Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 154
Filter
1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 42-47, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091906

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE ADAMTS4 is a member of the ADAMTS4 family, which secretes proteinases. The mechanism of tumor metastasis may be correlated to its promotion of angiogenesis. It was determined whether ADAMTS4 participates in colorectal cancer progression. Methods The expression in clinical samples and CRC cell lines was investigated. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS4 was determined in colorectal tumors of different cancer stages and anatomic sites, and in three cell lines of different aggressiveness. Results The overexpression of ADAMTS4 was observed in tissue samples by IHC, and this was mainly located in the cytoplasm, as detected by FISH. The qRT-PCR and western blot analyses further supported the clinical sample findings. Conclusion The present data support the notion that the overexpression of ADAMTS4 in CRC might be useful as a non-invasive biomarker for detecting CRC in patients.


RESUMO OBJETIVO ADAMTS4 é um membro da família ADAMTS4, que secreta proteinases. O mecanismo da metástase do tumor pode ser correlacionado a sua promoção da angiogênese. Determinou-se se ADAMTS4 participa na progressão do câncer colorretal. Métodos A expressão em amostras clínicas e linhas de células CRC foi investigada. Usando a imuno-histoquímica (IHC), a hibridação fluorescente in situ (HFIS) e o RT-PCR, a expressão de ADAMTS4 foi determinada em tumores colorretais de diferentes estágios do câncer e locais anatômicos, e em três linhas de células de níveis de agressividade distintos. Resultados A superexpressão de ADAMTS4 foi observada em amostras de tecido por IHC, e esta foi localizada principalmente no citoplasma, como detectado pelo HFIS. O qRT-PCR e a análise de wester blot corroboraram os resultados clínicos da amostra. Conclusão Os dados atuais corroboram a noção de que a superexpressão de ADAMTS4 no CRC pode ser útil como um biomarcador não invasivo para a detecção de CRC em pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , ADAMTS4 Protein/analysis , Prognosis , Reference Values , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , Analysis of Variance , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Disease Progression , Cell Line, Tumor , Middle Aged
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e038, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100932

ABSTRACT

Abstract The possible role of B-cell growth and differentiation-related cytokines on the pathogenesis of diabetes-related periodontitis has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the gene expression of proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), two major cytokines associated to survival, differentiation and maturation of B cells in biopsies from gingival tissue with periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from subjects with periodontitis (n = 17), with periodontitis and DM (n = 19) as well as from periodontally and systemically healthy controls (n = 10). Gene expressions for APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were evaluated using qPCR. The expressions APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were all higher in both periodontitis groups when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the expressions of BLyS, TRAP and RANKL were significantly higher in the subjects with periodontitis and DM when compared to those with periodontitis alone (p < 0.05). The mRNA levels of BLyS correlated positively with RANKL in the subjects with periodontitis and DM (p < 0.05). BLyS is overexpressed in periodontitis tissues of subjects with type 2 DM, suggesting a possible role of this cytokine on the pathogenesis DM-related periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/immunology , Periodontitis/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , B-Cell Activating Factor/analysis , Osteogenesis/immunology , Reference Values , Biopsy , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gingiva/immunology , Gingiva/pathology , Middle Aged
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190699, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134770

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the kinetics of apical periodontitis development in vivo , induced either by contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from the oral cavity or by inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the regulation of major enzymes and receptors involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Methodology Apical periodontitis was induced in C57BL6 mice (n=96), by root canal exposure to oral cavity (n=48 teeth) or inoculation of LPS (10 µL of a suspension of 0.1 µg/µL) from E. coli into the root canals (n= 48 teeth). Healthy teeth were used as control (n=48 teeth). After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and tissues removed for histopathological and qRT-PCR analyses. Histological analysis data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's test, and qRT-PCR data using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results Contamination by microorganisms led to the development of apical periodontitis, characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and bone tissue resorption, whereas inoculation of LPS induced inflammatory cells recruitment without bone resorption. Both stimuli induced mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Expression of prostaglandin E 2 and leukotriene B 4 cell surface receptors were more stimulated by LPS. Regarding nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), oral contamination induced the synthesis of mRNA for PPARδ, differently from inoculation of LPS, that induced PPARα and PPARγ expression. Conclusions Contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from oral cavity induced the development of apical periodontitis differently than by inoculation with LPS, characterized by less bone loss than the first model. Regardless of the model used, it was found a local increase in the synthesis of mRNA for the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 of the arachidonic acid metabolism, as well as in the surface and nuclear receptors for the lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone Resorption/microbiology , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/analysis , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Dinoprostone/analysis , Random Allocation , Gene Expression , Leukotriene B4/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/pathology , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 67-75, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973833

