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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-8, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377229

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) among immigrants and refugees in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS Overall, 355 individuals were interviewed, and blood samples were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG. Anti-HEV-positive samples were similarly tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS All participants were from Latin American countries, most of whom, young adult males. The overall anti-HAV IgG prevalence was 87.4% (95%CI: 83.5-90.4), of whom 94.9%, 75.6%, and 60% were from Haiti, Venezuela, and other Latin American countries, respectively (p < 0.001). Age above 19 years and more than 36 months residing in Brazil were associated with a higher prevalence of previous HAV and HEV infection, respectively. Of the children eligible for HAV vaccination according to the National Immunization Program, only eight (44%) had been vaccinated. The overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 6.5% (95%CI: 4.4-9.5). All anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals were Haitians, including a child born in Brazil. HEV RNA was detected in two of the anti-HEV IgG-positive samples. CONCLUSION The survey detected a high prevalence of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG among immigrants and refugees, and active HEV infection among some Haitian participants. Prevention measures are urgently required to interrupt enteric virus transmission in this emergent and vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adult , Young Adult , Refugees , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/genetics , Emigrants and Immigrants , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , RNA , Hepatitis Antibodies , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Haiti
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936230

ABSTRACT

Objective: Transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed on the gene expression of nasal epithelial cells in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) and perennial AR, so as to obtain the differences in the gene expression of nasal epithelial cells between seasonal AR and perennial AR. Methods: The human nasal epithelial cell line(HNEpC) was cultured in vitro, treated with 100 μg/ml mugwort or house dust mite (HDM) extracts for 24 hours. Total cell RNA was extracted, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect the expression of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). From November 2019 to November 2020, 3 seasonal AR patients, 3 perennial AR patients, and 3 healthy controls who attended the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University were analyzed. The patients' primary nasal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro, treated with corresponding allergens for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted for transcriptome sequencing, and the sequencing results were analyzed by bioinformatics. Results: The qPCR results showed that the cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and TSLP of HNEpC treated with mugworts extracts and HDM extracts had the same trend of change. After the nasal epithelial cells from patients with seasonal AR and perennial AR were treated with corresponding allergens, there were differences in biological processes and signal pathways between those and control. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEG) in AR patients allergic to mugwort were mainly enriched in the oxidation-reduction process, the negative regulation of apoptosis process, and the cell adhesion; the DEG in AR patients allergic to HDM were mainly enriched in cell adhesion, the negative regulation of cell proliferation and the response to drug. Enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway showed that the DEG of AR patients allergic to mugwort were significantly enriched in arachidonic acid metabolism, p53 signaling pathway and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, while the DEG of AR patients allergic to HDM were mainly enriched in cells cycle, Fanconi anemia pathway and DNA replication. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed that the inflammatory response, TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway and IL-2/STAT5 signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated in AR patients allergic to mugwort, indicating the promotion of inflammatory response; and AR patients allergic to HDM had significant down-regulation of G2M, E2F, and MYC, indicating the inhibition of cell proliferation. The protein-protein interaction network showed that TNF and CDK1 were the most interacting proteins in mugwort and HDM allergic AR patients, respectively. Conclusion: Seasonal AR and perennial AR may affect the different biological processes and signal pathways of nasal epithelial cells, leading to differences in the occurrence and development of AR.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Computational Biology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Pyroglyphidae , RNA/metabolism , Rhinitis, Allergic/metabolism , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Seasons
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 251-262, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929198

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic microbes can induce cellular dysfunction, immune response, and cause infectious disease and other diseases including cancers. However, the cellular distributions of pathogens and their impact on host cells remain rarely explored due to the limited methods. Taking advantage of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis, we can assess the transcriptomic features at the single-cell level. Still, the tools used to interpret pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi) at the single-cell level remain to be explored. Here, we introduced PathogenTrack, a python-based computational pipeline that uses unmapped scRNA-seq data to identify intracellular pathogens at the single-cell level. In addition, we established an R package named Yeskit to import, integrate, analyze, and interpret pathogen abundance and transcriptomic features in host cells. Robustness of these tools has been tested on various real and simulated scRNA-seq datasets. PathogenTrack is competitive to the state-of-the-art tools such as Viral-Track, and the first tools for identifying bacteria at the single-cell level. Using the raw data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples (BALF) from COVID-19 patients in the SRA database, we found the SARS-CoV-2 virus exists in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and macrophages. SARS-CoV-2-positive neutrophils showed increased expression of genes related to type I interferon pathway and antigen presenting module. Additionally, we observed the Haemophilus parahaemolyticus in some macrophage and epithelial cells, indicating a co-infection of the bacterium in some severe cases of COVID-19. The PathogenTrack pipeline and the Yeskit package are publicly available at GitHub.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929154

