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1.
Appl. cancer res ; 40: 1-13, Oct. 19, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1283485

ABSTRACT

Background: Cell culture (spheroid and 2D monolayer cultures) is an essential tool in drug discovery. Piperlongumine (PLN), a naturally occurring alkaloid present in the long pepper (Piper longum), has been implicated in the regulation of GSTP1 activity. In vitro treatment of cancer cells with PLN increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and induces cell death, but its molecular mode of action has not been entirely elucidated. Methods: In this study, we correlated the antiproliferative effects (2D and 3D cultures) of PLN (CAS 20069­09-4, Sigma-Aldrich) with morphological and molecular analyses in HepG2/C3A cell line. We performed assays for cytotoxicity (MTT), comet assays for genotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, analysis of the cell cycle phase, and analysis of the membrane integrity by flow cytometry. Relative expression of mRNA of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle control, metabolism of xenobiotics, and reticulum endoplasmic stress. Results: PLN reduced the cell proliferation by the cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Changes in the mRNA expression for CDKN1A (4.9x) and CCNA2 (0.5x) of cell cycle control genes were observed. Cell death occurred due to apoptosis, which may have been induced by increased expression of proapoptotic mRNAs (BAK1, 3.1x; BBC3, 2.4x), and by an increase in 9 and 3/7 active caspases. PLN induced cellular injury by ROS generation and DNA damage. DNA damage induced MDM2 signaling (3.0x) associated with the appearance of the monastral spindle in mitosis. Genes associated with ROS degradation also showed increased mRNA expression (GSR, 2.0x; SOD1, 2.1x). PLN induce endoplasmic reticulum stress with the increase in the mRNA expression of ERN1 (4.5x) and HSPA14 (2.2x). The xenobiotic metabolism showed increased mRNA expression for CYP1A2 (2.2x) and CYP3A4 (3.4x). In addition to 2D culture, PLN treatment also inhibited the growth of 3D culture (spheroids). Conclusion: Thus, the findings of our study show that several gene expression biomarkers (mRNAs) and monastral spindle formation indicated the many pathways of damage induced by PLN treatment that contributes to its antiproliferative effects


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dioxolanes/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression/drug effects , Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6980, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889067

ABSTRACT

Hormones regulate hepatic gene expressions to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has been thought to interfere with insulin signaling. To determine its potential role in the regulation of metabolism, we analyzed its gene (Enpp1) expression in the liver of rats experiencing fasting and refeeding cycles, and in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with insulin and dexamethasone using northern blot and real-time PCR techniques. Hepatic Enpp1 expression was induced by fasting and reduced by refeeding in the rat liver. In primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells, insulin reduced Enpp1 mRNA abundance, whereas dexamethasone induced it. Dexamethasone disrupted the insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression in primary hepatocytes. This is in contrast to the responses of the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene to the same hormones, where insulin reduced it significantly in the process. In addition, the dexamethasone-induced Enpp1 gene expression was attenuated in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatic Enpp1 is regulated in the cycle of fasting and refeeding, a process that might be attributed to insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression. This insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression might play a role in the development of complications in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Pyrophosphatases/biosynthesis , Pyrophosphatases/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Fasting/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7238, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889106

ABSTRACT

Ulomoides dermestoides is a beetle traditionally consumed to treat diabetes. In this study, we performed a composition analysis of U. dermestoides to obtain the principal fractions, which were used to assess the effect on glycemia, liver and pancreatic architecture, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Normal mice and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered fractions of chitin, protein or fat, and the acute hypoglycemic effect was evaluated. A subacute study involving daily administration of these fractions to diabetic mice was also performed over 30 days, after which the liver and pancreas were processed by conventional histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate morphological changes. The most active fraction, the fat fraction, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions were determined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The protein and fat fractions exhibited hypoglycemic effects in the acute as well as in the 30-day study. Only the fat fraction led to elevated insulin levels and reduced glycemia, as well as lower intake of water and food. In the liver, we observed recovery of close hepatic cords in the central lobule vein following treatment with the fat fraction, while in the pancreas there was an increased density and percentage of islets and number of cells per islet, suggesting cellular regeneration. The GC-MS analysis of fat revealed three fatty acids as the major components. Finally, increased expression of PPARγ and GLUT4 was observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating an antidiabetic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pancreas/drug effects , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use , Coleoptera/chemistry , Fat Body/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Tissue Extracts/isolation & purification , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 286-291, 4/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744366

