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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2850-2856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms after efavirenz (EFV) treatment in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could persist and impact their quality of life. We assessed the impact of EFV-based regimen replacement with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF), which is considered an alternative option for subjects who do not tolerate EFV. Most specifically, we assessed the safety and the efficacy of E/C/F/TAF and its effects on the participants' neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms in a real-life setting.@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort study was conducted among virologic suppressed HIV-positive participants receiving EFV-based regimens with ongoing CNS toxicity ≥ grade 2. The participants were switched to single-pill combination regimens E/C/F/TAF and followed up for 48 weeks. The neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms were measured using a CNS side effects questionnaire, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants experiencing grade 2 or higher CNS toxicity after EFV switch off at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Secondary endpoints included virologic and immunological responses and the effect on fasting lipids at week 48 after switch.@*RESULTS@#One hundred ninety-six participants (96.9% men, median age: 37.5 years, median: 3.7 years on prior EFV-containing regimens) were included in the study. Significant improvements in anxiety and sleep disturbance symptoms were observed at 12, 24, and 48 weeks after switching to E/C/F/TAF (P < 0.05). No significant change in depression symptom scores was observed. At 48 weeks after switch, HIV viral load <50 copies/mL was maintained in all of the participants, median fasting lipid levels were moderately increased (total cholesterol [TC]: 8.2 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]: 8.5 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]: 2.9 mg/dL, and triglyceride (TG): 1.6 mg/dL, and the TC:HDL-C ratio remained stable.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The single-pill combination regimens E/C/F/TAF is safe and well tolerated. This study reveals that switching from EFV to E/C/F/TAF significantly reduces neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms in people living with HIV with grade 2 or higher CNS complaints.


Subject(s)
Adenine/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine , Alkynes , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Benzoxazines , Central Nervous System , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Quinolones , Sleep Quality , Tenofovir/analogs & derivatives
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 519-524, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135657

ABSTRACT

We analyzed 77 Salmonella spp. strains, from which 20 were isolated from broilers (cloacal swabs) and 57 from chickens from slaughterhouses under federal inspection. The following serotypes were identified: Salmonella Saint Paul (29), Salmonella Heidelberg (27), Salmonella Anatum (9), Salmonella Cerro (5), Salmonella Senftenberg (5), Salmonella enterica (O: 4,5) (1) and Salmonella enterica (O: 9.12) (1). Fifteen strains (19.5%) were resistant to enrofloxacin, six (7.8%) to ciprofloxacin, and 26 (33.8%) to nalidixic acid in the Disk Diffusion Test. The fifteen enrofloxacin resistant strains were selected for the PCR to detect the genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, and genetic sequencing to identify mutations in these genes. Five strains (33.3%) had point mutations in the gyrA gene, and one (6.7%) presented a point mutation in the parC gene. None of the 15 strains had mutations in the gyrB and parE genes, and none had more than one mutation in the gyrA gene or the other genes. The presence of point mutations in the strains studied corroborates with the phenotypic resistance observed to nalidixic acid. However, it did not explain the resistance to fluoroquinolones found in the 15 strains. Other mechanisms may be related to the fluoroquinolones resistance, highlighting the need for additional mutation screening.(AU)


Foram analisadas neste estudo 77 estirpes de Salmonella spp., 20 isoladas de frangos vivos (suabes de cloaca) e 57 isoladas de carcaças, provenientes de abatedouros frigoríficos sob Inspeção Federal. Foram identificados os seguintes sorotipos: Salmonella Saint Paul (29), Salmonella Heidelberg (27), Salmonella Anatum (9), Salmonella Cerro (5), Salmonella Senftenberg (5), Salmonella enterica (O: 4,5) (1) e Salmonella enterica (O: 9,12) (1). Do total de estirpes estudadas, 15 (19,5%) se mostraram resistentes à enrofloxacina, seis (7,8%) à ciprofloxacina e 26 (33,8%) ao ácido nalidíxico no Teste de Difusão em Disco. Foram selecionadas as 15 estirpes resistentes à enrofloxacina para a realização da PCR para detecção dos genes gyrA, gyrB, parC e parEe para sequenciamento genético do produto da PCR para identificação de mutações nesses genes. Cinco estirpes (33,3%) apresentaram mutações pontuais no gene gyrA e uma (6,7%) apresentou mutação pontual no gene parC. Nenhuma das 15 estirpes apresentou mutações nos genes gyrB e parE e nenhuma apresentou mais de uma mutação no gene gyrA ou nos outros genes. A existência apenas de mutações pontuais em alguns genes das estirpes analisadas está de acordo com a resistência fenotípica observada ao ácido nalidíxico, mas não explica a resistência às fluoroquinolonas encontrada nas 15 estirpes. Outros mecanismos de resistência podem estar relacionados à resistência encontrada às fluoroquinolonas e estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar sua presença.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Salmonella/drug effects , Chickens/microbiology , Quinolones , Fluoroquinolones , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ciprofloxacin , Nalidixic Acid , Abattoirs , Enrofloxacin
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190156, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090765