ABSTRACT

The dorsal lingual epithelium, which is composed of taste buds and keratinocytes differentiated from K14+ basal cells, discriminates taste compounds and maintains the epithelial barrier. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant mRNA modification in eukaryotic cells. How METTL3-mediated m6A modification regulates K14+ basal cell fate during dorsal lingual epithelium formation and regeneration remains unclear. Here we show knockout of Mettl3 in K14+ cells reduced the taste buds and enhanced keratinocytes. Deletion of Mettl3 led to increased basal cell proliferation and decreased cell division in taste buds. Conditional Mettl3 knock-in mice showed little impact on taste buds or keratinization, but displayed increased proliferation of cells around taste buds in a protective manner during post-irradiation recovery. Mechanically, we revealed that the most frequent m6A modifications were enriched in Hippo and Wnt signaling, and specific peaks were observed near the stop codons of Lats1 and FZD7. Our study elucidates that METTL3 is essential for taste bud formation and could promote the quantity recovery of taste bud after radiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Epithelium/metabolism , Homeostasis , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Mice , RNA , Taste Buds/metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929056

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as the most common type (>90%) of head and neck cancer, includes various epithelial malignancies that arise in the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. In 2020, approximately 878 ‍ 000 new cases and 444 000 deaths linked to HNSCC occurred worldwide (Sung et al., 2021). Due to the associated frequent recurrence and metastasis, HNSCC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of 40%-50% (Jou and Hess, 2017). Therefore, novel prognostic biomarkers need to be developed to identify high-risk HNSCC patients and improve their disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , RNA , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 395-401, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935957

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the real-world efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) tablets in the treatment of Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods: An open-label, single-center, prospective clinical study was conducted in a county in northern China. A total of 299 cases were enrolled. Of these, 161 cases with chronic hepatitis C and 73 cases with compensated cirrhosis received SOF/VEL for 12 weeks. 65 cases with decompensated cirrhosis received SOF/VEL combined with ribavirin for 12 weeks (22 cases) or SOF/VEL for 24 weeks (43 cases). Virological indicators, liver and renal function indexes, and liver stiffness measurement were detected at baseline, the fourth week of treatment, the end of treatment, and the 12-weeks of follow-up. Adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities were observed during the course of treatment . The primary endpoint was undetectable rate of HCV RNA (SVR12) at 12 weeks of follow-up with the use of modified intention-to-treat (mITT) approach. Measurement data between two groups were compared using t-test. One Way ANOVA was used for comparison between multiple groups. Enumeration data were analyzed by chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: 291 cases had completed treatment. HCV RNA was undetectable after 12 weeks of follow-up, and the SVR12 rate was 97.3% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-99.3%). Among them, 97.4% of genotype 1b, 96.4% of genotype 2a, and 100% of those with undetected genotype achieved SVR12. The SVR12 rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C, compensated and decompensated liver cirrhosis were 98.1%, 98.6% and 93.8%, respectively. An improvement in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and other liver biochemical indicators accompanied with virological clearance and reduced liver stiffness measurement was observed in patients with compensated cirrhosis, with statistically significant difference. There was no significant abnormality in renal function before and after treatment. The most common adverse reactions were fatigue, headache, epigastric discomfort and mild diarrhea. The overall adverse reactions were mild. One patient died of decompensated liver cirrhosis combined with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which was unrelated to antiviral treatment. Four patients discontinued treatment prematurely due to adverse events. Relapse was occurred in four cases, and drug-resistance related mutations were detected in three cases. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir tablets in Chinese HCV-infected patients with different genotypes, different clinical stages or previously treated with pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin resulted in higher SVR12, indicating that the treatment safety profile is good.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carbamates , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Prospective Studies , RNA , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/adverse effects , Sustained Virologic Response , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 190-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935503