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Propofol/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 72-78, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745871

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect of different doses of triiodothyronine on gene expression of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, at different times, and to evaluate the difference in expression between the two adipokines in each group. Methods 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with triiodothyronine at physiological dose (10nM) and supraphysiological doses (100nM or 1,000nM), or without triiodothyronine (control, C) for 0.5, 6, or 24 hours. Leptin and adiponectin mRNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One-way analyses of variance, Tukey’s test or Student’s t test, were used to analyze data, and significance level was set at 5%. Results Leptin levels decreased in the 1,000nM-dose group after 0.5 hour. Adiponectin levels dropped in the 10nM-dose group, but increased at the 100nM dose. After 6 hours, both genes were suppressed in all hormone concentrations. After 24 hours, leptin levels increased at 10, 100 and 1,000nM groups as compared to the control group; and adiponectin levels increased only in the 100nM group as compared to the control group. Conclusion These results demonstrated fast actions of triiodothyronine on the leptin and adiponectin expression, starting at 0.5 hour, at a dose of 1,000nM for leptin and 100nM for adiponectin. Triiodothyronine stimulated or inhibited the expression of adipokines in adipocytes at different times and doses which may be useful to assist in the treatment of obesity, assuming that leptin is increased and adiponectin is decreased, in obesity cases. .


Objetivo Examinar o efeito de diferentes doses de triiodotironina sobre a expressão gênica das adipocinas leptina e adiponectina, em diferentes períodos de tempo, além de avaliar a diferença de expressão entre as duas adipocinas em cada grupo. Métodos Adipócitos 3T3-L1 foram incubados com triiodotironina nas doses fisiológica (10nM) e suprafisiológicas (100nM ou 1.000nM), ou na ausência de triiodotironina (controle, C) durante 0,5, 6 ou 24 horas. O mRNA das adipocinas foi analisado em tempo real, utilizando a reação em cadeia de polimerase. Para as análises dos dados, foi utilizada a análise de variância, complementada com o teste de Tukey, ou o teste t de Student com 5% de significância. Resultados Os níveis de leptina diminuíram no grupo com dose de 1.000nM em 0,5 hora. A adiponectina também diminuiu no grupo com dose de 10nM, porém se elevou com a dose de 100nM. Após 6 horas, ambos os genes foram suprimidos em todas concentrações de hormônio. Em 24 horas, os níveis de leptina foram elevados em 10, 100 e 1.000nM, em relação ao grupo controle. No que concerne à adiponectina, observou-se aumento apenas no grupo cuja dose foi de 100nM, em comparação ao controle. Conclusão Foram demonstradas ações rápidas da triiodotironina sobre a expressão da leptina e da adiponectina, iniciando em 0,5 hora na dose de 1.000nM, para a primeira, e na dose de 100nM, para a segunda. A triiodotironina estimulou ou inibiu a expressão de adipocinas em adipócitos em diferentes tempos e doses, o que pode auxiliar no tratamento da obesidade, levando em consideração que, nesta, a leptina está aumentada e adiponectina, diminuída. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , /drug effects , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adiponectin/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Leptin/genetics , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Adiponectin/analysis , Cells, Cultured , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Leptin/analysis , Obesity/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Time Factors , Triiodothyronine/administration & dosage
6.
Salud colect ; 11(1): 99-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746687