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Prenatal stress may increase risk of developing cardiovascular disorders in adulthood. The cardiotoxic effects of catecholamines are mediated via prolonged adrenergic receptor stimulation and increased oxidative stress upon their degradation by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). Objectives: We investigated long-term effects of prenatal stress on β (1, 2, 3) adrenergic receptors and MAO-A gene expression in the hearts of adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to unpredictable mild stress during the third week of gestation. RNA was isolated from left ventricular apex and base of adult offspring. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression in collected ventricular tissue samples. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Results: β3 adrenergic receptor mRNA was undetectable in rat left ventricle. β1 adrenergic receptor was the predominantly expressed subtype at the apical and basal left ventricular myocardium in the control females. Male offspring from unstressed mothers displayed higher apical cardiac β1 than β2 adrenergic receptor mRNA levels. However, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor mRNAs were similarly expressed at the ventricular basal myocardium in males. Unlike males, prenatally stressed females exhibited decreased β1 adrenergic receptor mRNA expression at the apical myocardium. Prenatal stress did not affect cardiac MAO-A gene expression. Conclusions: Collectively, our results show that prenatal stress may have exerted region- and sex-specific β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor expression patterns within the left ventricle.


Resumo Fundamento: Estresse pré-natal pode aumentar os riscos de desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares na idade adulta. Os efeitos cardiotóxicos de catecolaminas são mediados pela estimulação prolongada dos receptores adrenérgicos e pelo aumento do estresse oxidativo após sua degradação pela monoamina oxidase A (MAO-A). Objetivos: Investigamos os efeitos a longo prazo de estresse pré-natal nos receptores β (1, 2, 3) adrenérgicos e na expressão do gene MAO-A nos corações da prole adulta de ratos. Método: Ratas prenhes foram expostas a estresse crônico moderado imprevisível durante a terceira semana de gestação. O RNA foi isolado do ápice e da base do ventrículo esquerdo da prole adulta. Utilizou-se PCR quantitativa em tempo real para medir a expressão gênica nas amostras de tecido ventricular coletadas. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em p < 0,05. Resultados: Foi indetectável o mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β3 no ventrículo esquerdo dos ratos. O receptor adrenérgico β1 foi o subtipo mais expresso no miocárdio ventricular esquerdo apical e basal nas fêmeas controle. A prole masculina das mães não estressadas apresentou níveis cardíacos apicais de mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β1 mais altos do que os de β2. Porém, mRNAs dos receptores adrenérgicos β1 e β2 foram expressos de forma semelhante no miocárdio basal ventricular na prole masculina em geral. Ao contrário da prole masculina, a prole feminina exposta ao estresse pré-natal exibiu uma expressão diminuída do mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β1 no miocárdio apical. O estresse pré-natal não afetou a expressão gênica de MAO-A cardíaca. Conclusões: Coletivamente, nossos resultados mostram que estresse pré-natal pode ter exercido padrões de expressão região- e sexo-específica dos receptores adrenérgicos β1 e β2 no ventrículo esquerdo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Pregnancy, Animal/psychology , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/analysis , Monoamine Oxidase/analysis , Myocardium/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reference Values , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Gene Expression , Sex Factors , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Monoamine Oxidase/genetics , Mothers/psychology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900403, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001087