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of MDM2 RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) in diagnosing atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDL). Methods: A total of 26 ALT/WDL/DDLs diagnosed from March 2017 to May 2019 in West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China and 18 control cases were included. MDM2 RNA-ISH was performed on all samples and compared with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) regarding their performance in detecting MDM2. Results: All samples were detected successfully using the three methods. Among 26 ALT/WDL/DDLs, all cases showed MDM2 amplification and positivity for MDM2 RNA-ISH (26/26, 100%). Twenty-four (24/26, 92.3%) of the 26 tested cases were positive for MDM2 IHC while two of them were negative. Eighteen control cases were all negative for MDM2 FISH and RNA-ISH, and 15 (15/18) cases were negative for MDM2 IHC. The sensitivity and specificity of RNA-ISH were both 100%, and those of MDM2 IHC were 92.3% and 83.3%, respectively. Diffuse staining was identified in all MDM2 RNA-ISH positive ALT/WDL/DDLs, but identified in only 8/24 (33.3%) of the MDM2 IHC positive cases. Among the 11 ALT/WDL/DDL samples evaluated on tissue microarray, the positive rate of MDM2 RNA-ISH was 100% with diffuse staining in all cases. The positive rate of MDM2 IHC was 9/11 while only 1 of the 9 cases showed diffuse staining. The result of MDM2 RNA-ISH was identical to that of MDM2 FISH and was overall consistent with that of MDM2 IHC (Kappa=0.763, P<0.001). Conclusions: In ALT/WDL/DDLs, results of MDM2 RNA-ISH are highly consistent with those of FISH. MDM2 RNA-ISH is more sensitive and more specific and has more diffuse positive signals than the IHC. The findings indicate that MDM2 RNA-ISH is highly valuable for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ALT/WDL/DDLs.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Amplification , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Liposarcoma/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/genetics , RNA
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927900

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mechanism that hypoxia promotes the migration of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Methods: A549 cells were cultured and cells that knockdown of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) were obtained by transfection with lentivirus, and cells that knockdown of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1) were obtained by treated with si-RNA. A549 cells were treated with hypoxia combined with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor PX-478 (25 μmol); Hypoxia combined with linoleic acid (LA) (20 μmol) treated A549 cells with ACC1 knockdown, and A549 cells with SREBP-1 knockdown were treated by hypoxia. Transwell migration assay was used to detect cell migration. Western blot was conducted to detect HIF-1α, ACC1 and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) related proteins, Vimentin, E-Cadherin and SREBP-1; Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the changes of ACC1 and SREBP-1 mRNA in A549 cells after hypoxia and HIF-1α inhibitor PX-478 (25 μmol) treatment. Each experiment was repeated three times. Results: Compared with the normoxic control group, hypoxia promoted the migration of A549 cells (P<0.01), and up-regulated the expressions of ACC1, HIF-1α (all P<0.01) and SREBP-1 (P<0.05). PX-478 (25 μmol) inhibited the migration of A549 cells induced by hypoxia and down-regulated the expression of SREBP-1 (all P<0.05). ACC1 mRNA and SREBP-1 mRNA levels were increased after hypoxia treatment of A549 cells (all P<0.05). The levels of ACC1 mRNA and SREBP-1 mRNA were decreased after A549 cells treated with hypoxia combined with PX-478 (25 μmol) for 24 h (P<0.05, P<0.01). Knockdown of SREBP-1 in A549 cells was obtained by transfection with si-RNA. Transwell migration assay showed the number of cell migration in si-SREBP-1 group was less than that in normoxia control group (P<0.01). The si-SREBP-1 group and the si-NC group were treated with hypoxia. Compared with the control group, the number of cell migration in the si-SREBP-1 group was decreased (P<0.01), however, the difference was not statistically significant compared with the normoxia si-SREBP-1 group (P>0.05). Western blot showed that the expression of ACC1 in the si-SREBP-1 group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the expression of ACC1 was decreased after si-SREBP-1 group treated with hypoxia (P<0.01). Knockdown of ACC1 inhibited the migration of A549 cells (P<0.05). After knockdown of ACC1, the migration number of A549 cells under normoxia and 5% O2 conditions had no significant difference (P>0.05). Application of LA under hypoxia condition rescued ACC1-knockdown induced inhibitory effect on hypoxia-promoted A549 cell migration (P<0.05). Conclusion: Hypoxia promotes migration of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating fatty acid metabolism through HIF-1α/SREBP-1/ACC1 pathway.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Hypoxia , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Lung Neoplasms , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine if ARHGEF10 has a haploinsufficient effect and provide evidence to evaluate the severity, if any, during prenatal consultation.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish was used as a model for generating mutant. The pattern of arhgef10 expression in the early stages of zebrafish development was observed using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). CRISPR/Cas9 was applied to generate a zebrafish model with a single-copy or homozygous arhgef10 deletion. Activity and light/dark tests were performed in arhgef10 -/-, arhgef10 +/-, and wild-type zebrafish larvae. ARHGEF10 was knocked down using small interferon RNA (siRNA) in the SH-SY5Y cell line, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using the CCK-8 assay and Annexin V/PI staining, respectively.@*RESULTS@#WISH showed that during zebrafish embryonic development arhgef10 was expressed in the midbrain and hindbrain at 36-72 h post-fertilization (hpf) and in the hemopoietic system at 36-48 hpf. The zebrafish larvae with single-copy and homozygous arhgef10 deletions had lower exercise capacity and poorer responses to environmental changes compared to wild-type zebrafish larvae. Moreover, arhgef10 -/- zebrafish had more severe symptoms than arhgef10 +/- zebrafish. Knockdown of ARHGEF10 in human neuroblastoma cells led to decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on our findings, ARHGEF10 appeared to have a haploinsufficiency effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Annexin A5 , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Flow Cytometry , Genotype , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Larva/physiology , Phenotype , RNA/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , Sincalide/analysis , Spectrophotometry/methods , Zebrafish/physiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927269