ABSTRACT

El Consejo Federal de Medicina de Brasil (CFM) -órgano normativo y fiscalizador del ejercicio ético de la medicina- prohibió, en 2008, la participación de médicos brasileños en investigaciones que utilizaran placebo para enfermedades con tratamiento eficaz y efectivo, en contraposición a la Declaración de Helsinki, que permite su uso en condiciones metodológicamente justificadas. Con el objetivo de verificar si la normativa ética del CFM modificó el uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil, se analizaron varias características de sus registros en el ClinicalTrials.gov, en los períodos de 2003 a 2007 y de 2009 a 2013. Se concluye que: a) la normativa promulgada por el CFM en 2008 fue ineficaz y prevaleció la posición adoptada por la Declaración de Helsinki; b) el patrocinio de ensayos con placebo por parte de la industria farmacéutica multinacional fue significativo; c) predominaron las investigaciones de fármacos para enfermedades crónicas, y fueron poco significativas para las enfermedades postergadas, de importancia para Brasil.


In 2008, Brazil's Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina] (CFM) - regulatory and supervisory agency on the ethical practice of medicine - banned the participation of Brazilian doctors in studies using placebos for diseases with efficient and effective treatment. This position differs with the Helsinki Declaration, which allows the use of placebos in methodologically justified conditions. To ascertain whether the CMF's ethical regulation modified the use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil, characteristics of the records in ClinicalTrials.gov were researched in the periods from 2003 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2013. The conclusions reached were: a) the regulations issued by the CFM in 2008 were ineffective and the position adopted by the Helsinki Declaration prevails; b) there was significant sponsorship by the multinational pharmaceutical industry of trials with placebos; c) the research was predominantly on new drugs for chronic diseases, with little study done of the neglected diseases which are of great importance to Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics , Heme/deficiency , Nerve Degeneration/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Porphyrias/complications , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Collagen Type XI/drug effects , Collagen Type XI/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/drug effects , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Down-Regulation/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Heptanoates , Heme/biosynthesis , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Porphyrias/metabolism , Porphyrias/physiopathology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SMN Complex Proteins , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vesicular Transport Proteins/drug effects , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 437-445, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731150

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A nefrolitíase é uma patologia frequente, com alta taxa de prevalência e recorrência, ocorrendo por processo multifatorial e complexo. Objetivo: Analisar as principais características dietéticas e metabólicas de pacientes com nefrolitíase e compará-los com grupo controle. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal, com 31 pacientes com nefrolitíase (NE) e 18 saudáveis. Na ingestão dietética, foram verificados sódio, cálcio, proteína, potássio, vitamina C, oxalato e a ingestão hídrica em ambos os grupos. Na avaliação metabólica, foi analisada excreção urinária de citrato e oxalato. Também foi avaliada presença de hipertensão arterial e Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC). Resultados: Quanto ao grupo NE, verificou-se que 45,2% apresentou alta ingestão de sódio e 100% de oxalato. Foi também observada baixa ingestão de cálcio em 93,5%, potássio em 100% e vitamina C em 94,9%. Com relação à proteína, apenas 12,5% apresentou ingestão normoproteica. Quanto à ingestão hídrica, 12,9% apresentou ingestão menor que 1 litro, 54,8% entre 1 a 2 litros, e 32,3% maior que 2 litros. Foi observada hipertensão arterial sistêmica em 64,5% desses pacientes e excreção adequada de citrato e oxalato em 90,5% deles. Não foi verificada diferença estatística significativa na ingestão alimentar, IMC, e excreção de oxalato entre os grupos. No entanto, o grupo NE apresentou maior excreção de citrato. Conclusão: Verificou-se nos dois grupos elevada prevalência de pacientes com sobrepeso, alta ingestão de oxalato e sódio, além de inadequação nas ingestões de cálcio, potássio e vitamina C. No grupo NE, foi observada ...