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aimed to investigate the participation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK) in interactions between osteoblastic cells and titanium (Ti) surfaces with three different topographies, namely, untreated (US), microstructured (MS), and nanostructured (NS). Methodology Osteoblasts harvested from the calvarial bones of 3-day-old rats were cultured on US, MS and NS discs in the presence of PF-573228 (FAK inhibitor) to evaluate osteoblastic differentiation. After 24 h, we evaluated osteoblast morphology and vinculin expression, and on day 10, the following parameters: gene expression of osteoblastic markers and integrin signaling components, FAK protein expression and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. A smooth surface, porosities at the microscale level, and nanocavities were observed in US, MS, and NS, respectively. Results FAK inhibition decreased the number of filopodia in cells grown on US and MS compared with that in NS. FAK inhibition decreased the gene expression of Alp, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and ALP activity in cells grown on all evaluated surfaces. FAK inhibition did not affect the gene expression of Fak, integrin alpha 1 ( Itga1 ) and integrin beta 1 ( Itgb1 ) in cells grown on MS, increased the gene expression of Fak in cells grown on NS, and increased the gene expression of Itga1 and Itgb1 in cells grown on US and NS. Moreover, FAK protein expression decreased in cells cultured on US but increased in cells cultured on MS and NS after FAK inhibition; no difference in the expression of vinculin was observed among cells grown on all surfaces. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the relevance of FAK in the interactions between osteoblastic cells and Ti surfaces regardless of surface topography. Nanotopography positively regulated FAK expression and integrin signaling pathway components during osteoblast differentiation. In this context, the development of Ti surfaces with the ability to upregulate FAK activity could positively impact the process of implant osseointegration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Sulfones/pharmacology , Titanium/chemistry , Quinolones/pharmacology , Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Osteoblasts/physiology , Sulfones/chemistry , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression , Integrins/analysis , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Osseointegration/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Quinolones/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/analysis , Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 757-763, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040744

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from the eyes of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). We evaluated 65 dogs diagnosed with KCS and 30 healthy dogs (Control Group). Conjunctival swab samples were collected after KCS was diagnosed. Microbiological examinations were performed, including aerobic culture, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for chloramphenicol, tobramycin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin. MICs of the fifteen most resistant strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staphylococcus intermedius Group, SIG) and the fifteen most resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria were determined. By percentage, the microorganisms exhibited the highest susceptibility to polymyxin B, tobramycin and chloramphenicol and the lowest to tetracycline. Three multi-drug-resistant strains of SIG were detected: one displayed isolated susceptibility to cefazolin, another to vancomycin, and another to polymyxin B and amikacin. The species of bacteria isolated from the eyes of dogs with KCS presented variable susceptibility to the antibiotics tested. We found evidence of the emergence of quinolone-resistant strains of SIG and further evidence of increased ocular prevalence. These findings reinforce the need to identify the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as secondary infections can serve as exacerbating and perpetuating factors in KCS.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de olhos de cães com ceratoconjuntivite seca (CCS). Foram avaliados 65 cães com diagnóstico de CCS e 30 cães saudáveis ​​(Grupo Controle). Depois do diagnosticado de CCS, suabes conjuntivais foram coletados. Exames microbiológicos foram realizados, incluindo cultura aeróbia, teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) para cloranfenicol, tobramicina, ofloxacina e moxifloxacina. Para determinar a CIM, foram selecionadas as quinze cepas mais resistentes de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staphylococcus intermedius Group-SIG) e as quinze cepas mais resistentes de bactérias gram-negativas. Os microrganismos apresentaram maior suscetibilidade percentual à polimixina B, tobramicina e cloranfenicol e menor suscetibilidade à tetraciclina. Três cepas de SIG resistentes a múltiplos medicamentos foram detectadas, do quais um demonstrou suscetibilidade isolada à cefazolina, outro à vancomicina e outro à polimixina B e à amicacina. As espécies de bactérias isoladas dos olhos de cães com CCS apresentaram suscetibilidade variável aos antibióticos testados. Encontramos evidências do surgimento de cepas resistentes à quinolona de S. pseudintermedius e outras evidências de aumento da prevalência ocular. Esses achados reforçam a necessidade de identificar as bactérias envolvidas e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, pois as infecções secundárias podem servir como fatores exacerbantes e perpetuantes na CCS.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Quinolones
6.
Acta méd. colomb ; 44(2): 115-118, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1038143

ABSTRACT

Resumen La ruptura espontánea de un tendón secundario al uso de una quinolona es un efecto adverso poco común, pero que con el paso de los años se ha venido documentado con mayor frecuencia. A pesar de lo anterior, aún no hay estudios clínicos que permitan aclarar su fisiopatología, qué estrategias pueden disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar una ruptura espontánea o a qué dosis de las diferentes quinolonas se aumenta el riesgo de presentar una ruptura espontánea. Adicionalmente, varías guías de práctica clínica incentivan el uso de las quinolonas como primera línea para el manejo de infecciones respiratorias o de vías urinarias sin hacer consideraciones sobre este efecto adverso. Por lo anterior, presentamos a continuación el caso de un paciente de 31 años que posterior al inicio de ciprofloxacina para el manejo de una diarrea aguda presento una ruptura espontánea del tendón del semitendinoso secundario al uso de la quinolona. (Acta Med Colomb 2019; 44: 115-118).