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Linkage to care among individuals with substance misuse remains a barrier to the elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to determine whether point-of-care (PoC) education, screening and staging for liver disease with direct access to hospitals would improve linkage to care among this group. @*METHODS@#All participants were offered PoC education and HCV screening. HCV-positive participants were randomised to standard care (controls) or direct access, which provided a direct pathway to hospitals. Linkage to care was determined by reviewing electronic medical records. Linkage of care cascade was defined as attendance at the specialist clinic, confirmation of viraemia by HCV RNA testing, discussion about HCV treatment and initiation of treatment. @*RESULTS@#351 halfway house residents were screened. The overall HCV prevalence was 30.5% (n = 107), with 69 residents in the control group and 38 in the direct access group. The direct access group had a significantly higher percentage of cases linked to specialist review for confirmatory RNA testing (63.2% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.025), HCV treatment discussion (p = 0.009) and treatment initiation (p = 0.01) compared to the controls. Overall, only 12.6% (n = 13) had treatment initiation during follow-up. PoC HCV screening with direct access referral had significantly higher linkage to HCV treatment initiation (adjusted odds ratio 9.13, p = 0.005) in multivariate analysis. @*CONCLUSION@#PoC HCV screening with direct access improves linkage to care and simplifies the HCV care cascade, leading to improved treatment uptake. PoC education, screening, diagnosis and treatment may be an effective strategy to achieving HCV micro-elimination in this population.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Halfway Houses , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Pilot Projects , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA , Referral and Consultation , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6450, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364794

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To understand the feasibility of FGFR3 tests in the Brazilian public health context, and to sample the mutational burden of this receptor in high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods A total of 31 patients with high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer were included in the present study. Either transurethral resection of bladder tumor or radical cystectomy specimens were analyzed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned, hematoxylin and eosin stained, and histologic sections were reviewed. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy DSP formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kit. Qualitative results were displayed in Rotor-Gene AssayManager software. Results Six patients were excluded. From the samples analyzed, four (16.7%) were considered inadequate and could not have their RNA extracted. Two patients presented FGFR3 mutations, accounting for 9.5% of material available for adequate analysis. The two mutations detected included a Y373C mutation in a male patient and a S249C mutation in a female patient. Conclusion FGFR3 mutations could be analyzed in 84% of our cohort and occurred in 9.5% of patients with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer in this Brazilian population. FGFR3 gene mutations are targets for therapeutic drugs in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. For this reason, know the frequency of these mutations can have a significant impact on public health policies and costs provisioning.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/genetics , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/metabolism , Brazil , RNA , Prevalence , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Muscles/metabolism , Muscles/pathology , Mutation
12.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(3): 244-249, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388153

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los métodos diagnósticos clásicos para la tuberculosis son de baja sensibilidad o son muy lentos en la obtención de resultados (baciloscopía, cultivo de Koch). De ahí nace la necesidad de nuevos métodos diagnósticos para esta enfermedad. Los biomarcadores surgen como una opción a esta problemática, con un buen rendimiento diagnóstico, costo y accesibilidad. Ellos permiten identificar la respuesta inflamatoria y/o metabólica del huésped, extrapolando la presencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis; o identifican moléculas propias del patógeno. En la presente revisión se describen biomarcadores que presentan un buen rendimiento diagnóstico basados en metodologías de investigación de alto nivel (estudio de cohortes, prospectivos, muestreo consecutivo o aleatorizado, comparación de rendimiento diagnóstico frente a cultivo). Es necesario el desarrollo de estas nuevas técnicas con el fin de realizar el diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad y lograr así su tan ansiada eliminación.