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) profile on renal ischemia reperfusion in a mouse model. Methods: Microarray analysis was used to study the expression of misregulated lncRNA in a mouse model of renal ischemia reperfusion(I/R) with long ischemia time. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to verify the expression of selected lncRNAs and mRNAs.The potential functions of the lncRNA was analyzed by bioinformatics tools and databases. Results: Kidney function was impaired in I/R group compared to the normal group. Analysis showed that a total of 2267 lncRNAs and 2341 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were significantly expressed in I/R group (≥2.0-fold, p < 0.05).The qPCR result showed that lncRNAs and mRNAs expression were consistent with the microarray analysis. The co-expression network profile analysis based on five validated lncRNAs and 203 interacted mRNAs showed it existed a total of 208 nodes and 333 connections. The GO and KEEG pathway analysis results showed that multiple lncRNAs are involved the mechanism of I/R. Conclusion: Multiple lncRNAs are involved in the mechanism of I/R.These analysis results will help us to further understand the mechanism of I/R and promote the new methods targeted at lncRNA to improve I/R injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/analysis , Kidney/blood supply , Reference Values , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Up-Regulation , Gene Expression Profiling , Tissue Array Analysis/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 110 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023378

ABSTRACT

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a combination of diseases interrelated and associated with increased mortality and risk of cardiovascular events. Among the elucidated molecular mechanisms of MetS, there are several genes regulated by miRNAs - small non-coding RNAs. A large number of transcriptomic studies in public databases integrated with new analysis methods can generate new insights. Therefore, this study aimed to identify circulating miRNAs and their target genes in MetS using a Systems Biology approach. For this, we used GEO-NCBI to download and analyse 26 microarray transcriptome studies of MetS and obesity. After preprocessing, the data underwent differential expression (LIMMA method), gene co-expression (CEMiTool), and enrichment (GSEA, Reactome) analyses. We retrieved a gene expression signature for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for obese individuals that included 291 consistent differentially expressed genes (DEG). This signature had a positive normalized enrichment score (NES) for adaptive immune system activation responses, and negative NES for metabolic pathways. The consensus co-expression network of SAT revealed 3 communities (CM) of densely interconnected genes. These CMs had a high number of up regulated genes and a consistent positive NES among the studies. The co-expressed genes of these 3 CMs were related to neutrophil degranulation, infiltration of immune system cells, and inflammatory processes. Also, a small brazillian cohort (6 individuals with MetS and 6 controls) underwent a seric miRNA profiling using PCR array. From the 222 miRNAs detected in serum, the differential expression analysis identified 4 upregulated miRNAs (miR-30c-5p, miR-421, miR-542-5p and miR-574) in MetS patients (p<0.01). The integrative miRNAs-mRNAs analysis revealed that the circulating upregulated miRNAs had 12 targets in the SAT, 3 targets in the liver; and no targets in the muscle and blood. Many of these target genes are known modulators of proinflammatory pathways. In conclusion, the use of Systems Biology in the analysis of gene networks and circulating miRNAs identified some potential molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms of the Metabolic Syndrome. The circulating miRNAs identified in this study are potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. However, further studies are needed to validate these miRNAs and their target mRNA