Abstract The spontaneous rupture of a tendon secondary to the use of a quinolone is an uncommon adverse effect, but over the years has been documented more frequently. Despite this, there are still no clini cal studies to clarify its pathophysiology, nor which strategies can reduce the risk of developing a spontaneous rupture or at what dose of the different quinolones the risk of presenting a spontaneous rupture increases. In addition, several clinical practice guidelines encourage the use of quinolones as the first line for the management of respiratory or urinary tract infections without considering this adverse effect. Therefore, the case of a 31 year old patient who after the start of ciprofloxacin for the management of acute diarrhea had spontaneous semitendinosus tendon rupture secondary to the use of quinolone, is presented. (Acta Med Colomb 2019; 44: 115-118).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Hamstring Muscles , Rupture, Spontaneous , Quinolones , Tendinopathy , Hamstring Tendons
7.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(1): 49-54, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003722

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Ureaplasma urealyticum es el agente más frecuentemente aislado en infección intraamniótica. Los macrólidos son los antimicrobianos de primera elección en embarazadas. Se ha descrito el aumento de resistencia, pudiendo limitar las opciones terapéuticas durante la gestación. El propósito del estudio es evaluar susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Ureaplasma urealyticum aislado en mujeres en edad fértil, que se atienden en Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucanía, Chile. METODO: Se estudian todas las muestras de orina y flujo vaginal para cultivo de U. urealyticum, de pacientes entre 18 y 40 años, recibidas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica Alemana Temuco, en período Abril 2013 a Enero 2015. Se procesan las muestras con kit Mycoplasma IST 2 de Biomerieux. En las que resultan positivas, se estudia susceptibilidad a macrólidos, tetraciclinas y quinolonas. RESULTADOS: 426 muestras de orina y flujo vaginal (390 pacientes). 197 pacientes resultaron positivas para U. urealyticum. (50,5%). La susceptibilidad fue 88,4% (174 pctes) a Eritromicina, 87,9% (173 pctes) a Claritromicina y 91,9% (181 pctes) a Azitromicina (NS). 15 de 197 pacientes (7,6%) fueron resistentes a los 3 macrólidos. La susceptibilidad a Quinolonas fue 55,3% a Ciprofloxacino, y 94% a Ofloxacino. El 100% resultó susceptible a Tetraciclinas. CONCLUSIONES: Cerca del 10% de U. urealyticum aislados en nuestra serie son resistentes a macrólidos, contribuyendo a la no erradicación de la infección en tratamientos empíricos. Dentro de ellos, azitromicina aparece con la mayor efectividad. El aumento de resistencia limitará opciones terapéuticas, con gran impacto perinatal en futuro. La vigilancia de susceptibilidad en cada hospital es fundamental para elección terapéutica.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ureaplasma urealyticum is the most frequently isolated microorganism in intra-amniotic infection. The macrolides are the first choice antimicrobials for treat this infection in pregnancy. The increasing resistance has been described worldwide, seriously limiting therapeutic options in pregnancy. The aim of the study is to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum aislated in fertile-age women in Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucania region, Chile. METHOD: Urine and vaginal samples were analyzed for U. urealyticum, from every 18 to 40 years old patients, received at Microbiology Laboratory of Clínica Alemana Temuco, between April 2013 to January 2015. The samples are processed with Mycoplasma IST 2 kit of Biomerieux. If they became positives, susceptibility to macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones was studied. RESULTS: 426 urine and vaginal samples were collected (390 patients). 197 patients were positive for U. urealyticum (50.5%). The susceptibility was 88.4% (174 pts) to Erythromicyn, 87.9% (173 pts) to Clarithromycin and 91.9% (181 pts) to Azithromycin (NS). Resistance to all macrolides was observed in 15 out of 197 patients (7.6%). The susceptibility to Quinolones was 55.3% to Ciprofloxacin, and 94% to Ofloxacin. The 100% was susceptible to Tetracyclines. DISCUSSION: Near to 10% of isolated Ureaplasma spp in our serie were resistant to some macrolide, being a factor for failing to eradicate the infection in empirical treatment. Azithromycin was the most effective. The increasing resistance will limit therapeutic options, with great perinatal impact in the future. Susceptibility surveillance in each hospital is very important for therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ureaplasma urealyticum/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Urine/microbiology , Urogenital System/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180499, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013306

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION : Escherichia coli ranks among the most common sources of urinary tract infections (UTI). METHODS: Between November 2015 and August 2016, 90 isolates of E. coli were isolated from patients at Rize Education and Research Hospital in Turkey. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined for all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. These E. coli isolates were also screened for virulence genes, β-lactamase coding genes, quinolone resistance genes, and class 1 integrons by PCR. RESULTS: With respect to the antibiotic resistance profile, imipenem and meropenem were effective against 98% and 90% of isolates, respectively. A high percentage of the isolates showed resistance against β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations, quinolones, and cephalosporins. PCR results revealed that 63% (57/90) of the strains carried class 1 integrons. In addition, a high predominance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed. The qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes were found in 24 (26.6%), 6 (6.6%), and 3 (3.3%), isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was fim (82.2%).The afa, hly, and cnf1 genes were detected in 16.6%, 16.6%, and 3.3% of isolates, respectively. Moreover, we observed eleven different virulence patterns in the 90 E. coli isolates. The most prevalent pattern was fım, while hly-fım, afa-aer-cnf-fım, aer-cnf, afa-aer, and afa-cnf-fım patterns were less common. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the E. coli virulence genes investigated in this study were observed in E. coli isolates from UTI patients. Virulence genes are very important for the establishment and maintenance of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Turkey , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Quinolones , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766900

