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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 216-226, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929209

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which makes up the majority of liver cancer, is induced by the infection of hepatitis B/C virus. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate the early detection of HCC, which is often diagnosed too late for effective therapy. The tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis and are stable in circulation. However, the diagnostic values and biological functions of circulating tsRNAs, especially for HCC, are still unknown. In this study, we first utilized RNA sequencing followed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR to analyze tsRNA signatures in HCC serum. We identified tRF-Gln-TTG-006, which was remarkably upregulated in HCC serum (training cohort: 24 HCC patients vs. 24 healthy controls). In the validation stage, we found that tRF-Gln-TTG-006 signature could distinguish HCC cases from healthy subjects with high sensitivity (80.4%) and specificity (79.4%) even in the early stage (Stage I: sensitivity, 79.0%; specificity, 74.8%; 155 healthy controls vs. 153 HCC patients from two cohorts). Moreover, in vitro studies indicated that circulating tRF-Gln-TTG-006 was released from tumor cells, and its biological function was predicted by bioinformatics assay and validated by colony formation and apoptosis assays. In summary, our study demonstrated that serum tsRNA signature may serve as a novel biomarker of HCC.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , RNA, Transfer/genetics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929040

ABSTRACT

Generation of mutants with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is commonly carried out in fish species by co-injecting a mixture of Cas9 messenger RNA (mRNA) or protein and transcribed guide RNA (gRNA). However, the appropriate expression system to produce functional gRNAs in fish embryos and cells is rarely present. In this study, we employed a poly-transfer RNA (tRNA)-gRNA (PTG) system driven by cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to target the medaka (Oryzias latipes) endogenous gene tyrosinase(tyr) or paired box 6.1 (pax6.1) and illustrated its function in a medaka cell line and embryos. The PTG system was combined with the CRISPR/Cas9 system under high levels of promoter to successfully induce gene editing in medaka. This is a valuable step forward in potential application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in medaka and other teleosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line , Gene Editing , Oryzias/genetics , RNA, Guide/genetics , RNA, Transfer/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of detecting maternal hereditary mitochondrial tRNA@*METHODS@#We performed sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from 2070 cases of maternal hereditary mitochondrial disease in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, and identified 3 patients with m.15927G>A mutation.Buccal swabs and blood samples were obtained from the 3 patients (mutation group) and 3 normal volunteers (control group).After extracting whole genomic DNA from all the samples, the DNA concentration and purity were analyzed.The PCR products were subjected to dot blot hybridization, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequencing analysis to verify the feasibility of detecting m.15927G>A mutation using buccal swabs.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in DNA concentration extracted from buccal swabs and blood samples in either the mutation group or the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buccal swabs collection accurate is an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of m.15927G>A mutation.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria , Mutation , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis, DNA
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4293-4302, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921506

ABSTRACT

Acetic acid is a common inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Development of acetic acid tolerant strains may improve the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals using lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials. Current studies on stress tolerance of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly focused on transcription control, but the role of transfer RNA (tRNA) was rarely investigated. We found that some tRNA genes showed elevated transcription levels in a stress tolerant yeast strain. In this study, we further investigated the effects of overexpressing an arginine transfer RNA gene tR(ACG)D and a leucine transfer RNA gene tL(CAA)K on cell growth and ethanol production of S. cerevisiae BY4741 under acetic acid stress. The tL(CAA)K overexpression strain showed a better growth and a 29.41% higher ethanol productivity than that of the control strain. However, overexpression of tR(ACG)D showed negative influence on cell growth and ethanol production. Further studies revealed that the transcriptional levels of HAA1, MSN2, and MSN4, which encode transcription regulators related to stress tolerance, were up-regulated in tL(CAA)K overexpressed strain. This study provides an alternative strategy to develop robust yeast strains for cellulosic biorefinery, and also provides a basis for investigating how yeast stress tolerance is regulated by tRNA genes.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Fermentation , Leucine , RNA, Transfer/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 891-898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826887

ABSTRACT

Unnatural amino acid orthogonal translation machinery can insert unnatural amino acids at desired sites of protein through stop codon by means of foreign orthogonal translation system composed of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and orthogonal tRNA genes. This new genetic engineering technology is not only a new tool for biochemical researches of proteins, but also an epoch-making technology for the development of new-type live viral vaccines. The mutated virus containing premature termination codon in genes necessary for replication can be propagated in transgenic cells harboring unnatural amino acid orthogonal translation machinery in media with corresponding unnatural amino acid, but it cannot replicate in conventional host cells. This replication-deficient virus is a new-type of live viral vaccine that possesses advantages of high efficacy of traditional attenuated vaccine and high safety of killed vaccine. This article reviews the application and prospect of unnatural amino acid orthogonal translation machinery in the development of novel replication-deficient virus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Genetics , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , Genetic Engineering , Protein Engineering , RNA, Transfer , Viral Vaccines
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180443, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040616

ABSTRACT

The presence of tRNA array, a region with high tRNA gene number and density, has been demonstrated in Mycobacterium genus. However, a recent phylogenomic study revealed the existence of five distinct monophyletic groups (genera) within this genus. Considering this new scenario, and based on in-silico analyses, we have identified and characterised the abundance and diversity of tRNA array units within Mycobacterium, Mycolicibacterium gen. nov., Mycolicibacillus gen. nov., and Mycobacteroides gen. nov. The occurrence and prevalence of tRNA arrays among the genera belonging to Actinobacteria indicate their possible role in the organismal fitness.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Typing Techniques , Mycobacterium/genetics , Phylogeny , RNA, Transfer/genetics , Mycobacterium/classification
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180348, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Shared traits between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are helpful in the understanding of the tree of life evolution. In bacteria and eukaryotes, it has been shown a particular organisation of tRNA genes as clusters, but this trait has not been explored in the archaea domain. OBJECTIVE Explore the occurrence of tRNA gene clusters in archaea. METHODS In-silico analyses of complete and draft archaeal genomes based on tRNA gene isotype and synteny, tRNA gene cluster content and mobilome elements. FINDINGS We demonstrated the prevalence of tRNA gene clusters in archaea. tRNA gene clusters, composed of archaeal-type tRNAs, were identified in two Archaea class, Halobacteria and Methanobacteria from Euryarchaeota supergroup. Genomic analyses also revealed evidence of the association between tRNA gene clusters to mobile genetic elements and intra-domain horizontal gene transfer. MAIN CONCLUSIONS tRNA gene cluster occurs in the three domains of life, suggesting a role of this type of tRNA gene organisation in the biology of the living organisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Transfer/analysis , Archaea/classification , Euryarchaeota/virology , Plasmids , Haloarcula
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742304

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of Spirometra ranarum, and to compare it with those of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The aim of this study was to provide information of the species level taxonomy of Spirometra spp. using the mitochondrial genomes of 3 Spirometra tapeworms. The S. ranarum isolate originated from Myanmar. The mitochondrial genome sequence of S. ranarum was compared with that of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) and S. decipiens (Gen-Bank no. KJ599679). The complete mtDNA sequence of S. ranarum comprised 13,644 bp. The S. ranarum mt genome contained 36 genes comprising 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mt genome lacked the atp8 gene, as found for other cestodes. All genes in the S. ranarum mitochondrial genome are transcribed in the same direction and arranged in the same relative position with respect to gene loci as found for S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens mt genomes. The overall nucleotide sequence divergence of 12 protein-coding genes between S. ranarum and S. decipiens differed by 1.5%, and 100% sequence similarity was found in the cox2 and nad6 genes, while the DNA sequence divergence of the cox1, nad1, and nad4 genes of S. ranarum and S. decipiens was 2.2%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cestoda , Classification , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genes, vif , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Myanmar , RNA, Transfer , Spirometra
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772995

ABSTRACT

High-throughput RNA-seq has revolutionized the process of small RNA (sRNA) discovery, leading to a rapid expansion of sRNA categories. In addition to the previously well-characterized sRNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), recent emerging studies have spotlighted on tRNA-derived sRNAs (tsRNAs) and rRNA-derived sRNAs (rsRNAs) as new categories of sRNAs that bear versatile functions. Since existing software and pipelines for sRNA annotation are mostly focused on analyzing miRNAs or piRNAs, here we developed the sRNA annotation pipelineoptimized for rRNA- and tRNA-derived sRNAs (SPORTS1.0). SPORTS1.0 is optimized for analyzing tsRNAs and rsRNAs from sRNA-seq data, in addition to its capacity to annotate canonical sRNAs such as miRNAs and piRNAs. Moreover, SPORTS1.0 can predict potential RNA modification sites based on nucleotide mismatches within sRNAs. SPORTS1.0 is precompiled to annotate sRNAs for a wide range of 68 species across bacteria, yeast, plant, and animal kingdoms, while additional species for analyses could be readily expanded upon end users' input. For demonstration, by analyzing sRNA datasets using SPORTS1.0, we reveal that distinct signatures are present in tsRNAs and rsRNAs from different mouse cell types. We also find that compared to other sRNA species, tsRNAs bear the highest mismatch rate, which is consistent with their highly modified nature. SPORTS1.0 is an open-source software and can be publically accessed at https://github.com/junchaoshi/sports1.0.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mice , MicroRNAs , Chemistry , Metabolism , Molecular Sequence Annotation , RNA, Ribosomal , Chemistry , Metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Chemistry , Metabolism , RNA, Small Untranslated , Chemistry , Metabolism , RNA, Transfer , Chemistry , Metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Methods , Software
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772993

ABSTRACT

More than 100 modifications have been found in RNA. Analogous to epigenetic DNA methylation, epitranscriptomic modifications can be written, read, and erased by a complex network of proteins. Apart from N-methyladenosine (mA), N-methyladenosine (mA) has been found as a reversible modification in tRNA and mRNA. mA occurs at positions 9, 14, and 58 of tRNA, with mA58 being critical for tRNA stability. Other than the hundreds of mA sites in mRNA and long non-coding RNA transcripts, transcriptome-wide mapping of mA also identifies >20 mA sites in mitochondrial genes. mA in the coding region of mitochondrial transcripts can inhibit the translation of the corresponding proteins. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of mA in mRNA and tRNA, covering high-throughput sequencing methods developed for mA methylome, mA-related enzymes (writers and erasers), as well as its functions in mRNA and tRNA.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Chemistry , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Chemistry , RNA, Transfer , Chemistry
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742270

ABSTRACT

Triatoma rubrofasciata is a wide-spread vector of Chagas disease in Americas. In this study, we completed the mitochondrial genome sequencing of T. rubrofasciata. The total length of T. rubrofasciata mitochondrial genome was 17,150 bp with the base composition of 40.4% A, 11.6% G, 29.4% T and 18.6% C. It included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. We constructed a phylogenetic tree on the 13 protein-coding genes of T. rubrofasciata and other 13 closely related species to show their phylogenic relationship. The determination of T. rubrofasciata mitogenome would play an important role in understanding the genetic diversity and evolution of triatomine bugs.


Subject(s)
Americas , Base Composition , Chagas Disease , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Variation , Genome, Mitochondrial , Phylogeny , RNA, Transfer , Trees , Triatoma
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56572

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common hereditary optic neuropathies caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Three common mitochondrial mutations causing LHON are m.3460, m.11778, and m.14484. We report a rare mutation of the mitochondrial tRNA (Leu [UUR]) gene (MT-TL1) (m.3268 A > G) in a patient with bilateral optic atrophy. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old female diagnosed with glaucoma 3 years earlier at a community eye clinic presented to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic. On examination, her best corrected visual acuity was 0.4 in the right eye and 0.7 in the left eye, and optic atrophy was noticed in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in both eyes; average RNFL thickness was 52 µm in the right eye and 44 µm in the left eye, but the papillomacular bundle was relatively preserved in both eyes. Goldmann perimetry demonstrated peripheral visual field defects, mostly involving superotemporal visual field in both eyes. Mitochondrial DNA mutation test showed an unusual mutation in MT-TL1 gene seemingly related to this optic neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: We found a rare mutation (m.3268 A > G) of the mitochondrial DNA in a patient having bilateral optic atrophy, which led to the diagnosis of LHON. There have been previous reports about mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and infantile myopathy caused by MT-TL1 mutation, but this is the first case of LHON associated with the same mutation. In this case of LHON associated with MT-TL1 mutation, atypical clinical features were observed with a relatively mild phenotype and peripheral visual field defects.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , Female , Glaucoma , Humans , MELAS Syndrome , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases , Nerve Fibers , Optic Atrophy , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber , Optic Nerve Diseases , Phenotype , Retinaldehyde , RNA, Transfer , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Visual Field Tests , Visual Fields
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16103

ABSTRACT

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-17 (COXPD-17) is very rare and is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ELAC2 gene on chromosome 17p12. The ELAC2 gene functions as a mitochondrial tRNA processing gene, and only 4 different pathogenic mutations have been reported in ELAC2-associated mitochondrial dysfunction involving oxidative phosphorylation. Affected patients show various clinical symptoms and prognosis, depending on the genotype. We report a novel mutation in the ELAC2 gene (c.95C>G [p.Pro32Arg], het), in an infant with COXPD-17 who presented with encephalopathy including central apnea and intractable epilepsy, and growth and developmental retardation. During hospitalization, consistently elevated serum lactic acid levels were noted, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. The patient suddenly died of shock of unknown cause at 5 months of age. This is the first case report of COXPD-17 in Korea and was diagnosed based on clinical characteristics and genetic analysis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Genotype , Growth and Development , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlactatemia , Infant , Korea , Lactic Acid , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Prognosis , RNA, Transfer , Shock , Sleep Apnea, Central
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335138

ABSTRACT

A high proportion of modified nucleotides has been found in mitochondrial tRNA. Such modification can promote accurate folding of tRNA and its stability, while unmodified mitochondrial tRNA may fold into various 2D-structures with impaired functions. Therefore, modification of mitochondrial tRNA is closely related to mitochondrial diseases. Particularly, positions 9, 34, 37, 54 and 55 of the mitochondrial tRNA are critical for such modification. Mutations at these positions are important cause for mitochondrial dysfunction and have been associated with various mitochondrial diseases.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial , Chemistry , Genetics , Humans , Mitochondrial Diseases , Genetics , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Transfer , Chemistry , Genetics
15.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 123-127, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192021

ABSTRACT

Synonymous sites are generally considered to be functionally neutral. However, there are recent contradictory findings suggesting that synonymous alleles might have functional roles in various molecular aspects. For instance, a recent study demonstrated that synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms have a similar effect size as nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in human disease association studies. Researchers have recognized synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) in the genomes of almost all species and have investigated whether SCUB is due to random nucleotide compositional bias or to natural selection of any functional exposure generated by synonymous mutations. One of the most prominent observations on the non-neutrality of synonymous codons is the correlation between SCUB and levels of gene expression, such that highly expressed genes tend to have a higher preference toward so-called optimal codons than lowly expressed genes. In relation, it is known that amounts of cognate tRNAs that bind to optimal codons are significantly higher than the amounts of cognate tRNAs that bind to non-optimal codons in genomes. In the present paper, we review various functions that synonymous codons might have other than regulating expression levels.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Bias , Codon , Gene Expression , Genome , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Transfer , Selection, Genetic , Silent Mutation
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92515

ABSTRACT

Armillifer agkistrodontis (Ichthyostraca: Pantastomida) is a parasitic pathogen, only reported in China, which can cause a zoonotic disease, pentastomiasis. A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was 16,521 bp comprising 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (NCR). A phylogenetic tree drawn with the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 6 conserved PCGs (atp6, cox1-3, and nad2) showed that A. agkistrodontis and Armillifer armillatus constituted a clade Pentastomida which was a sister group of the Branchiura. The complete mt genome sequence of A. agkistrodontis provides important genetic markers for both phylogenetic and epidemiological studies of pentastomids.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , China , Epidemiologic Studies , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Markers , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Pentastomida , RNA, Transfer , Siblings , Tongue , Trees , Zoonoses
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57434

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma hortense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is one of the intestinal flukes with medical importance in humans. However, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of this fluke has not been known yet. The present study has determined the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense and assessed the phylogenetic relationships with other digenean species for which the complete mt genome sequences are available in GenBank using concatenated amino acid sequences inferred from 12 protein-coding genes. The mt genome of E. hortense contained 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region. The length of the mt genome of E. hortense was 14,994 bp, which was somewhat smaller than those of other trematode species. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequence datasets for all 12 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) method showed that E. hortense and Hypoderaeum conoideum gathered together, and they were closer to each other than to Fasciolidae and other echinostomatid trematodes. The availability of the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, population genetics, and evolutionary studies of digeneans.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Dataset , Echinostoma , Echinostomatidae , Fasciolidae , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Markers , Genetics, Population , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , RNA, Transfer , Trematoda
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72751

ABSTRACT

Toxascaris leonina is a common parasitic nematode of wild mammals and has significant impacts on the protection of rare wild animals. To analyze population genetic characteristics of T. leonina from South China tiger, its mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced. Its complete circular mt genome was 14,277 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A and T. The most common start codon and stop codon were TTG and TAG, and 4 genes ended with an incomplete stop codon. There were 13 intergenic regions ranging 1 to 10 bp in size. Phylogenetically, T. leonina from a South China tiger was close to canine T. leonina. This study reports for the first time a complete mt genome sequence of T. leonina from the South China tiger, and provides a scientific basis for studying the genetic diversity of nematodes between different hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Bias , China , Codon, Initiator , Codon, Terminator , DNA, Intergenic , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Variation , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Mammals , Phylogeny , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis , Tigers , Toxascaris
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166318

ABSTRACT

The 2 species of the genus Anoplocephala (Anoplocephalidae), A. perfoliata and A. magna, are among the most important equine cestode parasites. However, there is little information about their differences at the molecular level. The present study revealed that the mitochondrial (mt) genome of A. magna was 13,759 bp in size and 700 bp shorter than that of A. perfoliata. The 2 species includes 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 12 protein-coding genes each. The size of each of the 36 genes was the same as that of A. perfoliata, except for cox1, rrnL, trnC, trnS2(UCN), trnG, trnH, trnQ, and trnP. In the full mitochondrial genome, the sequence similarity was 87.1%. The divergence in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of individual protein-coding genes ranged from 11.1% to 16% and 6.8% to 16.4%, respectively. The 2 noncoding regions of the mt genome of A. magna were 199 bp and 271 bp in length, while the equivalent regions in A. perfoliata were 875 bp and 276 bp, respectively. The results of this study support the proposal that A. magna and A. perfoliata are separate species, consistent with previous morphological analyses.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cestoda , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Parasites , RNA, Transfer
20.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 94-101, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42766

ABSTRACT

tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are an emerging class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). A growing number of reports have shown that tRFs are not random degradation products but are functional ncRNAs made of specific tRNA cleavage. They play regulatory roles in several biological contexts such as cancer, innate immunity, stress responses, and neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the biogenesis and functions of tRFs.


Subject(s)
Organelle Biogenesis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Nervous System Diseases , Neurodegenerative Diseases , RNA , RNA, Transfer , RNA, Untranslated
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