A Síndrome Metabólica (MetS) é um conjunto de doenças inter-relacionadas e associadas ao aumento de mortalidade e risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Entre os mecanismos moleculares elucidados da MetS, existem muitos genes regulados por miRNAs - RNAs pequenos não codificadores. O grande número de estudos transcriptômicos em banco dados públicos integrado a novos métodos de análise podem gerar novas descobertas. Deste modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar miRNAs circulantes e genes alvos na MetS usando a abordagem de Biologia de Sistemas. Para isso, GEO-NCBI foi usado para obter e analisar 26 estudos de transcriptoma por microarray de MetS e obesidade. Após o pré-processamento, realizamos análises de expressão diferencial (método LIMMA), co-expressão gênica (CEMiTool), e enriquecimento (GSEA, Reactome). Identificamos uma assinatura de expressão gênica do tecido adiposo subcutâneo (SAT) de indivíduos obesos, composta por 291 genes consistentemente diferencialmente expressos (DEG). Essa assinatura teve um escore de enriquecimento normalizado (NES) positivo para ativação de respostas do sistema imune adaptativo, e NES negativo para vias de metabolismo. A rede consenso de co-expressão do SAT revelou 3 comunidades (CM) de genes densamente interconectadas. Essas CMs continham muitos genes regulados positivamente e com consistência de NES positivo entre os estudos. Os genes co-expressos dessas 3 comunidades pertenciam a vias de a degranulação de neutrófilos, infiltração de células do sistema imune e processos inflamatórios. Além disso, uma pequena coorte brasileira (6 indivíduos com MetS e 6 controles) foi submetida à dosagem sérica de miRNAs por PCR array. Dos 222 miRNAs detectados no soro, a análise de expressão diferencial identificou 4 miRNAs regulados positivamente (miR-30c-5p, miR-421, miR-542-5p e miR-574) nos pacientes com MetS (p<0.01). A análise integrativa miRNAs-mRNAs revelou que osmiRNAs circulantes superexpressos tinham 12 alvos no SAT, 3 alvos no fígado; e nenhum alvo no músculo e no sangue. Muitos desses alvos são moduladores de vias ró-inflamatórias. Em conclusão, a utilização da Biologia de Sistemas na análise de redes gênicas e miRNAs circulantes identificou alguns potenciais mecanismos moleculares e fisiopatológicos da Síndrome Metabólica. Os miRNAs circulantes identificados neste trabalho são potenciais biomarcadores e/ou alvos terapêuticos. Entretanto, mais estudos são necessários para validar esses miRNAs e seus mRNAs alvos