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the regional characteristics and trends in causative agents, clinical features, and antibiotic susceptibility in infectious keratitis in western Gyeongnam province. METHODS: This retrospective chart review included 551 eyes of 551 patients with infectious keratitis, who were referred to our center from January 2004 to December 2017. The period of this study was divided into two terms of 7 years before and after 2011 to analyze the changes in causative organisms and antibiotic susceptibilities and to investigate the clinical features and regional characteristics in western Gyeongnam province. RESULTS: The most common occupation among patients was farming; the mean time taken for initial treatment was 8.6 days. The culture positivity rate was 35.8%, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.5%) for Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomona aeruginosa (13.5%) for Gram-negative bacteria. The distribution of culture-positive organisms before and after 2011 did not show any significant difference, but the increase in resistance to second and third generation quinolones was significantly greater in Gram-positive bacteria after 2011. There was no significant difference in clinical characteristics before and after 2011, but the hospital stay duration and treatment needs were significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This was a large-scale study analyzing the clinical features of infectious keratitis in western Gyeognam province over a 14-year period. The results will help us understand the characteristics, microbiology, and community in infectious keratitis by analyzing patients referred to tertiary centers.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , Keratitis , Length of Stay , Occupations , Quinolones , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus epidermidis
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760361

ABSTRACT

From 1996 to 2014, 14 foals from nine farms in Jeju were diagnosed with a Rhodococcus equi infection. Clinically, most foals showed characteristic respiratory signs, including hyperthermia and dyspnea. The seasonal occurrence of R. equi infection in foals was higher in summer, such as June (eight foals; 57.1%) and July (four foals; 28.6%), than in the other seasons. The major cases of R. equi infections were observed among two-month-old (eight foals; 57.1%) and three-month-old (three foals; 21.4%) foals. Histopathologically, bronchopneumonia, abscess, and granulomatous pneumonia were the most prevalent lesions in the lungs of foals. Colonic ulcers and submucosal abscesses were found in a foal. Some foals showed granulomatous lymphadenitis and abscesses in the mesenteric and other lymph nodes. According to the polymerase chain reaction using 10 tissue samples of foals and nine R. equi isolates, the vapA gene was detected in 11/11 (100%) foals. Immunohistochemical staining using the anti-VapA monoclonal antibody was applied to detect the R. equi VapA antigen in the organs of foals. R. equi VapA antigens were demonstrated in most lungs and some mesenteric and hilar lymph nodes of 13 foals. Isolated virulent R. equi VapA bacteria showed high sensitivity to gentamicin, quinolones, rifampin, and vancomycin.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Agriculture , Bacteria , Bronchopneumonia , Colon , Dyspnea , Fever , Gentamicins , Immunohistochemistry , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Lymphadenitis , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quinolones , Rhodococcus equi , Rhodococcus , Rifampin , Seasons , Ulcer , Vancomycin
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and C. jejuni genotype from diarrhea patients in Busan, Korea. METHODS: A total of 97 C. jejuni were isolated from diarrhea patients during five food-borne outbreaks from 2014 to September 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by the broth microdilution method for ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol, azithromycin (AZI), erythromycin (ERY), streptomycin (STR), gentamicin, and telithromycin. To investigate C. jejuni genotypes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile analysis was performed. RESULTS: The isolation rate of C. jejuni was 2.0% for the last 4 years and increased annually. Antimicrobial resistance rates of C. jejuni were shown to be in the order of NAL (90.9%), CIP (89.4%), TET (13.6%), AZI (3.0%), ERY (3.0%), and STR (1.5%). The proportion of multidrug-resistance was 18.2%, and they commonly contained quinolones (CIP-NAL). Analysis of PFGE patterns of SmaI-restricted DNA of C. jejuni isolates showed 17 clusters; cluster 11 was the major genotype pattern. CONCLUSION: This study will provide useful data for the proper use of antimicrobials and the management of resistant C. jejuni. Also it will help to provide data for the epidemiological investigation of foodborne diseases caused by C. jejuni, which is expected to increase in the future.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Diarrhea , Disease Outbreaks , DNA , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Erythromycin , Foodborne Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Genotype , Gentamicins , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Nalidixic Acid , Quinolones , Streptomycin , Tetracycline
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 305-310, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the main predictors of death in multidrug-resistant (MDRTB) patients from Brazil. Design Retrospective cohort study, a survival analysis of patients treated between 2005 and 2012. Results Of 3802 individuals included in study, 64.7% were men, mean age was 39 (1-93) years, and 70.3% had bilateral pulmonary disease. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was 8.3%. There were 479 (12.6%) deaths. Median survival time was 1452 days (4 years). Factors associated with increased risk of death were age greater than or equal to 60 years (hazard rate [HR] = 1.6, confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-2.2), HIV co-infection (HR = 1.46; CI = 1.05-1.96), XDR resistance pattern (HR = 1.74, CI = 1.05-2.9), beginning of treatment after failure (HR = 1.72, CI = 1.27-2.32), drug abuse (HR = 1.64, CI = 1.22-2.2), resistance to ethambutol (HR = 1.30, CI = 1.06-1.6) or streptomycin (HR = 1.24, CI = 1.01-1.51). Mainly protective factors were presence of only pulmonary disease (HR = 0.57, CI = 0.35-0.92), moxifloxacin use (HR = 0.44, CI = 0.25-0.80), and levofloxacin use (HR = 0.75; CI = 0.60-0.94). Conclusion A more comprehensive approach is needed to manage MDRTB, addressing early diagnostic, improving adhesion, and comorbidities, mainly HIV infection and drug abuse. The latest generation quinolones have an important effect in improving survival in MDRTB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Ofloxacin/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate/trends , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Cause of Death , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Quinolones/therapeutic use , Educational Status , Coinfection/etiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 147-154, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia de enterobacterias a quinolonas se ha difundido por el mundo, fenómeno presente también en Venezuela. El mecanismo de esta resistencia pudiera estar mediado por genes incluidos en el cromosoma bacteriano o transmitirse en el interior de plásmidos. Objetivo: Evaluar la resistencia a quino-lonas, codificada por genes qnr, presentes en cepas de enterobacterias, aisladas en el Hospital Universitario de Cumaná, Venezuela. Métodos: A las cepas obtenidas se les realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a quinolonas, β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos. La presencia del gen qnr se determinó por RPC. Las enterobacterias portadoras del gen qnr fueron sometidas al proceso de conjugación bacteriana para comprobar su capacidad de transferencia. A las transconjugantes obtenidas se les realizó pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y RPC para comprobar la transferencia de los genes. Resultados: Se encontraron elevados porcentajes de resistencia antimicrobiana a quinolonas y betalactámicos. El 33,6% de las cepas eran portadoras del gen qnrB, y 0,9% del gen qnrA. Se obtuvieron 23 cepas transconjugantes; de éstas, 20 portaban el gen qnrB, no se observó la presencia de qnrA. Discusión: En conclusión, el elevado porcentaje de genes qnr encontrado en las enterobacterias aisladas, y comprobada la presencia de éstos en plásmidos transferibles, complica la aplicación de tratamientos basados en quinolonas y fluoroquinolonas, por lo que es recomendable el uso racional de estos antimicrobianos, y proponer la rotación de la terapia antimicrobiana, a fin de evitar la selección de cepas resistentes.