Introduction: Nephrolithiasis is a common condition with high prevalence and recurrence, occuring by a complex and multifactorial process. Objective: To analyze the main dietary and metabolic characteristics of patients with nephrolithiasis and compare them with a control group. Methods: A crosssectional study with 31 patients with nephrolithiasis (NE) and 18 healthy. By the dietary intake it were observed sodium, calcium, protein, potassium, vitamin C, oxalate and water intake in both groups. Metabolic assessment were analyzed in urinary excretion of oxalate and citrate. The presence of hypertension and body mass index (BMI) was also evaluated. Results: In the NE group, it was found that 45.2% had a high intake of sodium and 100% a high intake of oxalate. It was also observed a low calcium, potassium and vitamin C intake by 93.5%, 100% and 94.9% respectively. Regarding protein, only 12.5% had normal protein intake. Concerning water intake, 12.9% had an ingestion less than 1 liter, 54.8% between 1 and 2 liters and 32.3% higher than 2 liters. Hypertension was observed in 64.5% of patients and adequate excretion of oxalate and citrate in 90.5% of them. There was no statistically difference in food intake, BMI and oxalate excretion between groups. However, the NE group showed higher urinary citrate. Conclusion: It was found in both groups a high prevalence of overweight patients, a high intake of oxalate and sodium, in addition to inadequate intakes of calcium, potassium and vitamin C. The NE group showed high protein intake and increased excretion of citrate. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Genes, Homeobox/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Glioma/pathology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Up-Regulation/drug effects
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(1): 50-59, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697673

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and evidence indicates a correlation between the inflammatory process and cardiac dysfunction. Selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme are not recommended for long-term use because of potentially severe side effects to the heart. Considering this and the frequent prescribing of commercial celecoxib, the present study analyzed cellular and molecular effects of 1 and 10 µM celecoxib in a cell culture model. After a 24-h incubation, celecoxib reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner as also demonstrated in MTT assays. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the drug modulated the expression level of genes related to death pathways, and Western blot analyses demonstrated a modulatory effect of the drug on COX-2 protein levels in cardiac cells. In addition, the results demonstrated a downregulation of prostaglandin E2 production by the cardiac cells incubated with celecoxib, in a dose-specific manner. These results are consistent with the decrease in cell viability and the presence of necrotic processes shown by Fourier transform infrared analysis, suggesting a direct correlation of prostanoids in cellular homeostasis and survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , /pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Myoblasts, Cardiac/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Survival/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Time Factors
9.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ligularia fischeri (common name Gomchwi) is known for its pharmaceutical properties and used in the treatment of jaundice, scarlet-fever, rheumatoidal arthritis, and hepatic diseases; however, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study the influence of blanching and pan-frying on the anti-inflammatory activity of Ligularia fischeri (LF) was evaluated. RESULTS: Fresh LF and cooked LF showed no significant effect on the viability of macrophages after 24 h incubation. Fresh LF was found to be the most potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production at 100 µg/ml, while pan-fried LF showed little inhibitory effect on lipoloysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine machrophage RAW264.7 cells. In contrast with its effect on NO production, pan-fried LF showed significant attenuation of the expression of inducible nitiric oxide synthase (iNOS) compared with fresh LF. In the cooking method of LF, PGE2 production was not affected in the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, pretreatment by fresh and cooked LF increased COX2 mRNA expression. The 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid content of blanching and pan-frying LF increased by 4.92 and 9.7 fold with blanching and pan-frying respectively in comparison with uncooked LF. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the cooking method, Ligularia fischeri exhibited potent inhibition of NO production through expression of iNOS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cooking/methods , Asteraceae/chemistry , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Quinic Acid/analysis , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/classification , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Dinoprostone/analysis , Dinoprostone/biosynthesis , Cell Survival , Lipopolysaccharides , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Asteraceae/classification , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , RAW 264.7 Cells , Hot Temperature , Macrophages/physiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 28(2): 264-272, jun. 2011. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-596564