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , MicroRNAs/analysis , Systems Biology/instrumentation , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Gene Regulatory Networks , Obesity/classification
7.
Biol. Res ; 52: 23, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conjunctival filtering bleb scar formation is the main reason for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery. Cytoglobin (Cygb) has been reported to play an important role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, fibrosis and tissue damage repairing. This study aimed to investigate the role of Cygb in anti-scarring during excessive conjunctival wound healing after glaucoma filtration surgery. METHODS: Cygb was overexpressed in human tenon fibroblasts (hTFs) by transfecting hTFs with lentiviral particles encoding pLenti6.2-FLAG-Cygb. Changes in the mRNA and protein levels of fibronectin, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-ß1, and HIF1α were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting respectively. RESULTS: After Cygb overexpression, hTFs displayed no significant changes in visual appearance and cell counts compared to controls. Whereas, Cygb overexpression significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin compared with control (p < 0.01). There was also a statistically significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-ß1 and HIF-1α in hTFs with overexpressed Cygb compared with control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study provided evidence that overexpression of Cygb decreased the expression levels of fibronectin, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-ß1 and HIF-1α in hTFs. Therefore, therapies targeting Cygb expression in hTFs may pave a new way for clinicians to solve the problem of post-glaucoma surgery scarring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Tenon Capsule/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Cytoglobin/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Fibronectins/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Cytoglobin/pharmacology
8.
Biol. Res ; 52: 35, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. NSCLC diagnosed at an early stage can be highly curable with a positive prognosis, but biomarker limitations make it difficult to diagnose lung cancer at an early stage. To identify biomarkers for lung cancer development, we previously focused on the oncogenic roles of transcription factor TFAP2C in lung cancers and revealed the molecular mechanism of several oncogenes in lung tumorigenesis based on TFAP2C-related microarray analysis. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed microarray data to identify tumor suppressor genes and nine genes downregulated by TFAP2C were screened. Among the nine genes, we focused on growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta (GADD45B) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1) as representative TFAP2C-regulated tumor suppressor genes. It was observed that overexpressed TFAP2C resulted in inhibition of GADD45B and PMAIP1 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC cells. In addition, downregulation of GADD45B and PMAIP1 by TFAP2C promoted cell proliferation and cell motility, which are closely associated with NSCLC tumorigenesis. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that GADD45B and PMAIP1 could be promising tumor suppressors for NSCLC and might be useful as prognostic markers for use in NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , Down-Regulation/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-2/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, Tumor Suppressor/physiology , RNA, Small Interfering/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170512, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate and correlate, in the same research, the mRNA expression and the staining of RANK, RANKL, OPG, TLR2 and MyD88 by immunohistochemistry in the apical periodontitis (AP) progression in mice. Material and Methods AP was induced in the lower first molars of thirty-five C57BL/6 mice. They were assigned to four groups according to their euthanasia periods (G0, G7, G21 and G42). The jaws were removed and subjected to histotechnical processing, immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed with parametric and nonparametric tests (α=0.05). Results An increase of positive immunoreactivity for RANK, RANKL, OPG, TLR2 and MyD88 was observed over time (p<0.05). The RANKL expression was different between the groups G0 and G42, G21 and G42 (p=0.006), with G42 presenting the higher expression in both comparations. The OPG expression was statistically different between the groups G0 and G7, G7 and G21 and G7 and G42 (p<0.001), with G7 presenting higher expression in all the time points. The TLR2 expression was different between the groups G0 and G42 (p=0.03), with G42 showing the higher expression. The MyD88 expression presented a statistical significant difference between groups G7, G21 and G42 compared with G0 (p=0.01), with G0 presenting the smallest expression in all the comparisons. The Tnfrsf11/Tnfrsf11b (RANKL/OPG) ratio increased with the AP progression (p=0.002). A moderate positive correlation between MyD88 and RANKL (r=0.42; p=0.03) and between MyD88 and TLR2 (r=0.48; p<0.0001) was observed. Conclusion The expression of the RANK, RANKL, OPG, MyD88 and TLR2 proteins as well as the ratio Tnfrsf11/Tnfrsf11b (RANKL/OPG) increased with AP progression. There was also a moderate positive correlation between the expression Myd88-Tnfrsf11 and Tlr2-Myd88, suggesting the relevance of Tlr2-Myd88 in bone loss due to bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RANK Ligand/analysis , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression , Disease Progression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/analysis , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170531, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are important for the regulation of RNA fate. RNP granules exist in trypanosomatids; however, their roles in controlling gene expression are still not understood. XRNA is a component of granules in Trypanosoma brucei but has not been investigated in Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate the TcXRNA dynamic assembly and its interaction with RNP components under conditions that affect the mRNA availability. METHODS We used in vitro metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi to observe changes in RNP granules during the differentiation process. TcXRNA expression was analysed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Colocalisation assays were performed to investigate the interaction of TcXRNA with other RNP components. FINDINGS TcXRNA is constantly present during metacyclogenesis and is localised in cytoplasmic granules. TcXRNA does not colocalise with TcDHH1 and TcCAF1 granules in the cytoplasm. However, TcXRNA granules colocalise with mRNP granules at the nuclear periphery when mRNA processing is inhibited. MAIN CONCLUSIONS TcXRNA plays a role in mRNA metabolism as a component of mRNP granules whose assembly is dependent on mRNA availability. TcXRNA granules colocalise with distinct RNP granules at the nuclear periphery, suggesting that the perinuclear region is a regulatory compartment in T. cruzi mRNA metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA/blood , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Methacycline/therapeutic use , RNA, Small Nuclear
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(12): 1069-1075, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896323