Background: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. Aim: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates. The presence of qnr genes were determined by PCR. The isolates carrying the qnr genes were used for bacterial conjugation tests to determine the presence of transferable plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PCR were carried out in the transconjugants to verify the transfer of the genes. Results: High levels of antimicrobial resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams were found among the isolates. We found that 33.6% of the isolates carry the qnrB gene and 0.9% qnr A gene. Of the 23 transconjugants, 20 showed to have qnrB gene, but none qnrA. Discussion: We concluded that the high frequency of qnr genes found in the enterobacteria isolates and their presence on transferable plasmids, complicate the use of quinolones for the treatment of bacterial infections, thus, a treatment plan should be designed with the rational use and the rotation of different types of antimicrobials, in order to avoid the selection of increasingly resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Plasmids , Quinolones/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Escherichia coli Proteins , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Hospitals, University
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 299-308, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959444

ABSTRACT

El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana múltiple a antimicrobianos es considerado una gran amenaza para la salud pública mundial y como generador de una importante crisis en el funcionamiento de los sistemas de salud. Esta crisis es discutida diariamente por los gobiernos y los parlamentos, las instituciones globales de salud, fundaciones benéficas y de científicos y de profesionales de la salud y también de consumidores de productos animales. En todos los países del orbe se ha identificado al uso de antimicrobianos en la crianza industrial de animales como un importante determinante en la selección de esta resistencia. Aprovechando la oportunidad que se ha planteado en Chile con el diseño del Plan Nacional Contra la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, hemos creído importante revisitar y actualizar sumariamente nuestros estudios sobre el uso de antimicrobianos en la acuicultura del salmón y de su potencial impacto en el ambiente y la salud humana y animal. Estos estudios indican que 95% de tres grupos de antimicrobianos importados al país, que incluyen tetraciclinas, fenicoles y quinolonas, son usados en medicina veterinaria y mayormente en la acuicultura del salmón. Nuestros estudios indican que el excesivo uso de estos antimicrobianos genera la presencia de residuos de antimicrobianos en el ambiente marino hasta 8 km de los sitios de acuicultura, los que seleccionan a bacterias con resistencia múltiple en dicho ambiente, ya que ellas contienen variados genes de resistencia a estos antimicrobianos. Estos genes de resistencia están contenidos en elementos genéticos móviles incluyendo plásmidos e integrones, los que son trasmitidos a otras bacterias permitiendo su potencial diseminación epidémica entre poblaciones bacterianas. Bacterias del ambiente marino contienen genes idénticos a los genes de resistencia a quinolonas e integrones similares a los de patógenos humanos, sugiriendo comunicación genética entre estas bacterias de diversos ambientes. Alrededor de los recintos de acuicultura, este uso exagerado de antimicrobianos contamina con ellos también a peces silvestres para consumo humano y potencialmente selecciona BRA en su carne y en los productos de acuicultura. El consumo de estos productos selecciona bacterias resistentes en el microbioma humano y facilita también el intercambio genético entre bacterias del ambiente acuático y la microbiota comensal y patógena humana. El pasaje de antimicrobianos al ambiente marino disminuye la diversidad en él, y potencialmente podría facilitar la aparición de florecimientos de algas nocivas, la infección de peces por patógenos piscícolas resistentes los antimicrobianos y la aparición de patógenos zoonóticos resistentes, incluyendo a Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la prevención de infecciones en peces y la disminución del uso de antimicrobianos en su crianza, será en Chile un factor determinante en la prevención de infecciones humanas y animales con resistencia múltiple a los antimicrobianos, de acuerdo con el paradigma moderno e integral de Una Salud.