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de atorvastatina sobre la progresión del remodelado cardiaco y la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. La diabetes fue inducida en ratas Holtzman con una inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina. Los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos: (1) ratas control, (2) ratas diabéticas y (3) ratas diabéticas tratadas con atorvastatina (50 mg/kg/día). Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, los corazones fueron extraídos para el análisis morfométrico, la cuantificación de colágeno y la determinación de los niveles de ARNm de ECA y ECA-2. Resultados. El índice de hipertrofia ventricular y el depósito de colágeno se incrementaron significativamente en las ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina previno estos cambios sin modificar los niveles de colesterol. La hiperglicemia produjo un incremento significativo en los niveles del ARNm de ECA y una marcada disminución en la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina indujo la expresión del ARNm de ECA-2 e inhibió la sobreexpresión del ARNm de ECA en el miocardio de las ratas diabéticas. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la atorvastatina, independientemente de su capacidad para disminuir el colesterol, normaliza la relación de la expresión de ECA/ECA-2 y atenúa el desarrollo del remodelado adverso en el corazón diabético.


Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal control rats, (2) diabetic rats and (3) diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day). After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morphometric studies, collagen content assay and genetic expressions of ACE and ACE2 mRNA. Results. Myocardial hypertrophy index and collagen deposition were increased in diabetic rats, but not in the treated-diabetic rats, without producing changes in cholesterol levels. Myocardial ACE mRNA levels were increased while ACE2 mRNA levels were decreased in diabetic rats. Atorvastatin administration attenuated overexpression of ACE mRNA and overexpression of ACE-2 mRNA in diabetic rats. Conclusions. Our results indicate that atorvastatin, independently of its cholesterol-lowering capacity, lowers the ACE/ACE2 ratio to normal values and attenuates the development of adverse remodeling in the diabetic heart.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis/genetics , Fibrosis/prevention & control , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(9): 828-836, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556864

ABSTRACT

Endothelins (ETs) and sarafotoxins (SRTXs) belong to a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, which regulate pigment migration and/or production in vertebrate pigment cells. The teleost Carassius auratus erythrophoroma cell line, GEM-81, and Mus musculus B16 melanocytes express rhodopsin, as well as the ET receptors, ETB and ETA, respectively. Both cell lines are photoresponsive, and respond to light with a decreased proliferation rate. For B16, the doubling time of cells kept in 14-h light (14L):10-h darkness (10D) was higher compared to 10L:14D, or to DD. The doubling time of cells kept in 10L:14D was also higher compared to DD. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that SRTX S6c (12-h treatment, 100 pM and 1 nM; 24-h treatment, 1 nM) and ET-1 (12-h treatment, 10 and 100 pM; 24- and 48-h treatments, 100 pM) increased rhodopsin mRNA levels in GEM-81 and B16 cells, respectively. This modulation involves protein kinase C (PKC) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in GEM-81 cells, and phospholipase C, Ca2+, calmodulin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, and PKC in B16 cells. Cells were kept under constant darkness throughout the gene expression experiments. These results show that rhodopsin mRNA levels can be modulated by SRTXs/ETs in vertebrate pigment cells. It is possible that SRTX S6c binding to the ETB receptors in GEM-81 cells, and ET-1 binding to ETA receptors in B16 melanocytes, although activating diverse intracellular signaling mechanisms, mobilize transcription factors such as c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, and neural retina leucine zipper protein. These activated transcription factors may be involved in the positive regulation of rhodopsin mRNA levels in these cell lines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Endothelins/pharmacology , Rhodopsin/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Viper Venoms/pharmacology , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation , Goldfish , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinase C/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rhodopsin/genetics , Rhodopsin/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(4): 325-329, Apr. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-543579

ABSTRACT

(-)-∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), a psychoactive component of marijuana, has been reported to induce oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we administered (∆9-THC to healthy C57BL/6J mice aged 15 weeks in order to determine its effect on hepatic redox state. Mice were divided into 3 groups: (∆9-THC (N = 10), treated with 10 mg/kg body weight (∆9-THC daily; VCtrl (N = 10), treated with vehicle [1:1:18, cremophor EL® (polyoxyl 35 castor oil)/ethanol/saline]; Ctrl (N = 10), treated with saline. Animals were injected ip twice a day with 5 mg/kg body weight for 10 days. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA oxidation were used as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The endogenous antioxidant defenses analyzed were glutathione (GSH) levels as well as enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver homogenates. The levels of mRNA of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were also monitored. Treatment with ∆9-THC did not produce significant changes in oxidative stress markers or in mRNA levels of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the liver of mice, but attenuated the increase in the selenium-dependent GPx activity (∆9-THC: 8 percent; VCtrl: 23 percent increase) and the GSH/oxidized GSH ratio (∆9-THC: 61 percent; VCtrl: 96 percent increase), caused by treatment with the vehicle. ∆9-THC administration did not show any harmful effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carboxylation or DNA oxidation in the healthy liver of mice but attenuated unexpected effects produced by the vehicle containing ethanol/cremophor EL®.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Psychotropic Drugs/pharmacology , Dronabinol/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Oxidation-Reduction , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Receptors, Cannabinoid/drug effects
13.
Biol. Res ; 41(1): 43-50, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-490631

ABSTRACT

This study describes the effect of novel 6-Arylbenzimidazo [1,2-c] quinazoline derivatives as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-á) production inhibitors. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro ability to inhibit the lipolysaccharide (LPS) induced TNF-á secretion in the human promyelocytic cell line HL-60. The compound 6-Phenyl-benzimidazo [1,2-c] quinazoline, coded as Gl, resulted as the most potent inhibitor and with no significant cytotoxic activity. Thus, 6-Arylbenzimidazo [1,2-c] quinazoline derivatives may have a potential as anti-inflammatory agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Quinazolines/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/analogs & derivatives , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) contains antibacterial, antiviral and anti-cancer activities. However the mechanisms underlying those activities have not been clearly explained. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. methanolic extract on Jurkat human leukemia T cell line. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) was used to study the effect on Jurkat cell metabolic activity using an MTT assay and on apoptosis using annexin V staining. Expression of SIRT1 gene was determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: At the concentrations 50 and 100 ig/mL, the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt significantly inhibited Jurkat cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as detected by annexin V staining. Downregulation of SIRT1 mRNA expression in Jurkat cells was observed even when the amount of methanol extract was 10 microg/mL. CONCLUSION: Methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt induced apoptosis of Jurkat leukemia T cell line in a mechanisms involving SIRTI mRNA downregulation.


Subject(s)
Annexin A5 , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Humans , Myristica , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Sirtuins/drug effects , Spices
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(1): 33-39, Jan. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439671

ABSTRACT

No fully effective treatment has been developed since the discovery of Chagas' disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Since drug-resistant Trypanosoma cruzi strains are occurring and the current therapy is effectiveness in the acute phase but with various adverse side effects, more studies are needed to characterize the susceptibility of T. cruzi to new drugs. Many natural and/or synthetic substances showing trypanocidal activity have been used, even though they are not likely to be turned into clinically approved drugs. Originally, drug screening was performed using natural products, with only limited knowledge of the molecular mechanism involved in the development of diseases. Trans-splicing, which is unusual RNA processing reaction and occurs in nematodes and trypanosomes, implies the processing of polycistronic transcription units into individual mRNAs; a short transcript spliced leader (SL RNA) is trans-spliced to the acceptor pre-mRNA, giving origin to the mature mRNA. In the present study, permeable cells of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Y, BOL and NCS strains) were treated to evaluate the interference of two drugs (hydroxymethylnitrofurazone - NFOH-121 and nitrofurazone) in the trans-splicing reaction using silver-stained PAGE analysis. Both drugs induced a significant reduction in RNA processing at concentrations from 5 to 12.5 æM. These data agreed with the biological findings, since the number of parasites decreased, especially with NFOH-121. This proposed methodology allows a rapid and cost-effective screening strategy for detecting drug interference in the trans-splicing mechanism of T. cruzi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Nitrofurazone/analogs & derivatives , Nitrofurazone/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Protozoan/drug effects , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , RNA Splicing/drug effects , Time Factors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development
16.
Biol. Res ; 40(2): 137-153, 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-468185

ABSTRACT

We quantified the ozone impact on levels of Zea mays L. cv. Chambord mRNAs encoding C4-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4-PEPc), ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small and large subunits (Rubisco-SSU and Rubisco-LSU, respectively) and Rubisco activase (RCA) using real-time RT-PCR. Foliar pigment content, PEPc and Rubisco protein amounts were simultaneously determined. Two experiments were performed to study the ozone response of the 5th and the 10th leaf. For each experiment, three ozone concentrations were tested in open-top chambers: non-filtered air (NF, control) and non-filtered air containing 40 (+40) and 80 nL L-1 (+80) ozone. Regarding the 5th leaf, +40 atmosphere induced a loss in pigmentation, PEPc and Rubisco activase mRNAs. However, it was unable to notably depress carboxylase protein amounts and mRNAs encoding Rubisco. Except for Rubisco mRNAs, all other measured parameters from 5th leaf were depressed by +80 atmosphere. Regarding the 10th leaf, +40 atmosphere increased photosynthetic pigments and transcripts encoding Rubisco and Rubisco activase. Rubisco and PEPc protein amounts were not drastically changed, even if they tended to be increased. Level of C4-PEPc mRNA remained almost stable. In response to +80 atmosphere, pigments and transcripts encoding PEPc were notably decreased. Rubisco and PEPc protein amounts also declined to a lesser extent. Conversely, the level of transcripts encoding both Rubisco subunits and Rubisco activase that were not consistently disturbed tended to be slightly augmented. So, the present study suggests that maize leaves can respond differentially to a similar ozone stress.


Subject(s)
Ozone/pharmacology , Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase/metabolism , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/metabolism , Zea mays/drug effects , Zea mays/enzymology , Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/enzymology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Plant/drug effects , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/drug effects , Zea mays/genetics
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(5): 677-685, May 2006. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-425788

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is notorious for the metastases, which are in close association with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been shown to induce apoptosis and differentiation in NPC xenografts. Then, can it repress the cancer cells' metastasis potential? To elucidate this issue, the present study was performed. LMP1-negative cell line HNE1 and LMP1-positive cell line HNE1-LMP1 were used as in vitro model. Cells (1 x 10(5)/mL) were cultured with or without 3 æM As2O3 for 48 h. Then the survival cells were collected to investigate their potential of colony formation, attachment, invasion, and migration. Both confocal immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the changes of LMP1 expression. The changes of MMP-9 were examined by RT-PCR assay and Western blot. The results were as follow: i) the colony formation inhibition rate (75.41 ± 3.9 percent in HNE1-LMP1 cells vs 37.89 ± 4.9 percent in HNE1 cells), the rate of attachment (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 56.40 ± 3.5 vs 65.87 ± 5.9 percent), the invasion inhibitory rate (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 56.50 ± 3.7 and 27.91 ± 2.1 percent), and the migration inhibitory rate (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 48.70 ± 3.9 vs 29.19 ± 6.27 percent) were all significantly different between the two cell lines (P < 0.01). ii) LMP1 was down-regulated in As2O3-treated HNE1-LMP1 cells. iii) The reduction of MMP-9 was found in As2O3-treated groups, more evident in HNE1-LMP1 cells. Thus, we conclude that As2O3 can reduce metastasis potential of NPC cells, involving inhibition of MMP-9 expression. LMP1 were also reduced in this process and seemed to enhance anti-metastasis activity of As2O3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Arsenicals/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxides/pharmacology , Viral Matrix Proteins/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Microscopy, Confocal , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis/pathology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 64(2): 129-134, 2004. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-444344

ABSTRACT

We addressed the effect of targeting type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR), with antisense strategies in in vivo growth of breast cancer cells. We used C4HD tumors from an experimental model of hormonal carcinogenesis in which medroxyprogesterone acetate induced mammary adenocarcinomas in Balb/c mice. Intratumor or systemic administration of phosphorothiolated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS[S]ODN) to IGF-IR mRNA resulted in a significant inhibition of C4HD tumor growth. The antitumor effect was specific since inhibition of tumor growth was dose-dependent and no effect was observed in mice treated with sense S[S]ODN. Tumors from AS[S]ODN-treated mice showed a decrease in IGF-IR expression and in insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Activation of PI-3K/Akt, p42/p44 MAPK and ErbB-2 was abolished in tumors treated with AS[S]ODN. Progesterone receptor expression or activity remained invariable. This is the first demonstration that breast cancer growth can be inhibited by direct in vivo administration of IGF-IR AS[S]ODN.


Evaluamos el efecto del bloqueo de la expresión del receptor del factor de crecimiento semejante a lainsulina tipo I (IGF-IR) sobre el crecimiento in vivo de cáncer de mama empleando una estrategia“antisentido”. Utilizamos el adenocarcinoma mamario murino progestágeno-dependiente C4HD. La administración intratumoral o sistémica de oligodeoxinucleótidos antisentido fosfotiolados al ARNm del IGF-IR (AS[S]ODN) inhibió el crecimiento tumoral. El efecto antitumoral fue específico debido a su dosis-dependencia y a la faltade efecto en ratones tratados con el S[S]ODN “sentido”. Los tumores obtenidos de ratones tratados con AS[S]ODN mostraron: disminución en la expresión de IGF-IR y en la fosforilación del sustrato del receptor de insulina-1, inhibición de la activación de PI-3K/Akt, p42/p44MAPK y ErbB-2, mientras que la expresión y activación del receptor de progesterona no se afectó. Es la primera demostración que el


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/metabolism , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense , Receptor, IGF Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Somatomedin/metabolism , Animal Diseases , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Medroxyprogesterone , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Receptor, IGF Type 1/drug effects , Receptor, IGF Type 1/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured
19.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 1(4): 327-336, Dec. 2002.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-417633

ABSTRACT

The effects of breed and of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment on growth hormone gene expression were studied in young bulls. The experiment was completely randomized in a [2 x 2]-factorial arrangement, using two levels of rbST (0 or 250 mg/animal/14 days), and two breed groups (Nelore and Simmental x Nelore crossbred). A cDNA encoding Bos indicus growth hormone was cloned and sequenced for use as a probe in Northern and dot blot analyses. Compared to the Bos taurus structural gene, the Bos indicus cDNA was found to begin 21 bases downstream from the transcription initiation site and had only two discrepancies (C to T at position 144-His and T to C at position 354-Phe), without changes in the polypeptide sequence. However, two amino acid substitutions were found for Bubalus spp., which belong to the same tribe. The rbST treatment did not change any of the characteristics evaluated (body and pituitary gland weights, growth hormone mRNA expression level). Crossbred animals had significantly higher body weight and heavier pituitaries than Nelore cattle. Pituitary weight was proportional to body weight in both breed groups. Growth hormone mRNA expression in the pituitary was similar (P>0.075) for both breed and hormonal treatment groups, but was 31.9 higher in the pure Nelore group, suggesting that growth hormone gene transcription regulation differs among these breeds


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cattle/growth & development , Gene Expression/drug effects , Pituitary Gland/drug effects , Growth Hormone/pharmacology , Cattle/genetics , DNA, Complementary/analysis , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Pituitary Gland , Growth Hormone/genetics , Body Weight/drug effects , Body Weight/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Folha méd ; 120(1): 35-7, jan.-mar. 2001.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-282628

ABSTRACT

É descrito um caso de carcinoma papilífero de tiróide pesquisado pelo RNA mensageiro da tiroglobulina (mRNA-Tg). A importância do método do mRNA-Tg no seguimento de pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado de tiróide em reposição tiroidiana é analisado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Thyroglobulin/therapeutic use , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyroxine/therapeutic use
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