The classical laboratory diagnostic methods for tuberculosis have a low sensitivity or take a long time to know their results. New methods are underway. Biomarkers are a good option to improve our diagnostic approach to this disease. They have good performance, low cost and accessibility. They identify a patient's inflammatory or metabolic response to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis or identifies molecules that are typical of the pathogen. In this paper we sum up the biomarkers with a good diag-nostic performance described in well design investigations. Early diagnosis with these new techniques should contribute to the elimination of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , RNA/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies/analysis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycolic Acids/analysis
13.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(1): 12-16, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380384

ABSTRACT

Se describe hasta la fecha de hoy, 4 de julio del 2021, la evidencia existente sobre la variante Delta del SARS-CoV-2, su impacto en la trasmisión, en la severidad de la infección y su probable evasión a la respuesta inmune. (AU)


As of today, July 4, 2021, the existing evidence on the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, its impact on transmission, on the severity of the infection and its probable evasion of the immune response is described. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA/genetics , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Mutation/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#White matter hyperintensity (WMH) is an important factor leading to cognitive impairment, and the mechanism has not been clarified. In recent years, studies have found that circular RNA (circRNA) has differential expression in cerebrovascular diseases. This study aims to analyze the expression profile of circRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) of patients with WMH with cognitive impairment, to screen the differentially expressed circRNA, and to explore the possible role of circRNA in WMH with cognitive impairment.@*METHODS@#CircRNA microarray was used to detect the circRNA expression profile of PBMC in patients with WMH with cognitive impairment, and in patients with WMH without cognitive impairment as well as in normal controls (3 cases each, male to female ratio of 2꞉1). The differentially expressed circRNA in patients with WMH with cognitive impairment was screened. The screening criteria for differentially expressed circRNA was fold change (FC) ≥2.0 (|log@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, there were 5 significantly up-regulated circRNA and 3 down-regulated circRNA in the WMH with cognitive impairment group; 8 circRNA were significantly up-regulated and 2 were down-regulated in the WMH without cognitive impairment group. When compared with the WMH with cognitive impairment group, no co-differentially expressed circRNA was found in WMH without cognitive impairment group and control group. Compared with the control group, the expression of hsa_circ_0092222 was up-regulated and the expressions of hsa_circ_0000662 and hsa_circ_0083773 were down-regulated in the WMH with cognitive impairment group and the WMH without cognitive impairment group, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#The circRNA expression profile of patients with WMH is changed significantly. The differentially expressed circRNA may be the cause of WMH; Hsa_circ_0092222, hsa_circ_0000662, and hsa_circ_0083773 may regulate the expression of target genes by targeting adsorption of the target miRNA, leading to brain white matter damage through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3) signal pathway and Wnt signal pathway.There is no significant difference in circRNA expression profile between WMH with or without cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment in patients with WMH may have other reasons.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Male , MicroRNAs , RNA/genetics , RNA, Circular , Software , White Matter
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1972-1976, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922234

ABSTRACT

There are more than 150 types of chemical modifications in RNA, mainly methylation, which are widely distributed in all kinds of RNA, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, non-coding small RNA and long non-coding RNA. In recent years, the identification of RNA methylation modification enzymes and the development of high-throughput sequencing technology at transcriptome level laid a foundation for revealing the expression and function of genes regulated by chemical modification of RNA. In this review, the most recent advances of RNA methylation, especially N6-methyladenosine (m


Subject(s)
Adenosine/metabolism , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Methylation , RNA/metabolism
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2573-2582, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of closed circular noncoding RNA (ncRNA), mostly formed by back-splicing or alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA). The aim of this study was to explore the expression profile of circRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and discover potential molecular markers of AS.@*METHODS@#The circRNA microarray technology was used to detect the expression of circRNAs in the peripheral blood of 6 patients with AS and 6 healthy controls (HC). To screen the differentially expressed circRNAs by fold change (FC) and P value, these differentially expressed circRNAs were analyzed by bioinformatics. In 60 cases of AS and 30 cases of HC, 4 circRNAs were subjected to real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and their correlation with various clinical indicators was analyzed. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze their potential as AS diagnostic markers.@*RESULTS@#The microarray results showed that there were 1369 significantly differently expressed (P  1.5) circRNAs between the AS and HC groups (675 upregulated and 694 downregulated). The results of bioinformatics analysis suggested that they were mainly involved in "enzyme binding," "adenosine ribonucleotide binding," "MAPK signaling pathway", etc. The RT-qPCR results showed that the expressions of hsa_circRNA_001544 (U = 486.5, P < 0.05) and hsa_circRNA_102532 (U = 645, P < 0.05) were significantly different between the AS group and the HC group. The AS group was further divided into two subgroups: active AS (ASA) and stable AS (ASS). After analysis, it was found that compared with the HC group, hsa_circRNA_001544 was significantly increased in both ASA (U = 214, P < 0.05) and ASS groups (U = 273, P < 0.05), while hsa_circRNA_008961 (U = 250, P < 0.05) and hsa_circRNA_102532 (U = 295, P < 0.05) were only significantly increased in the ASA group. Furthermore, hsa_circRNA_012732 was significantly different between the ASA and ASS groups (U = 194, P < 0.05), and there was no statistical significance among the remaining groups. Correlation analysis results showed that hsa_circRNA_012732 was negatively correlated with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and globulin (GLOB) and positively correlated with lymphocyte count (LY), mean corpusular volume, and albumin (ALB), and hsa_circRNA_008961 was negatively correlated with platelet (PLT) count. ROC curve analysis showed that hsa_circRNA_001544 (95% CI = 0.610-0.831, P < 0.05) and hsa_circRNA_102532 (95% CI = 0.521-0.762, P < 0.05) were statistically significant, and their area under curve (AUC) values were 0.720 and 0.642, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differentially expressed circRNAs in PBMCs of AS patients, and they may be involved in the occurrence and development of AS. Among these differentially expressed circRNAs, hsa_circRNA_012732 has the potential to become an indicator of disease activity, and hsa_circRNA_001544 has the potential to become a molecular marker for AS diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , RNA/genetics , RNA, Circular , ROC Curve , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/genetics
18.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 333-346, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888732

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses cause a multitude of human diseases, including several pandemic events in the past century. Upon viral invasion, the innate immune system responds rapidly and plays a key role in activating the adaptive immune system. In the innate immune system, the interactions between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and host pattern recognition receptors activate multiple signaling pathways in immune cells and induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons to elicit antiviral responses. Macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells are the principal innate immune components that exert antiviral activities. In this review, the current understanding of innate immunity contributing to the restriction of RNA viral infections was briefly summarized. Besides the main role of immune cells in combating viral infection, the intercellular transfer of pathogen and host-derived materials and their epigenetic and metabolic interactions associated with innate immunity was discussed. This knowledge provides an enhanced understanding of the innate immune response to RNA viral infections in general and aids in the preparation for the existing and next emerging viral infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , RNA , RNA Viruses , Virus Diseases
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the association of circular RNA (circRNA) and circRNA-microRNA (miRNA) network regulation with brain injury induced by inflammation in preterm mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant mice were treated with intraperitoneally injected lipopolysaccharide to establish a preterm mouse model of brain injury induced by inflammation (inflammation preterm group with 3 mice). Preterm mice born to normal pregnant mice by cesarean section were selected as controls (non-inflammation preterm group with 3 mice). The gene microarray technique was used to screen out the circRNAs associated with brain injury in preterm mice. The miRNA target prediction software was used to predict the binding sites between circRNAs and miRNAs and analyze the regulatory mechanism.@*RESULTS@#A total of 365 differentially expressed circRNAs were screened out between the inflammation preterm and non-inflammation preterm groups (fold change > 1.5, @*CONCLUSIONS@#Inflammation induces a significant change in the expression profile of circRNAs in the brain tissue of mice, and the change in the expression of circRNAs plays an important role in brain injury induced by inflammation and subsequent brain development in preterm mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries , Cesarean Section , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pregnancy , RNA/genetics , RNA, Circular
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880692

ABSTRACT

RNA methylation is of great significance in the regulation of gene expression, among which the more important methylation modifiers are N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and 5-methylcytosine (m5C). The methylation process is mainly regulated by 3 kinds of proteins: methyltransferase, demethylase, and reader. m6A, m5C, and their related proteins have high abundance in the brain, and they have important roles in the development of the nervous system and the repair and remodeling of the vascular system. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a unit of brain structure and function composed of neurons, capillaries, astrocytes, supporting cells, and extracellular matrix. The local microenvironment for NVU has an important role in nerve cell function repair, and the remodeling of NVU is of great significance in the prognosis of various neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
5-Methylcytosine , Adenosine/metabolism , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA
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