The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is currently seen as one of the major threats to human and animal public health. Veterinary use of antimicrobials in both developing and developed countries is many-fold greater than their use in human medicine and is an important determinant in selection of ARB. In light of the recently outlined National Plan Against Antimicrobial Resistance in Chile, our findings on antimicrobial use in salmon aquaculture and their impact on the environment and human health are highly relevant. Ninety-five percent of tetracyclines, phenicols and quinolones imported into Chile between 1998 and 2015 were for veterinary use, mostly in salmon aquaculture. Excessive use of antimicrobials at aquaculture sites was associated with antimicrobial residues in marine sediments 8 km distant and the presence of resistant marine bacteria harboring easily transmissible resistance genes, in mobile genetic elements, to these same antimicrobials. Moreover, quinolone and integron resistance genes in human pathogens isolated from patients in coastal regions adjacent to aquaculture sites were identical to genes isolated from regional marine bacteria, consistent with genetic communication between bacteria in these different environments. Passage of antimicrobials into the marine environment can potentially diminish environmental diversity, contaminate wild fish for human consumption, and facilitate the appearance of harmful algal blooms and resistant zoonotic and human pathogens. Our findings suggest that changes in aquaculture in Chile that prevent fish infections and decrease antimicrobial usage will prove a determining factor in preventing human and animal infections with multiply-resistant ARB in accord with the modern paradigm of One Health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Aquaculture/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Salmon , Tetracyclines/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Chile , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Quinolones/adverse effects
15.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(2): 189-195, 2018. ^c27 cm
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987198

ABSTRACT

La resistencia bacteriana es una amenaza creciente para la salud pública mundial. El mal uso y uso excesivo de antimicrobianos en personas y animales está acelerando este proceso. En el caso de residuos antimicrobianos en productos de origen animal, se sabe que producen reacciones alérgicas, así como inducción de resistencia en bacterias transmitidas por alimentos como Salmonella, Campylobacter y Escherichia coli. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar la presencia de residuos de quinolonas en carne bovina de venta en mercados municipales de la ciudad de Guatemala. Se obtuvieron 161 muestras para análisis. La detección de quinolonas se realizó por metodología de Inmunoensayo Asociado a Enzima (Elisa). Siete de 161 (5%) contenían residuos de quinolonas. Los niveles medios (desviación estándar) detectados fueron 16.497(1.69) µg/kg; ningún límite fue superior al límite máximo residual permitido (100 µg/kg). Este estudio indicó que existen residuos de antibiótico en algunas carnes de res en Guatemala.


Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health. The misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in people and animals is an accelerating factor for this process. In the case of antimicrobial residues in animal origin products, it is known that they cause allergic reactions as well as induction of resistance in bacteria such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. This study aimed to find the presence of quinolones residues in beef meat. A total of 161 samples were collected from municipal markets in Guatemala City for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones was performed by Enzyme­linked Immunoassay (Elisa) methodology. Seven of 161 (5%) contained quinolone residues. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were 16.497(1.69) µg/kg; no limit was superior than the maximum residual limit allowed (100 µg/kg) by FDA. Even though none of the samples exceeded the upper limit it is important that some residues of quinolone were found.


Subject(s)
Quinolones/analysis , Meat/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sampling Studies , Food/toxicity , Food Hypersensitivity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e00188, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889443

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fluoroquinolones are a known antibacterial class commonly used around the world. These compounds present relative stability and they may show some adverse effects according their distinct chemical structures. The chemical hydrolysis of five fluoroquinolones was studied using alkaline and photolytic degradation aiming to observe the differences in molecular reactivity. DFT/B3LYP-6.31G* was used to assist with understanding the chemical structure degradation. Gemifloxacin underwent degradation in alkaline medium. Gemifloxacin and danofloxacin showed more degradation perceptual indices in comparison with ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin in photolytic conditions. Some structural features were observed which may influence degradation, such as the presence of five member rings attached to the quinolone ring and the electrostatic positive charges, showed in maps of potential electrostatic charges. These measurements may be used in the design of effective and more stable fluoroquinolones as well as the investigation of degradation products from stress stability assays.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation/statistics & numerical data , Fluoroquinolones/analysis , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Molecular Structure , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Quinolones/analysis , Quinolones/chemistry
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs) are common and are responsible for increased morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to investigate the common drugs and clinical patterns related to ACDRs using an electronic drug adverse reaction reporting system at a single secondary referral center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the ACDR database between January 2014 and April 2016 at the Ilsan Paik Hospital. RESULTS: The study analyzed 320 patients with ACDRs (male:female ratio=93:227; mean age 50.8±17.8 years). Using a Korean causality evaluation algorithm, the percentage of drugs with a possible relationship with ACDRs was calculated to be 50.6%, while the percentage with a probable relationship was 44.7%. Antibiotics (44.0%), radiocontrast media (15.1%), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (14.3%) were the most commonly implicated drugs. Antibiotics, including cephalosporins (30.6%) and quinolones (10.2%), were responsible for the majority of the ACDRs. Acetic acid (5.9%) and propionic acid (5.9%) derivatives of NSAIDs were also common causative agents. The most common clinical presentations were maculopapular exanthema (33.4%), pruritus (30.9%), and urticaria (25.7%). Severe ACDRs were significantly associated with older age, eosinophilia, and underlying heart and renal diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Antibiotics, radiocontrast media, and NSAIDs were identified as common causes of ACDRs. Older age, eosinophilia, heart disease, and renal disease were associated with severe ACDRs.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cephalosporins , Contrast Media , Diethylpropion , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Eosinophilia , Exanthema , Heart , Heart Diseases , Humans , Mortality , Pruritus , Quinolones , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , Urticaria
18.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 12(39): 1-13, jan.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-877089

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o perfil de resistência bacteriana e o manejo clínico das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) no município de Divinópolis, MG. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos a partir das uroculturas positivas realizadas no primeiro semestre de 2015 no Laboratório Municipal de Microbiologia e por meio de entrevistas com médicos atuantes na atenção básica de Divinópolis, MG. Resultados: Das uroculturas avaliadas (N=802), 72,8% isolaram a bactéria Escherichia coli, sendo 38,6% delas resistentes ao sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima, 33,0% ao norfloxacino, 31,8% ao ciprofloxacino e 9,0% à nitrofurantoína. Dos 57 médicos entrevistados, 73,5% solicitam, habitualmente, algum exame laboratorial para cistite aguda não complicada. Os antimicrobianos de primeira escolha no tratamento empírico das ITU, segundo os entrevistados, foram norfloxacino (56,1%), sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima (19,3%), ciprofloxacino (10,5%) e nitrofurantoína (8,8%). Conclusão: Os dados encontrados indicam que as taxas de resistência bacteriana às quinolonas nas ITU são elevadas e que a terapia empírica adotada pela maioria dos médicos entrevistados vai contra esse perfil de resistência. Por outro lado, foi encontrada uma baixa resistência à nitrofurantoína, demonstrando a necessidade de elaboração de protocolo local de tratamento.


Objective: To analyze the bacterial resistance profile and clinical management of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the city of Divinópolis, Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which data were obtained from the positive urine cultures performed in the first half of 2015 in Municipal Laboratory of Microbiology and from interviews with doctors working in the municipal primary care assistance of Divinópolis. Results: Out of the urocultures evaluated (N=802), 72.8% isolated Escherichia coli, 38.6% of them being resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 33.0% to norfloxacin, 31.8% to ciprofloxacin and 9.0% to nitrofurantoin. In the total amount of 57 physicians interviewed, 73.5% usually order laboratory test for acute uncomplicated cystitis. The antimicrobials of first choice in the empirical treatment of UTI, according to the interviewed, were norfloxacin (56.1%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (19.3%), ciprofloxacin (10.5%) and nitrofurantoin (8.8%). Conclusion: The data obtained indicate that the rates of bacterial resistance to quinolones are high in UTI and that the empirical therapy adopted by the majority of interviewees goes against this resistance profile. On the other hand, a low resistance to nitrofurantoin was found, which demonstrates the need to elaborate a local treatment protocol.


Objetivo: Analizar el perfil de resistencia bacteriana y el manejo clínico de las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) en la ciudad de Divinópolis, Brasil. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal descriptivo. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de los cultivos de orina positivos hechos en el primer semestre de 2015 en el Laboratorio Municipal de Microbiología y por entrevistas con los médicos que trabajan en la atención primaria de Divinópolis. Resultados: De los cultivos de orina evaluados (N=802), 72,8% encontraron la bacteria Escherichia coli y 38,6% de ellas eran resistentes al sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima, 33,0% al norfloxacino, 31,8% al ciprofloxacino y 9,0% a la nitrofurantoína. De los 57 médicos entrevistados, 73,5% solicitan en general algún examen de laboratorio para la cistitis aguda no complicada. Los antimicrobianos de primera opción en el tratamiento empírico de las ITU, según los entrevistados, fueron norfloxacino (56,1%), sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima (19,3%), ciprofloxacino (10,5%) y nitrofurantoína (8,8%). Conclusión: Los datos encontrados indican altas tasas de resistencia bacteriana a las quinolonas en las ITU y la terapia empírica adoptada por la mayoría de los médicos entrevistados va en contra ese perfil de resistencia. Por otro lado, se encontró una baja resistencia a la nitrofurantoína, demostrando la necesidad de elaboración de protocolo local de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Community-Acquired Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Utilization , Escherichia coli , Primary Health Care , Quinolones , Urinary Tract Infections
19.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (32): 104-118, ene.-jun. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-891479

ABSTRACT

ResumenIntroducción. Las infecciones de tracto urinario son un tema común en los servicios de consulta externa y emergencias de los centros de salud. El uso inadecuado e irracional de antibióticos puede favorecer la aparición de cepas resistentes y limitar la capacidad de respuesta de estos fármacos. Este artículo busca revisar el uso de quinolonas (específicamente ciprofloxacina) con antibióticos de otros grupos farmacológicos y comparar efectividad y resistencia bacteriana.Método. A partir de la metodología que señala la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia para las revisiones rápidas, se estableció una pregunta clínica a la que se le procuró responder mediante la búsqueda de investigaciones primarias en bases de datos electrónicas como MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus y el Journal of Infection.Resultado. Según el tipo de bacteria y cepa analizada, hay presencia de resistencia a diversos antibióticos. Las infecciones de origen comunitario han sido tratadas con betalactámicos, nitrofurantoína, trimetoprimsulfametoxasol y fluoroquinolonas (especialmente ciprofloxacina).Conclusión. No se determinó si las quinolonas son más efectivas que los antibióticos que pertenecen a otros grupos farmacológicos


AbstractIntroduction. Urinary tract infections are a common reason of consultation in medical practical in ambulatory and emergency rooms in centers of health. The inadequate and irrational use of antibiotics can favor the appearance of resistant bacterial strain and limit the capacity of response of these medicines. This article seeks to review the use of quinolones (specifically ciprofloxacine) with antibiotics of other pharmacological groups and to compare efficiency and bacterial resistance.Method.From the methodology that indicates the clinical practice based on the evidence for the rapid reviews, there was established a clinical question to which response was tried to give by means of the search of primary investigations in electronic databases like MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus and the Journal of Infection.Result. According to the type of bacterium and analyzed bacterial strain there is presence of resistance to diverse antibiotics. The infections of community origin have been treated by beta-lactamics, nitrofurantoine, trimetoprimsulfametoxasol and fluoroquinolones (specially ciprofloxacine).Conclusion. It was not possible to determine if the quinolonas are more effective than the antibiotics that belong to other pharmacological groups.


ResumoIntrodução. As infecções do trato urinário são um tema comum nos serviços de consulta externa e emergências dos centros de saúde. O uso inadequado e irracional de antibióticos pode favorecer o aparecimento de cepas resistentes e limitar a capacidade de resposta destes medicamentos. Este artigo busca revisar o uso de quinolonas (especificamente ciprofloxacina) com antibióticos de outros grupos farmacológicos e comparar efetividade e resistência bacteriana.Método. A partir da metodologia que aponta a prática clínica baseada na evidência para as revisões rápidas, se estabeleceu uma pergunta clínica que se procurou responder mediante pesquisas primárias em bases de dados eletrônicas como MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus e o Journal of Infection.Resultado. Segundo o tipo de bactéria e cepa analisada, há presença de resistência a diversos antibióticos. As infecções de origem comunitária tem sido tratadas com betalactâmicos, nitrofurantoína, trimetoprimsulfametoxasol e fluoroquinolonas (especialmente ciprofloxacina).Conclusão. Não se determinou se as quinolonas são mais eficazes que os antibióticos que pertencem a outros grupos farmacológicos


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract/drug effects , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Quinolones/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Costa Rica
20.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 49(1): 50-54, mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041776

ABSTRACT

A molecular survey was conducted in Cochabamba, Bolivia, to characterize the mechanism involved in the resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Extended Spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) markers were investigated in a total of 101 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria recovered from different health centers during four months (2012-2013). CTX-M enzymes were detected in all isolates, being the CTX-M-1 group the most prevalent (88.1%). The presence of blaOXA-1 was detected in 76.4% of these isolates. A high quinolone resistance rate was observed among the included isolates. The aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene was the most frequent PMQR identified (83.0%). Furthermore, 6 isolates harbored the qnrB gene. Interestingly, qepA1 (6) and oqxAB (1), were detected in 7 Escherichia coli, being the latter the first to be reported in Bolivia. This study constitutes the first molecular survey on resistance markers in clinical enterobacterial isolates in Cochabamba, Bolivia, contributing to the regional knowledge of the epidemiological situation. The molecular epidemiology observed herein resembles the scene reported in South America.


Se llevó a cabo un relevamiento molecular de la resistencia a antibióticos de importancia clínica en aislamientos recuperados en Cochabamba, Bolivia. Se estudiaron los genes codificantes de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido y de resistencia a quinolonas de localización plasmídica (PMQR) en un total de 101 aislamientos de enterobacterias resistentes a oximinocefalosporinas recuperados en distintos centros de salud, durante 4 meses (2012-2013). En todos ellos se detectó la presencia de cefotaximasas, las CTX-M grupo 1 fueron las más prevalentes (88,1%). La presencia de blaOXA-1 se detectó en el 76,4% de estos aislamientos. Se observó una elevada proporción de aislamientos resistentes a quinolonas. El gen aac(6′)-Ib-cr fue el determinante PMQR más frecuentemente identificado (83%). Además, 6 aislamientos resultaron ser portadores de qnrB. Por otro lado, cabe remarcar que 7 Escherichia coli presentaron qepA1 (6) y oqxAB (1); se documenta así por primera vez la presencia de oqxAB en Bolivia. Este estudio constituye el primer relevamiento de marcadores de resistencia en aislamientos clínicos de enterobacterias en Cochabamba, Bolivia; de este modo se contribuye al conocimiento regional de la situación epidemiológica, la cual presenta un escenario similar al observado en el resto de Latinoamérica.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Quinolones/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Bolivia/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects
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