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: We conducted the research in order to explore the impact of hydrosalpinx fluid (HSF) on endometrium. Method: HSF group: 261 patients with HSF scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery 3 to 7 days after menstruation in our center. Hysteroscopy would also be performed in order to observe the endometrial morphology during the surgery. Sixty (60) patients would be randomly selected for endometrial biopsy in order to detect the inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-2 mRNA. Non-HSF group: 210 patients with no evidence of HSF due to chronic salpingitis or pelvic adhesion. IVF-ET treatment was performed after eliminating the factor of male infertility and hysteroscopy was conducted before the treatment. Fifty (50) patients underwent endometrial biopsy in order to detect TNF-a and IL-2 mRNA. Results: Hysteroscopy was performed in 261 patients with HSF and 210 patients without HSF. The incidence rate of endometritis manifestation among these two groups of patients was 37.2% (97/261) and 20.5% (43/210), respectively. The incidence rate of endometritis in the patients with HSF is significantly higher than in the patients without HSF (p<0.05). Sixty (60) patients from the HSF group and 50 patients from the non-HSF group were regrouped according to inflammatory and normal manifestation after the endometrial biopsy. There were 49 patients in the inflammatory manifestation group and 61 patients in the normal manifestation group. RT-PCR technology was adopted to detect the expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-2 mRNA in endometrial tissue. The level of TNF-a mRNA expression in endometrial tissues with inflammatory manifestation was higher than in normal endometrium (76.75±11.95 vs. 23.45±9.75, p<0.01). There are significant differences between them. The level of IL-2 mRNA expression in endometrial tissues with inflammatory manifestation was higher than that found in normal endometrium (80.56±13.35 vs. 35.12±8.35, p<0.01). There are significant differences between them. Conclusion: Chronic endometritis is related to HSF and may therefore affect endometrial receptivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Body Fluids , Interleukin-2/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Endometritis/diagnosis , Endometrium/metabolism , Fallopian Tube Diseases/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Hysteroscopy , Chronic Disease , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Electrophoresis , Endometritis/genetics , Endometritis/pathology , Fallopian Tube Diseases/genetics , Fallopian Tube Diseases/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 935-948, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and apoptosis associated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and pentoxifylline (PTX) in intestinal ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) injury. Methods: Thirty male rats were assigned to 5 groups: (CG), no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery (90 minutes); (IR-SS) saline + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IR-PTX) PTX + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IPC-IR-SS) 5 minutes of ischemia + 5 minutes of reperfusion (IPC) + saline + I(30 minutes)+R(60 minutes); and (IPC-IR-PTX) IPC + PTX + I(30 minutes)+ R(60 minutes). Results: The application of IPC and PTX showed a significantly lower immunohistochemistry reaction for active caspase-3 (P<0.05) compared to IR+SS. The number of cells immunoreactive to BCL-2 was higher in the IR-PTX group (P>0.05). The NOS-2 expression (qRTPCR) in the IR-PTX group (P<0.05) was higher than the values for the IPC+IR-SS and IPC-IR-PTX groups. The NOS-3 expression was significantly upper in the IPC-IR-PTX group than in the CG (P<0.05), the IR-SS (P<0.05) and the IR-PTX (P<0.05) groups. Conclusions: The BCL-2 and active caspase-3 showed beneficial effects on PTX and IPC. The expression of NOS-2 and NOS-3 in the IPC and IPC-PTX groups showed no synergistic effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Ischemic Preconditioning , Intestinal Diseases/prevention & control , Intestines/blood supply , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Diseases/enzymology , Intestines/pathology
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(1): 63-70, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results: LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion: GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium.


Resumo Fundamento: A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Métodos: Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de 60 dias de idade foram medidos por meio de um método indireto de manguito de cauda usando um eletro esfigmomanômetro. Os corações (d60) foram coletados para avaliação da expressão de RNAm da conexina 43 (Cx43) e análise morfológica e morfométrica. Resultados: A prole BP não mostrou diferença no peso corporal, embora tenha nascido mais leve do que a prole PN. Os níveis de PA foram significativamente mais altos no grupo BP. Observou-se um aumento significativo na área ocupada pelas fibras colágenas, diminuição do número de cardiomiócitos em 104 µm2 e aumento da área de cardiomiócitos associada ao aumento da expressão de Cx43. Conclusão: A RPG altera os níveis miocárdicos de RNAm de Cx43 em ratos adultos jovens, sugerindo que este mecanismo visa compensar o processo fibrótico pelo acúmulo de fibras de colágeno no interstício cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Myocardium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Connexin 43/analysis
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 90-100, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841165

ABSTRACT

Abstract IL-10 expressing regulatory B cells (B10) play a key role in immune system balance by limiting excessive inflammatory responses. Effects of toll-like receptor signaling and co-stimulatory molecules on B10 activity during innate and adaptive immune responses are not fully understood. Objective This study is to determine the effects of P. gingivalis LPS and CpG on B10 cell expansion and IL-10 competency in vitro. Material and Methods Spleen B cells were isolated from C57BL/6J mice with or without formalin-fixed P. gingivalis immunization. B cells were cultured for 48 hours under the following conditions: CD40L, CD40L+LPS, CD40L+CpG, and CD40L+LPS+CpG in the presence or absence of fixed P. gingivalis. Percentages of CD1dhiCD5+ B cells were measured by flow cytometry. IL-10 mRNA expression and secreted IL-10 were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and by ELISA respectively. Results P. gingivalis LPS plus CD40L significantly increased CD1dhiCD5+ B cell percentages and secreted IL-10 levels in both immunized and non-immunized mice B cells in the presence or absence of P. gingivalis, compared with control group. Secreted IL-10 levels were significantly increased in CD40L+LPS treated group compared with CD40L treatment group in the absence of P. gingivalis. CpG plus CD40L significantly decreased CD1dhiCD5+ B cell percentages, but greatly elevated secreted IL-10 levels in immunized and non-immunized mice B cells in the absence of P. gingivalis, compared with CD40L treatment group. Conclusions P. gingivalis LPS and CpG differentially enhance IL-10 secretion and expansion of mouse B10 cells during innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/physiology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/physiology , CD40 Ligand/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 9/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Cells, Cultured , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-10 , Toll-Like Receptor 9/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Immunity, Innate , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 113-116, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041392

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are the main cytokines related to hepatic fibrogenesis. METHODS: RNA isolated from the platelets and hepatic tissue of 43 HCV carriers was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine TGFB1, PDGFA, and PDGFB RNA expression. RESULTS: The mRNA expression of PDGFA in platelets was significantly lower in the group with advanced fibrosis than in the group with early-stage fibrosis. TGFB1 was more frequently expressed in platelets than in hepatic tissue, which was different from PDGFB. CONCLUSIONS: A pathway mediated by overexpression of TGFB1 via PDGFA in megakaryocytes could be involved in the development of fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis/blood , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Platelets/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Middle Aged
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6237, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888952

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats. Kv1.5 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were determined. We found that IUGR increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and resulted in thicker pulmonary artery smooth muscle layer in 14-week-old rats after 2 weeks of hypoxia, while no difference was observed in normoxia groups. In the PASMCs of IUGR-hypoxia rats, Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expression decreased while that of tyrosine-phosphorylated Kv1.5 significantly increased. These results demonstrate that IUGR leads to exaggerated chronic hypoxia pulmonary arterial hypertension (CH-PAH) in association with decreased Kv1.5 expression in PASMCs. This phenomenon may be mediated by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.5 in PASMCs and it provides new insight into the prevention and treatment of IUGR-related CH-PAH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Organophosphates/metabolism , Polymers/metabolism , Kv1.5 Potassium Channel/analysis , Fetal Hypoxia/complications , Fetal Hypoxia/physiopathology , Fetal Growth Retardation/metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/chemistry , Phosphorylation , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoblotting , Random Allocation , Up-Regulation , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Malnutrition/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 204-207, Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841577

ABSTRACT

With aging the kidney exhibits progressive deterioration, with a decrease in renal function. Most of the filtered Na+ is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubules through different transporters located in apical membrane. This process is possible because basolateral Na+/K+-ATP-ase generates electrochemical conditions necessary for energetically favorable Na+ transport. The α-subunit is the catalytic domain of Na+/K+-ATP-ase. There are three isoforms of the α/subunit present in rat kidney. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression pattern of rat α-Na+/K+-ATP-ase during senescence. We tested the impact of aging on mRNA expression of α-Na+/K+-ATP-ase in cortex and medulla of aged Wistar rats. We observed a significant expression decrease in mRNA levels and a possible change of isoform in the cortex of aged animals. These expression changes observed for αsubunit could be contributing to affect the renal function in conditions of water and salt stress.


Con el avance de la edad los riñones exhiben un deterioro funcional progresivo con disminución de la función renal. La mayor parte del sodio (Na+) filtrado es reabsorbido activamente en los túbulos proximales a través de diferentes transportadores ubicados en la membrana apical. Este proceso es posible por la existencia de la Na+/K+-ATP-asa basolateral, que genera las condiciones electroquímicas necesarias para que el transporte de Na+ sea energéticamente favorable. La subunidad αde la Na+/K+-ATP-asa es el dominio catalítico de la enzima. Existen tres isoformas de subunidad α, que están presentes en el riñón de la rata. En este trabajo se examinan los patrones de expresión de la α-Na+/K+-ATP-asa durante la senescencia. Se estudió así si el aumento de la edad incidía en la expresión del ARNm de la α-Na+/K+-ATP-asa en corteza y médula renal de ratas Wistar senescentes. Se observó una disminución en la expresión del ARNm de la subunidad αy un posible cambio de isoforma predominante en la corteza de los animales senescentes. Los cambios observados para la expresión de la subunidad αpodrían contribuir a afectar la función renal en condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Kidney Cortex/enzymology , Kidney Medulla/enzymology , Sodium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Base Sequence , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/analysis , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(6): e5273, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951687

ABSTRACT

The present study tested the hypotheses that i) transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) enhances differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards the cardiomyogenic phenotype and ii) intramyocardial implantation of the TGF-β1-treated MSCs improves cardiac function in heart failure rats. MSCs were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 72 h, and then morphological characteristics, surface antigens and mRNA expression of several transcription factors were assessed. Intramyocardial implantation of these TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart was also investigated. MSCs were initially spindle-shaped with irregular processes. On day 28 after TGF-β1 treatment, MSCs showed fusiform shape, orientating parallel with one another, and were connected with adjoining cells forming myotube-like structures. Immunofluorescence revealed the expression of cardiomyocyte-specific proteins, α-sarcomeric actin and troponin T, in these cells. The mRNA expression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 genes was slightly increased on day 7, enhanced on day 14 and decreased on day 28 while α-MHC gene was not expressed on day 7, but expressed slightly on day 14 and enhanced on day 28. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the induced cells had myofilaments, z line-like substances, desmosomes, and gap junctions, in contrast with control cells. Furthermore, intramyocardial implantation of TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart reduced scar area and increased the number of muscle cells. This structure regeneration was concomitant with the improvement of cardiac function, evidenced by decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, increased left ventricular systolic pressure and increased maximal positive pressure development rate. Taken together, these results indicate that intramyocardial implantation of differentiated MSCs enhanced by TGF-β1 improved cardiac function in heart failure rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bone Marrow Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Heart Failure/surgery , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Cell Differentiation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Myosin Heavy Chains/analysis , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , GATA4 Transcription Factor/analysis , Homeobox Protein Nkx-2.5/analysis
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(4): e4324, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951663

ABSTRACT

The effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and glucose on mRNA and protein expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and its ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), were investigated in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs). Primary HPDLFs were treated with different concentrations of IL-10 (0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ng/mL) or glucose (0, 5.5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mmol/L). Changes in mRNA and protein expression were examined using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. After IL-10 treatment, mRNA and protein levels of OPG were increased, while mRNA and protein levels of RANKL were decreased (P<0.05), both in a concentration-dependent manner. Glucose stimulation had the opposite concentration-dependent effect to that of IL-10 on OPG and RANKL expression. IL-10 upregulated OPG expression and downregulated RANKL expression, whereas high glucose upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG in HDPLFs. Abnormal levels of IL-10 and glucose may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Glucose/pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Down-Regulation , Up-Regulation , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Analysis of Variance , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fibroblasts/metabolism
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4888, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766978

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs) on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction). We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacology , Nanotubes, Carbon , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Titanium/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , /metabolism , /metabolism , Cell Survival , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Primary Cell Culture , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Staining and Labeling/methods , Tissue Engineering/methods , Titanium/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL