrest untreated dental caries, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been advocated for indirect pulp capping procedures. However, the high concentrations of silver and fluoride in SDF raise concerns about its biocompatibility to pulpal tissues. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of SDF on the viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and morphology of pulpal-like cells (RPC-C2A) and to evaluate the influence of reduced glutathione (GSH) on SDF-induced cytotoxicity and deposit formation on dentin. Methodology The cytotoxicity of diluted 38% SDF solutions (10-4 and 10-5), with or without the addition of 5 mM or 50 mM GSH, was evaluated at 6 and 24 hours. Cell viability was detected using WST-8 and the effect on ALP activity was performed using an ALP assay kit. Cell morphology was observed using a phase-contrast microscope. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of GSH incorporation or conditioning on SDF-induced deposit formation on dentin discs. Cytotoxicity data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests (p<0.05). Results There were significant differences between the groups. The results demonstrated that all tested SDF dilutions caused a remarkable cytotoxic effect, while the addition of GSH prevented SDF-induced damage at 6-hour exposure time in the higher dilution of SDF. Dentin treated with plain SDF or GSH-incorporated SDF solution showed deposit formation with occluded dentinal tubules, unlike the other groups. Conclusion SDF severely disturbed the viability, mineralization-ability, and morphology of pulpal-like cells, while controlled concentrations of GSH had a short-term protective effect against SDF-induced damage. GSH showed an inhibitory effect on SDF-induced dentinal deposit formation. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effect of GSH on caries-arresting, anti-hypersensitivity, and antibacterial functions of SDF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Dental Caries , Cariostatic Agents/toxicity , Fluorides, Topical/toxicity , Silver Compounds , Dentin , Glutathione , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(3): 257-263, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132306

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the fluoride concentration in silver diamine fluoride (SDF) products and their bioavailability with demineralized dentine. The products evaluated (expected fluoride concentrations) were: I: Saforide 38% (45,283 ppm F); II: Advantage Arrest 38.3 to 43.2% (45,283 to 51,013 ppm F); III: Ancárie 12% (14,100 ppm F); IV: Ancárie 30% (35,400 ppm F), V: Cariestop 12% (14,100 ppm F) and VI: Cariestop 30% (35,400 ppm F). The fluoride concentration was evaluated using an ion-specific electrode (ISE) by direct technique, which was confirmed after microdiffusion. The pH of the products was determined with a pH test strip. For the bioavailability test, demineralized dentine slabs were treated with one of the products for 1 min. Loosely (CaF2-like) and firmly-bound fluoride (FAp) were determined. The fluoride concentration found in the products (mean±SD; ppm F) by the ISE direct technique was: I:53,491±554; II:57,249±1,851; III:4,814±268; IV:5,726±43; V:10,145±468; VI:11,858±575; these values were confirmed after microdiffusion (t-test; p>0.05) and disagree with the declared by the manufacturers. The pH of Ancárie 12 and 30% was 6.0 and 4.5, respectively, in disagreement with the alkaline pH expected for SDF solution and found in the other products evaluated. There was no correlation between either CaF2-like (r=0.221; p=0.337) or FAp (r=-0.144; p=0.830) formed in demineralized dentine and fluoride concentration found in the products. The problems of pH and fluoride concentration found in available professional commercial SDF products suggest that they are not under sanitary surveillance.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi determinar a concentração de fluoreto nos produtos de diamino fluoreto de prata (DFP) e sua biodisponibilidade com dentina desmineralizada. Os produtos avaliados (concentrações esperadas de flúor) foram: I: Saforide 38% (45.283 ppm F); II: Advantage Arrest 38,3 a 43,2% (45.283 a 51.013 ppm F); III: Ancárie 12% (14.100 ppm F); IV: Ancárie 30% (35.400 ppm F), V: Cariestop 12% (14.100 ppm F) e VI: Cariestop 30% (35.400 ppm F). A concentração de fluoreto foi avaliada utilizando um eletrodo íon-específico (EIE) por técnica direta, que foi confirmada após microdifusão. O pH dos produtos foi determinado com uma tira de teste de pH. Para o teste de biodisponibilidade, blocos de dentina desmineralizada foram tratados com um dos produtos por 1 min. Fluoreto fracamente (tipo CaF2) e firmemente ligado (FAp) foram determinados. A concentração de fluoreto encontrada nos produtos (média±DP; ppm F) pela técnica direta com EIE foi: I: 53.491±554; II: 57.249±1.851; III: 4.814±268; IV: 5.726±43; V: 10.145±468; VI: 11.858±575; esses valores foram confirmados após microdifusão (teste t; p>0,05) e discordam dos declarados pelos fabricantes. O pH do Ancárie 12 e 30% foi de 6,0 e 4,5, respectivamente, em desacordo com o pH alcalino esperado para a solução de DFP e encontrado nos demais produtos avaliados. Não houve correlação entre CaF2 (r=0,221; p=0,337) ou FAp (r=-0,144; p=0,830) formados na dentina desmineralizada e concentração de fluoreto encontrada nos produtos. Os problemas de pH e concentração de fluoreto encontrados nos produtos comerciais profissionais disponíveis de DFP sugerem que eles não estão sob vigilância sanitária.


Subject(s)
Cariostatic Agents , Fluorides , Sodium Fluoride , Biological Availability , Fluorides, Topical , Silver Compounds , Dentin , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
s.l; IETSI; 27 abr. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1104019

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Queda mucho por aprender sobre el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) que causa la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Según lo que se sabe actualmente sobre el virus y sobre coronavirus similares que causan SARS y MERS, la propagación de persona a persona ocurre con mayor frecuencia entre contactos cercanos (dentro de aproximadamente 2 metros) a través de gotitas respiratorias generadas por una persona infectada al toser o estornudar (CDC 2020). La transmisión también puede ocurrir de forma indirecta por contacto con superficies que se encuentran en el entorno inmediato de una persona infectada o con objetos que esta haya utilizado (OMS 2020b). La transmisión del coronavirus en general ocurre mucho más comúnmente a través de gotitas respiratorias que a través de fómites (CDC 2020). Por otro lado, se ha reportado que el SARS-CoV-2 puede permanecer viable durante horas o días en superficies hechas de una variedad de materiales. En ese sentido, la desinfección de superficies es considerada una buena práctica para la prevención de COVID-19 y otras enfermedades respiratorias virales en entornos comunitarios (CDC 2020). Sin embargo, en países como China, México y Argentina se han visto imágenes en donde los desinfectantes son rociados directamente a las personas cuando estas pasan a través de túneles instalados en lugares públicos de alto tránsito, como entradas a mercados, edificios administrativos u hospitales. Esta medida ha sido cuestionada ya que el desinfectante usado en estos túneles puede causar irritación en las personas, así como daño en la piel y los ojos (Neustaeter 2020). El túnel de desinfección peatonal consiste en un sistema de aspersores que rocían al peatón un desinfectante con el fin de desinfectar la ropa. Cada persona debe permanecer en el interior del túnel unos pocos segundos con las manos en alto para permitir que la mezcla sanitizante llegue a la mayoría de las partes del cuerpo (Infobae 2020). Dentro de los desinfectantes utilizados se encuentran el amonio cuaternario, el ozono, el ácido hipocloroso, el alcohol, soluciones de hipoclorito, catalizadores orgánicos, entre otros (Minsalud 2020). El uso de esta innovación tecnológica ha sido propuesto por algunas personas como una medida sanitaria adicional a las ya establecidas (distanciamiento físico, uso de mascarillas, lavado de mano) para reducir el contagio del SARS-CoV-2 en lugares públicos de alta concurrencia. Actualmente, esta propuesta se ha difundido de manera mediática captando el interés de diversas instituciones para su posible incorporación. Al respecto, la Dirección General de Salud Ambiental del Perú (DIGESA), con fecha 16 de abril de 2020, realizó un pronunciamiento desalentando el uso de túneles desinfectantes para evitar la transmisión de COVID-19. En esta nota se enfatiza que no existe evidencia científica de que los túneles desinfectantes sean efectivos para impedir la transmisión del virus, y que por el contrario, los desinfectantes dispersados sobre los peatones podrían ser dañinos para la salud e incluso aumentar el riesgo de dispersión del SARS-CoV-2. También se señala que toda desinfección para evitar la transmisión de COVID-19 se debe realizar sobre superficies inertes como mesas, pisos o estantes, y no sobre personas (DIGESA 2020). A pesar del pronunciamiento por parte de la DIGESA, el IETSI ha recibido solicitudes de evaluación, en donde se plantea el uso de túneles de desinfección generales y, específicamente, los de ozono. Así, surge la necesidad de conocer el funcionamiento de los túneles de desinfección peatonal pulverizadores de ozono y de otros desinfectantes, así como revisar la literatura pertinente a esta tecnología para evaluar su efectividad y seguridad para disminuir la propagación del SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Primero, se realizó una búsqueda manual de guías, reportes técnicos o recomendaciones para la desinfección en el contexto del COVID-19, en las páginas web de diversas sociedades y gobiernos alrededor del mundo, tales como World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), el Gobierno de Canadá, el Gobierno de Reino Unido, el Gobierno de Australia, el Gobierno de España, el Gobierno de Colombia, entre otros. Segundo, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de guías o revisiones que brindaran recomendaciones con relación a la tecnología de interés utilizando la base de datos MEDLINE vía PubMed. La estrategia de búsqueda fue la siguiente: (sanitation[tiab] OR disinfect*[tiab]) AND (COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR Coronavirus OR SARS) (144 ítems). Tercero, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de estudios que evaluaran la efectividad y seguridad de los túneles de desinfección peatonal de ozono utilizando la base de datos MEDLINE vía PubMed, utilizando la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: ozone AND (COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR Coronavirus OR SARS) (10 ítems). Finalmente, se buscaron estudios adicionales que pudiesen haber escapado a las búsquedas con una estrategia de bola de nieve mediante la revisión de las listas de referencias de las publicaciones que sean de relevancia. RESULTADOS: Se identificó una guía técnica elaborada por el Ministerio de Salud y Protección de Colombia que evaluó el uso de sistemas de aspersión de productos desinfectantes sobre personas para la prevención de la trasmisión de COVID-19. También se identificó recomendaciones relacionadas al tema en las páginas web de la OMS y la EPA. CONCLUSIONES: No se recomienda el uso de túneles de desinfección peatonal pulverizadores de ozono u de otros desinfectantes ya que no se cuenta con evidencia científica sobre su efectividad para disminuir la propagación del COVID-19. Además, el uso de estos sistemas podría causar potenciales daños en la salud de las personas, como irritación de los ojos y de las vías respiratorias. De acuerdo a la información publicada por agencias regulatorias internacionales como la EPA, aún si el ozono se utilizara en concentraciones que no excedieran los estándares de salud pública, estos no eliminarían eficazmente los virus. Para el caso de túneles que utilizan otros agentes desinfectantes como soluciones de hipoclorito de sodio o alcohol, algunas instituciones ya han emitido pronunciamientos en contra del uso de estas tecnologías debido a la falta de evidencia que sustente su uso y al elevado riesgo de daño al peatón. Otros expertos señalan que el uso de túneles de desinfección podría tener un efecto opuesto al esperado, ya que la falsa sensación de seguridad por parte de los peatones podría hacer que estos disminuyan las medidas eficaces para disminuir el contagio del COVID19 como el distanciamiento social y el lavado de manos. Finalmente, a nivel mundial, el ozono y demás desinfectantes no están autorizados por ninguna autoridad de salud para su aplicación directa sobre humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ozone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hypochlorous Acid/administration & dosage , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
6.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8003, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122677

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las lesiones de caries cavitadas en dentición primaria y mixta requieren un tratamiento oportuno, para evitar así la progresión de la caries. El fluoruro diamino de plata ha surgido como una alternativa a la técnica de restauración atraumática debido a su fácil aplicación. Sin embargo, aún existe incertidumbre en relación a su efectividad y seguridad. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos diez revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron dos estudios primarios, ambos ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que el fluoruro diamino de plata en comparación a la técnica de restauración atraumática podría aumentar el arresto de caries en dentición primaria y mixta primera fase, pero la certeza de la evidencia ha sido evaluada como baja. Por otra parte, el tratamiento con fluoruro diamino de plata comparado con la técnica de restauración atraumática (ART) probablemente aumenta el riesgo de eventos adversos


INTRODUCTION: Cavitated carious lesions in primary and mixed dentition require prompt treatment to control caries progression. Silver diamine fluoride has emerged as an alternative to the atraumatic restorative technique due to its easy application. However, there is still uncertainty regarding its effectiveness and safety. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a metanalysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified ten systematic reviews, including two studies overall, which are randomized trials. We concluded that silver diamine fluoride compared to the atraumatic restorative technique may increase the arrest of caries in primary and mixed first phase dentition, however, the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as low. On the other hand, treatment with silver diamine fluoride compared to the atraumatic restorative technique (ART) probably increases the risk of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Silver Compounds/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Fluorides, Topical/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Silver Compounds/adverse effects , Dentition, Mixed , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/adverse effects
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 79 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007570

ABSTRACT

Compostos de amônio quaternário (QACs) têm sido amplamente utilizados como desinfetantes e antissépticos, sendo essenciais na prevenção e controle de infecções bacterianas na medicina humana e veterinária. Embora patógenos prioritários multirresistentes têm sido muito bem caracterizados quanto ao perfil de suscetibilidade e contexto genético da resistência aos antibióticos, dados de resistência aos QACs são limitados. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a atividade in vitro dos QACs de uso doméstico e hospitalar [cloreto de benzalcônio (BAC), cloreto de cetilpiridinio (CPC) e brometo de cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB)], contra patógenos prioritários multirresistentes, identificando os principais genes de resistência associados. Foram estudadas 100 cepas multirresistentes previamente sequenciados usando as plataformas Illumina MiSeq e NextSeq representativas de diferentes hospedeiros (humanos e animais) e fontes (ambientes e alimentos). As cepas foram identificadas como Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 24), Escherichia coli (n= 30); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 10), Enterobacter spp, (n= 8), Acinetobacter baumannii (n= 11) e Salmonella spp. (n= 17). Genes de resistência aos QACs foram identificados in silico através do alinhamento dos contigs obtidos de cada cepa sequenciada com genes de referência obtidos do GenBank, utilizando o programa Geneious versão 8 (Biomatters Ltd). A identidade de cada gene foi analisada utilizando o programa BLASTx, no qual um critério baseado em ≥90% identidade resultou na identificação dos genes mdfA (77%), qacE (44%), qacEΔ1 (43%), sugE(c) (29%), emrE (21%), qacA (19%), sugE(p) (5%), qacF (7%), qacH (7%) e qacL (7%) em 85 cepas; enquanto que 15 cepas não possuíam nenhum gene de resistência aos QACs. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) dos QACs para as 100 cepas foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Os resultados sugeriram que a resistência em patógenos prioritários circulando na interface humano-ambiente-animal não é restrita aos antibióticos, uma vez que a elevada ocorrência de genes qacE, qacEΔ1 e mdfA poderia estar associada com uma redução da suscetibilidade para QACs. Consequentemente, a resistência aos QACs poderia também contribuir para a persistência e adaptação destes patógenos nos seres humanos e outros animais, assim como em ambientes impactados antropogenicamente


Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have been widely used as disinfectants and antiseptics, being applied as essential compounds in the prevention and control of bacterial infections in human-and veterinary hospital medicine. Although multiresistant priority pathogens have been well characterized with respect to their susceptibility profile and their genetic context of resistance for antibiotics, studies of resistance to QACs are limited. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of QACs [(benzalkonium chloride (BAC), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] for household and hospital use against multiresistant priority pathogens, identifying the main resistance genes associated. A hundred multiresistant isolates (previously sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq and NextSeq platforms), representative of different hosts (humans and animals) and sources (environment and food) were studied. Isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=24), Escherichia coli (n=30), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=10), Enterobacter spp. (n=8), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=11) and Salmonella spp. (n=17). In silico analysis for identification of genes conferring resistance to QACs were performed by aligning the contigs obtained from the strains with reference genes deposited in GenBank, using the Geneious version program (Biomatters Ltd). Similarities were analyzed using the BLASTx online program, considering the alignment criteria based on ≥ 90% identity. The result of these analysis revealed the presence of the following QAC genes: mdfA (77%), qacE (44%), qacEΔ1 (43%), sugE(c) (29%), emrE (21%), qacA (19%), sugE (p) (5%), qacF (7%), qacH (7%) e qacL (7%); while 15 strains showed no resistance genes for QACs. Determination of QACs minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the 100 isolates, by the broth microdilution method. These results suggest that resistance to QACs in priority pathogens, circulating at the human-environment-animal interface, is not restricted to antibiotics, since the high occurrence of genes qacE, qacEΔ1 and mdfA were associated with a reduced susceptibility to QACs. Consequently, resistance to QACs could also contribute to the persistence and adaptation of these pathogens in humans and othes animals, as well as in anthropogenically impacted environments


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Noxae , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190033, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041524

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acrylic resins are used in the preparation of facial prostheses and may be colonized by fungi. Here, we verified the antifungal efficacy of this material after surface treatment using poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride). METHODS: Acrylic resin specimens with and without surface treatment were subjected to tests for fungistatic and fungicidal activities. Standard strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were used. RESULTS: After surface treatment, the fungistatic and fungicidal efficacies of the resins against C. albicans and fungistatic action against A. niger were verified. CONCLUSIONS: The surface treatment was a determinant of the antifungal activity of the material.


Subject(s)
Polyethylenes/pharmacology , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Temperature , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Dental Materials
9.
MedUNAB ; 21(1): 115-121, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994499

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La fatiga central en el deporte está asociada a los efectos del amonio. La principal fuente de producción de amonio durante el ejercicio es el músculo esquelético. El amonio se genera como consecuencia del metabolismo energético, debido a la oxidación de aminoácidos y a la desaminación del nucleótido de adenosin trifosfato. Objetivo. Presentar una reflexión sobre el efecto del amonio durante el ejercicio de alta intensidad y su relación con la fatiga central en atletas. Discusión. Durante el ejercicio, la concentración de amonio alcanza valores superiores a 200µM (micromolar); sin embargo, en un adulto promedio se considera que valores superiores a 60µM en sangre manifiestan un trastorno por hiperamonemia. El amonio influye en la disminución del rendimiento en atletas y está asociado con los efectos nocivos para la salud en pacientes con encefalopatía hepática. Conclusiones. La práctica del ejercicio físico genera neuroprotección contra las altas concentraciones de amonio en el cerebro, pues, durante el ejercicio con altas concentraciones de amonio, los atletas no presentan los síntomas de pacientes con encefalopatía hepática, lo que implica adaptaciones metabólicas que juegan un papel importante en el metabolismo del amonio en el cerebro. [Porras-Álvarez J. Consecuencias del amonio en la fatiga central en atletas, posible efecto neuroprotector del ejercicio. MedUNAB. 2018;21(1): 115-121 doi: 10.29375/01237047.3394].


Introduction. Central fatigue in sports training is associated with ammonium effects within the human body. The ammonium main production source during physical training is located in skeletal muscles and it is generated as a result of energy metabolism. This process is caused by amino acids oxidation and adenosine triphosphate nucleotide deamination. Objective. This article's objective is to present an analysis regarding ammonium effects when high intensity sports are performed and its relation with central fatigue in athletes. Discussion. When high intensity sport practices are performed, ammonium concentration levels can reach values higher than 200 µM (micromolar). However, it is considered that an average adult with ammonium levels higher than 60µM evidences a hyperammonemia disorder. Ammonium has direct influence in the decline of athletic performance and it is associated with harmful effects for hepatic encephalopathy patients. Conclusions. Physical activity practice creates neuroprotection against high-quantities of ammonium in the brain. Although in physical practices athletes have high amounts of ammonium, they do not show symptoms related to hepatic encephalopathy; thus, this situation implies that metabolic adaptations have an important role within ammonium metabolism in the brain. [Porras-Álvarez J. Ammonium consequences in athletes' central fatigue and its possible neuroprotection effect thanks to physical activity. MedUNAB. 2018;21(1):115-121doi: 10.29375/01237047.3394].


Introdução. A fadiga central no esporte está associada aos efeitos do amônio. A fonte de produção do amônio mais importante durante o exercício é o músculo esquelético. O amônio é gerado como consequência do metabolismo energético, devido à oxidação dos aminoácidos e à desaminação do trifosfato de adenosina. Objetivo. Apresentar uma reflexão sobre o efeito do amônio durante o exercício de alta intensidade e sua relação com a fadiga central em atletas. Discussão. Durante o exercício, a concentração do amônio atinge valores superiores a 200µM (micromol); no entanto, em um adulto médio, considera-se que valores superiores a 60µM no sangue mostram um distúrbio por hiperamonemia. O amônio influencia a diminuição do desempenho em atletas e está associado a efeitos nocivos para a saúde em pacientes com encefalopatia hepática. Conclusões. A prática de exercício físico gera neuroproteção contra altas concentrações do amônio no cérebro, pois, durante o exercício com altas concentrações do amônio, os atletas não apresentam sintomas de encefalopatia hepática, o que implica adaptações metabólicas que desempenham um papel importante no metabolismo do amônio no cérebro. [Porras-Álvarez J. Consequências do amônio na fadiga central em atletas, possível efeito neuroprotetor do exercício. MedUNAB. 2018;21(1):115-121doi: 10.29375/01237047.3394].


Subject(s)
Fatigue , Uric Acid , Exercise , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Resistance Training , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Immune System
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 151-158, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839342

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although infections with NonTuberculous Mycobacteria have become less common in AIDS patients, they are important opportunistic infections after surgical procedures, likely because they are ubiquitous and not efficiently killed by many commonly used disinfectants. In Venezuela there have recently been many non-tuberculous mycobacteria soft tissue infections after minor surgical procedures, some apparently related to the use of a commercial disinfectant based on a Quaternary Ammonium Compound. We studied the activity of this and other quaternary ammonium compounds on different non-tuberculous mycobacteria by transforming the mycobacteria with a dnaA-gfp fusion and then monitoring fluorescence to gauge the capacity of different quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit bacterial growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration varied for the different quaternary ammonium compounds, but M. chelonae and M. abscessus were consistently more resistant than M. smegmatis, and M. terrae more resistant than M. bovis BCG.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/drug effects , Plasmids/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/classification , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/genetics
11.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 30(3): 141-148, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905158

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 10 wt% benzalkonium chloride (TBBAC) or 10 wt% cetylpyridinium chloride (TBCPC) on the antimicrobial properties of the orthodontic adhesive primer, Transbond XT™ (TB). Antimicrobial activity was assessed using a zone of inhibition diffusion test and the release of the antimicrobial compounds was monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested using bovine enamel. Control, TB, specimens failed to demonstrate intrinsic antibacterial activity at 1, 7 and 14 days; whereas, TBBAC and TBCPC showed antibacterial effects at all times. HPLC analysis indicated no significant differences in the release behaviour of TBBAC and TBCPC (ttest, p > 0.05), except for the 7day release which was higher for TBBAC (p < 0.05). By 14 days the extents of release were 27 ± 2% and 25 ± 5% of the total initial loading for TBBAC and TBCPC, respectively. The incorporation of 10 wt% BAC or CPC in Transbond XT™ adhesive primer also resulted in superior shear bond strength at 7 and 14 days (Fisher's LSD, p < 0.05) with no significant change in the mode of bracket failure under shear stress (Pearson's chisquared, p > 0.05) (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto del cloruro de benzalconio al 10% en peso del peso (TBBAC) o de cloruro de cetilpiridinio al 10% del peso (TBCPC) con propiedades antimicrobianas presentes en el adhesivo acondicionador ortodóncico, Transbond XT ™ (TB). La actividad antimi crobiana se evaluó usando una zona de prueba de difusión de inhibición y la liberación de los compuestos antimicrobianos se controló mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). La resistencia de adhesión al corte (SBS) se probó usando esmalte bovino. Las muestras control, TB no lograron demostrar actividad antibacteriana intrínseca a 1, 7 y 14 días; mientras que TBBAC y TBCPC mostraron efectos antibac terianos en todo momento. El análisis por HPLC no indicó diferencias significativas en el comportamiento de liberación de TBBAC y TBCPC (prueba t, p> 0,05), excepto en la liberación a los 7 días que fue más alta para TBBAC (p <0,05). A los 14 días, los grados de liberación fueron de 27 ± 2% y de 25 ± 5% de la carga inicial total para TBBAC y TBCPC, respectivamente. La incorpora ción de 10% en peso de BAC o CPC en el imprimador adhesivo Transbond XT ™ también dio como resultado una resistencia superior corte a los 7 y 14 días (Fisher's LSD, p <0.05) sin cambios significativos en el modo de falla del bracket bajo tensión de corte (Pearson's chicuadrado, p> 0.05) (AU)


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Benzalkonium Compounds , Cetylpyridinium , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Appliances , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Materials Testing , Statistical Analysis
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 266-269, Jan.-Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775127

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Spitzenkörper is a dynamic and specialized multicomponent cell complex present in the tips of hyphal cells. The amphiphilic styryl dye FM4-64 was found to be ideal for imaging the dynamic changes of the apical vesicle cluster within growing hyphal tips. It is widely used as a marker of endocytosis and to visualize vacuolar membranes. Here we performed uptake experiments using FM4-64 to study the dynamic of the Spitzenkörper in Trichosporon asahii. We observed that Spitzenkörpers were present at the tip of the budding site of the spore, blastospore, and the germ tube of T. asahii. We also found that Spitzenkörpers were present at the tip of the hyphae as well as the subapical regions. Cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, leads to abnormal Spitzenkörper formation and loss of cell polarity.


Subject(s)
Fluorescent Dyes/analysis , Hyphae/cytology , Organelles/metabolism , Pyridinium Compounds/analysis , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Staining and Labeling/methods , Trichosporon/cytology , Trichosporon/growth & development , Hyphae/growth & development , Microscopy, Fluorescence
13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 251-256, ago. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764081

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Autoconcepto es el conjunto de ideas y actitudes que se tiene acerca de sí mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si existen diferencias en el nivel de autoconcepto de niños de 8-12 años con y sin secuelas de quemaduras, e identificar variables predictoras del autoconcepto en los niños con secuelas. Pacientes y método: Estudio comparativo, transversal de 109 niños con secuelas de quemaduras de 8 a 12 años de edad, con 109 niños sin secuelas de quemaduras, del mismo grupo de edad y nivel socioeconómico. Se utilizó la escala de autoconcepto de Piers-Harris, que entrega medida de autoconcepto general y dimensiones: conductual, estatus intelectual y escolar, apariencia y atributos físicos, ansiedad, popularidad, felicidad y satisfacción. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel de autoconcepto general ni en sus dimensiones al comparar ambos grupos (p > 0,05). Dentro del grupo con secuelas de quemaduras la variable número de secuelas resultó ser un factor protector para las dimensiones ansiedad, popularidad, felicidad-satisfacción y autoconcepto general. La variable localización surgió como factor de riesgo para la dimensión conductual. Discusión: La ausencia de diferencias en autoconcepto entre niños con secuelas de quemaduras y sin ellas es similar a lo reportado por la literatura. El hallazgo en factores de riesgo y protectores motiva a continuar investigando, incorporando antecedentes premórbidos y familiares.


Introduction: Self-concept is the set of ideas and attitudes that a person has about him/herself. Objective: To evaluate whether there are differences in the level of self-concept in children 8-12 years old with and without burns sequelae. To identify predictive variables of self-concept in children with sequelae. Patients and method: A comparative cross-sectional study of self-concept in 109 children with burns sequelae, from 8 to 12 years old, with 109 children without burns sequelae, and of the same age and socioeconomic status. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale is used, which provides a general measurement of self-concept and behavioural, intellectual and school status, appearance, and physical attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction dimensions. Results: There were no significant differences in the level of general self-concept or their dimensions (P > .05). In the group with burns sequelae, the protective factor was the variable number of sequels was associated with the dimensions of anxiety, popularity, happiness-satisfaction and general self-concept. The location variable emerged as a risk factor for the behavioural dimension. Discussion: The absence of differences in self-concept between children with burns sequelae and children without them is similar to that reported in the literature. The finding in the risk and protective factors encourages to further research, and perhaps incorporating pre-morbidity and family background.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Serine/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Amides/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Esters/chemistry , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy/methods , HeLa Cells , Lipids/chemistry , Transfection/methods
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317763

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a resin composite incorporated with nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing long-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium salt, and to measure its effect on human dental plaque microcosm biofilm.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing long-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium salt was synthesized according to methods introduced in previous research. Samples of the novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers were modified by a coupling agent and then added into resin composite at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% mass fractions; 0% composite was used as control. A flexural test was used to measure resin composite mechanical properties. Results showed that a dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was formed. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, lactic acid production, and live/dead assay of biofilm on the resin composite were calculated to test the effect of the resin composite on human dental plaque microcosm biofilm.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incorporation of nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers with as much as 15% concentration into the resin composite showed no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the resin composite (P > 0.05). Resin composite containing 5% or more nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers significantly inhibited the metabolic activity of dental plaque microcosm biofilm, suggesting its strong antibacterial potency (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This novel resin composite exhibited a strong antibacterial property upon the addition of up to 5% nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers, thereby leading to effective caries inhibition in dental application.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Biofilms , Composite Resins , Chemistry , Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Humans , Lactic Acid , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Pharmacology , Saliva
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1239-1246, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240560

ABSTRACT

To investigate the cytotoxicity of the homemade peptide cationic liposome CDO14 and its efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi). MTT method was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the liposome to a human lung cancer cell line Luc-A549 that can express luciferase stably. Luciferase siRNA (Luc-siRNA) was transfected into Luc-A549 cells by CDO14. Contents of luciferase in the transfected cells were detected by luminous instrument and contents of total protein in these cells were detected by BCA method. Nude mice were inoculated with Luc-A549 cells in axilla to establish xenograft tumor model. Complexes of Luc-siRNA and the cationic liposomes were injected into the modeling mice via tail vein. Contents of luciferase in the transfected mice were detected by the whole body imaging system. The cytotoxicity of the homemade cationic liposome was similar to that of commercial liposome DOTAP, and lower than that of Lipo2000. The siRNA transfection efficacy mediated by CDO14 was higher than that mediated by DOTAP. The homemade peptide cationic liposome CDO14 is expected to serve as delivery vector in gene therapy because of its low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cations , Cell Line, Tumor , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Liposomes , Luciferases , Lung Neoplasms , Mice , Mice, Nude , Peptides , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Transfection
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(6): 592-602, nov.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733353

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Establecer las concentraciones de plomo (Pb) en sangre en niños escolares de 1998 y 2008, así como su asociación con factores de riesgo. Material y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un monitoreo de Pb en sangre de niños de entre 6 y 12 años que cursan educación primaria en 17 escuelas diferentes, ubicadas en distintas zonas del área metropolitana de Monterrey, de 1998 a 2008. Resultados. Se obtuvieron niveles séricos de 9.6 ± 3.0 (µg/dL rango de 3.18 a 20.88) en 1998 y de 4.5±4.8 µg/dL (rango de 3.3 a 53.7) en 2008, lo que mostró una disminución de 2.1 veces en nivel de Pb (p<0.01). Conclusiones. La reducción de los niveles séricos de Pb demuestran los mejores controles ambientales e industriales y probablemente el éxito de retirar el Pb de la gasolina durante los años noventa.


Objective. To establish the blood lead concentration and associated risk factors in schoolchildren during 1998 and 2008. Materials and methods. A blood lead screening was conducted in schoolchildren of 6-12 years of age, enrolled in 17 elementary schools of the metropolitan area of Monterrey, México, during 1998 and 2008. Results. The mean blood lead level were 9.6 ± 3.0 (µg/dL range of 3.18 to 20.88) in 1998 and 4.5±4.8 µg/dL (range of 3.3 to 53.7) showing a 2.1-times reduction in blood lead levels (p<0.01). Conclusions. This reduction in blood lead levels demonstrate environmental and industrial control improvements and the benefits of fading out the leaded gasoline during the 1990's.


Subject(s)
Durapatite/chemistry , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Silicic Acid/chemistry , Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride/chemistry , Apatites/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry
17.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 16(1): 146-152, ene.-jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715309

ABSTRACT

Anammox is a nitrite dependent process, catalyzed by bacteria of the order Brocadiales. Anammox bacteria oxidize ammonia under anoxic conditions, with nitrite as electron acceptor producing dinitrogen gas. Here, we demonstrated the presence of anammox bacteria by enriched them in a SBR reactor, with anaerobic samples taken from de bottom of a pond used in primary wastewater treatment. The enrichment reached nitrogen (N) removal rates of nearly 1.92kg N/m3/day. (The stoichiometry of the reaction matched previous anammox studies). The enriched bacterial communities were analyzed by Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH), and showed a nearly 90% enrichment at the end of the experiment (day 90). As far as we know this is the first time that the anammox bacteria were enriched using Colombian inocula. The enrichment was achieved in relatively short time with high yields and have an excellent potential for application in wastewater treatment opening the opportunity to treat nitrogen-rich effluents by partial nitritation and anammox, thereby decreasing operational costs with respect to aeration (nitrification) and addition of organic electron donor (heterotrophic denitrification). This more sustainable treatment is a good alternative to control nutrient pollution in water bodies in tropical countries.


La oxidación anaerobia del amonio (anammox), es un proceso nitrito dependiente, catalizado por bacterias del filo planctomicetes. Estas bacterias oxidan el amonio en ausencia de oxígeno, con nitrito como aceptor de electrones produciendo nitrógeno molecular. En Colombia, demostramos la presencia de estas bacterias mediante el enriquecimiento de cultivos en reactores por lotes, con inóculos nativos, provenientes de muestras anaeróbias tomadas del fondo de una laguna para el tratamiento primario de aguas residuales. El enriquecimiento logrado alcanzó remociones de nitrógeno (N), en el orden de 1.92kg - N /m3/día (la estequiometria de la reacción estuvo acorde con estudios previos de anammox). La comunidad bacteriana enriquecida, se analizó mediante hibridación en sitio con fluorescencia (FISH), y mostró que el enriquecimiento contenía aprox. 90 % de bacterias anammox al final del experimento (Día 90). Esta es la primera vez que en Colombia se logra el enriquecimiento de estas bacterias con inóculos locales, hasta nuestro conocimiento. El enriquecimiento fue alcanzado en relativamente corto tiempo con altos rendimientos y tiene un excelente potencial de aplicación en el tratamiento de aguas residuales, abriendo oportunidades para el tratamiento de efluentes ricos en nitrógeno mediante nitritación parcial y anammox, disminuyendo los costos en los procesos de aireación (nitrificación) y en la de adición de donadores orgánicos (denitrificación heterótrofa). El uso de estos tratamientos más sostenibles es una buena alternativa para el control de contaminación por nutrientes en los cuerpos de agua, en países tropicales.


Subject(s)
Anaerobic Digestion , Colombia , Growth , Nitrogen , Nitrogen Cycle , Nitrogen Fixation , Nitrogen Oxides , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351020

ABSTRACT

Ammonium perchlorate (AP), mainly used as solid propellants, was reported to interfere with homeostasis via competitive inhibition of iodide uptake. However, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, AP was administered at 0, 130, 260 and 520 mg/kg every day to 24 male SD rats for 13 weeks. The concentrations of iodine in urine, serum thyroid hormones levels, total iodine, relative iodine and total protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in thyroid tissues were measured, respectively. Our results showed that high-dose perchlorate induced a significant increase in urinary iodine and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), with a decrease of total iodine and relative iodine content. Meanwhile, free thyroxine (FT4) was decreased and CAT activity was remarkably increased. Particularly, the CAT activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that CAT might be enhanced to promote the synthesis of iodine, resulting in elevated urinary iodine level. Furthermore, these findings suggested that iodine in the urine and CAT activity in the thyroid might be used as biomarkers for exposure to AP, associated with thyroid hormone indicators such as TSH, FT4.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Catalase , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Homeostasis , Iodine , Metabolism , Urine , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Perchlorates , Pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Pharmacology , Radioimmunoassay , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Thyroid Gland , Metabolism , Thyrotropin , Blood , Thyroxine , Blood , Triiodothyronine , Blood
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231814

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to synthesize a novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and to report the antibacterial property of dental resin composites.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl was synthesized based on previous research. The antibacterial property of the filler was measured. The surface of the novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler was modified by a coupling agent to achieve a good interfacial bonding between the filler and the resin matrix. Infrared spectrum analysis was carried out. The modified novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers were then incorporated into the dental resin matrix. The dispersion of the fillers was observed and compared with those incorporated into Tetric N-Ceram, a commercial resin composite, under a scanning electron microscope. Streptococcus mutans was used in testing the antibacterial property of the dental resin composites.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A quaternary ammonium salt with a long chain alkyl was successfully grafted onto the surface of nano-silica particles. The novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains quaternary ammonium salt with a long chain alkyl showed stronger antibacterial efficacy than the antibacterial inorganic filler that contains quaternary ammonium salt with a short chain alkyl. The modified novel antibacterial inorganic fillers displayed a homogeneous dispersion in the resin composite bulk and combined closely with the resin matrix, similar to the Tetric N-Ceram. The resin composites that contain novel antibacterial inorganic fillers showed stronger antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans compared with the control group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl showed a strong antibacterial property. It also exhibited good compatibility with the dental resin matrix after undergoing coupling treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Composite Resins , Polyurethanes , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Streptococcus mutans
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24555

ABSTRACT

Natural toxic substances have a bitter taste and their ingestion sends signals to the brain leading to aversive oral sensations. In the present study, we investigated chronological changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to study the bitter taste reaction time of neurons in the NTS. Equal volumes (0.5 mL) of denatonium benzoate (DB), a bitter tastant, or its vehicle (distilled water) were administered to rats intragastrically. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h after treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei started to increase 0.5 h after treatment and peaked 2 h after gavage. In contrast, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the DB-treated group significantly increased 1 h after gavage. Thereafter, the number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei decreased over time. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the NTS was also increased in a dose-dependent manner 1 h after gavage. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy significantly decreased DB-induced neuronal activation in the NTS. These results suggest that intragastric DB increases neuronal c-Fos expression in the NTS 1 h after gavage and this effect is mediated by vagal afferent fibers.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Animals , Injections/veterinary , Ligands , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Solitary Nucleus/physiology , Vagus Nerve/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL