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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 197-205, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522083


BACKGROUND: Different modalities of quarantines were one of the main measures implemented worldwide to avoid the spread of SARS-CoV2 virus. AIM: To analyze and compare retrospectively the implementation of the Step- to-Step plan devised by the Chilean Ministry of Health during the pandemic. To propose a decision-making path based on an artificial intelligence fuzzy system to determine confinements in specific territories. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Step-to-Step Plan threshold values such hospital network capacity, epidemic spreading, testing and contact tracing capability were modeled using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy rule-based systems. RESULTS: Ministry of Health's decision-making opportuneness were unrelated with the Step-to-Step Plan indicators for deconfinement. Such disagreements undermined epidemiological indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Using an artificial intelligence system could improve decision-making transparency, emergency governance, and risk communication to the population.

Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Quarantine , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Fuzzy Logic
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 402-409, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984736


Objective: To study the diagnostic value of different detection markers in histological categories of endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECA), and their assessment of patient prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study of 54 patients with ECA in the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2005-2010 were performed. The cases of ECA were classified into two categories, namely human papillomavirus-associated adenocarcinoma (HPVA) and non-human papillomavirus-associated adenocarcinoma (NHPVA), based on the 2018 international endocervical adenocarcinoma criteria and classification (IECC). To detect HR-HPV DNA and HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA in all patients, we used whole tissue section PCR (WTS-PCR) and HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques, respectively. Additionally, we performed Laser microdissection PCR (LCM-PCR) on 15 randomly selected HR-HPV DNA-positive cases to confirm the accuracy of the above two assays in identifying ECA lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the efficacy of markers to identify HPVA and NHPVA. Univariate and multifactorial Cox proportional risk model regression analyses were performed for factors influencing ECA patients' prognoses. Results: Of the 54 patients with ECA, 30 were HPVA and 24 were NHPVA. A total of 96.7% (29/30) of HPVA patients were positive for HR-HPV DNA and 63.3% (19/30) for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and 33.3% (8/24) of NHPVA patients were positive for HR-HPV DNA and HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA was not detected (0/24), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). LCM-PCR showed that five patients were positive for HR-HPV DNA in the area of glandular epithelial lesions and others were negative, which was in good agreement with the E6/E7 mRNA ISH assay (Kappa=0.842, P=0.001). Analysis of the ROC results showed that the AUC of HR-HPV DNA, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 to identify HPVA and NHPVA were 0.817, 0.817, and 0.692, respectively, with sensitivities of 96.7%, 63.3%, and 80.0% and specificities of 66.7%, 100.0%, and 58.3%, respectively. HR-HPV DNA identified HPVA and NHPVA with higher AUC than p16 (P=0.044). The difference in survival rates between HR-HPV DNA (WTS-PCR assay) positive and negative patients was not statistically significant (P=0.156), while the difference in survival rates between HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive and negative patients, and p16 positive and negative patients were statistically significant (both P<0.05). Multifactorial Cox regression analysis showed that International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) staging (HR=19.875, 95% CI: 1.526-258.833) and parametrial involvement (HR=14.032, 95% CI: 1.281-153.761) were independent factors influencing the prognosis of patients with ECA. Conclusions: HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA is more reflective of HPV infection in ECA tissue. The efficacy of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and HR-HPV DNA (WTS-PCR assay) in identifying HPVA and NHPVA is similar, with higher sensitivity of HR-HPV DNA and higher specificity of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. HR-HPV DNA is more effective than p16 in identifying HPVA and NHPVA. HPV E6/E7 mRNA and p16 positive ECA patients have better survival rates than negative.

Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Oncogene Proteins, Viral/genetics , Papillomaviridae , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Papillomaviridae/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 466-470, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986154


Hepatitis type E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in China, and its etiological diagnosis relies on laboratory detection. Therefore, this article introduces the HEV RNA, HEV antigen, anti-HEV IgM, and IgG detection methods and their diagnostic application value. In addition, it also discusses the current international diagnostic standard and HEV infection presentation.

Humans , RNA, Viral , Hepatitis Antibodies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Hepatitis E virus , Immunoglobulin M , Hepatitis
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1114-1118, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985641


Objective: To understand the infection status and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in people aged 1-69 years in Henan Province in 2020. Methods: The estimated sample size was 5 827. From August to December 2020, multistage sampling was used to select 8 counties (districts) in Henan, and two survey sites were selected in each county (district), and a questionnaire survey was conducted in local people aged 1-69 years, blood samples were collected from them for anti-HCV, HCV RNA and genotype detections. Results: A total of 5 165 people aged 1-69 years completed the questionnaire survey. Men accounted for 44.76% (2 312/5 165), women accounted for 55.24% (2 853/5 165). In the people aged 1-69 years, the overall prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.69% (95%CI: 0.68%-0.70%) and 0.20% (95%CI: 0.19%-0.21%) respectively. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.48% (95%CI: 0.46%-0.50%), 0.09% (95%CI: 0.08%-0.10%) in men and 0.86% (95%CI: 0.85%-0.87%), 0.30% (95%CI: 0.28%-0.32%) in women. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA increased with age. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.87% (95%CI: 0.86%-0.88%), 0.28% (95%CI: 0.26%-0.30%) in urban residents and 0.53% (95%CI: 0.51%-0.55%), 0.14% (95%CI: 0.13%-0.15%) in rural residents. The genotyping results of 10 HCV RNA positive samples ware genotype 1b (4/10), genotype 2 (3/10), genotype 1b/3 (1/10), genotype 1b/3/6 (1/10) and genotype 2/6 (1/10). Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatitis C was low in Henan in 2020. It is necessary to strengthen hepatitis C surveillance in people aged 40 years and above. The major HCV genotypes were 1b and 2, and mixed genotype infection existed.

Female , Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coinfection , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/genetics , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 268-272, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969877


Objective: To establish a rapid and specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic nucleocapsid RNA (SgN) in patients with COVID-19 or environmental samples. Methods: The qPCR assay was established by designing specific primers and TaqMan probe based on the SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequence in Global Initiative of Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) database. The reaction conditions were optimized by using different annealing temperature, different primers and probe concentrations and the standard curve was established. Further, the specificity, sensitivity and repeatability were also assessed. The established SgN and genomic RNA (gRNA) qPCR assays were both applied to detect 21 environmental samples and 351 clinical samples containing 48 recovered patients. In the specimens with both positive gRNA and positive SgN, 25 specimens were inoculated on cells. Results: The primers and probes of SgN had good specificity for SARS-CoV-2. The minimum detection limit of the preliminarily established qPCR detection method for SgN was 1.5×102 copies/ml, with a coefficient of variation less than 1%. The positive rate of gRNA in 372 samples was 97.04% (361/372). The positive rates of SgN in positive environmental samples and positive clinical samples were 36.84% (7/19) and 49.42% (169/342), respectively. The positive rate and copy number of SgN in Wild strain were lower than those of SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain. Among the 25 SgN positive samples, 12 samples within 5 days of sampling time were all isolated with virus; 13 samples sampled for more than 12 days had no cytopathic effect. Conclusion: A qPCR method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 SgN has been successfully established. The sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of this method are good.

Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Subgenomic RNA , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , COVID-19 Testing
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1204-1222, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425455


Introdução: Arbovírus são causadores de doenças humanas, sendo que mudança ecológicas e aumento do contato humano-vetor aumenta a possibilidade de surtos. Objetivo: Detectar, identificar e caracterizar arbovírus presentes em mosquitos vetores capturados em regiões de mata próximas a Três Lagoas, MS. Metodologia: Mosquitos foram capturados utilizando armadilhas de luz em regiões de mata circunvizinha a Três Lagoas. Os mosquitos capturados foram classificados por gênero (chave morfológica) e agrupados em pools com até 20 espécimes, e utilizados através da reação de RT-PCR com posterior sequenciamento e análise filogenética. Resultados: Foram capturados 851 dos gêneros: Culex spp. (11 pools); Aedes spp. (13 pools); Haemagogus spp. (7 pools) e outros gêneros não identificados. Sequencias de vírus Dengue (DENV) foram amplificadas de 2/13 (15,38%) pools de Aedes spp. e uma sequência de vírus Mayaro (MAYV) 1/7 (7,7%) foi amplificada de pools de Haemagogus spp. As análises filogenéticas mostraram que as sequências de DENV agrupava-se no clado de DENV1 e DENV2. A sequência de MAYV agrupou-se junto a sequências de amostras de infecções humana por MAYV do grupo L. Conclusão: Estes resultados reforçam a circulação de DENV, que é causador de surtos anuais de doenças febris agudas no município, e detecção, por primeira vez na região, a circulação de MAYV, reforçando a necessidade de monitoramento viral constante nessa região.

Introduction: Arboviruses cause human diseases, and ecological changes and increased human-vector contact increase the possibility of outbreaks. Objective: To detect, identify and characterize arboviruses present in mosquito vectors captured in forest regions close to Tres Lagoas, MS. Methodology: Mosquitoes were captured using light traps in forest regions surrounding Tres Lagoas. The captured mosquitoes were classified by gender (morphological key) and grouped into pools with up to 20 specimens and used through the RT-PCR reaction with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: 851 of the genera were captured: Culex spp. (11 pools); Aedes spp. (13 pools); Haemagogus spp. (7 pools) and other unidentified genera. Dengue virus (DENV) sequences were amplified from 2/13 (15.38%) pools of Aedes spp. and a Mayaro virus (MAYV) sequence 1/7 (7.7%) were amplified from pools of Haemagogus spp. Phylogenetic analyzes showed that one of the DENV sequences clustered in the DENV1 and DENV2 clade. The MAYV sequence was grouped together with sequences from samples of human MAYV infections of the L group. Conclusion: These results reinforce the circulation of DENV, which causes annual outbreaks of acute febrile illnesses in the municipality, and detection, for the first time in the region, the circulation of MAYV, reinforcing the need for constant viral monitoring in this region.

Introducción: Los arbovirus causan enfermedades humanas, y los cambios ecológicos y el mayor contacto humano-vector aumentan la posibilidad de brotes. Objetivo: Detectar, identificar y caracterizar arbovirus presentes en mosquitos vectores capturados en regiones de selva próximas a Tres Lagoas, MS. Metodología: Los mosquitos fueron capturados utilizando trampas de luz en las regiones forestales que rodean Tres Lagoas. Los mosquitos capturados fueron clasificados por género (clave morfológica) y agrupados en pools de hasta 20 ejemplares, y utilizados mediante la reacción RT-PCR con posterior secuenciación y análisis filogenético. Resultados: Se capturaron 851 de los géneros: Culex spp. (11 pools); Aedes spp. (13 pools); Haemagogus spp. (7 pools) y otros géneros no identificados. Las secuencias del virus del dengue (DENV) se amplificaron a partir de 2/13 (15,38 %) grupos de Aedes spp. y una secuencia de virus Mayaro (MAYV) 1/7 (7,7%) de pools de Haemagogus spp. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron que una de las secuencias de DENV se agrupaba en el clado DENV1 y DENV2. La secuencia de MAYV se agrupó con secuencias de muestras de infecciones humanas de MAYV del grupo L. Conclusión: Estos resultados refuerzan la circulación de DENV, causante de brotes anuales de enfermedades febriles agudas en el municipio, y la detección, por primera vez en la región, la circulación de MAYV, reforzando la necesidad de un monitoreo viral constante en esta región.

Animals , Alphavirus , Aedes/classification , Culex/microbiology , Flavivirus , Mosquito Vectors/microbiology , RNA, Viral , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiology/instrumentation , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Culicidae/microbiology
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(6): 744-753, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424133


BACKGROUND: Long term sequelae can be observed after SARS-CoV2. AIM: To describe the sexual, physical, mental and sleep sequelae four months after SARS-CoV2 diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients recovering from SARS-CoV2 with different degrees of disease severity were consecutively included and separated in two study groups, namely Group 1 including patients that had an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and Group 2 including those with mild or moderate COVID-19. Handgrip strength, respiratory polygraphy (RP), Quality of life using the SF-12 questionnaire, and the international index of erectile (IIEF-5) function were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty patients who had ARDS, and 10 without ARDS were included. Erectile dysfunction was observed in 77 and 10% of patients with and without ARDS, respectively (p < 0.01). The figures for sleep obstructive apnea were 82 and 40% respectively (p = 0.02) and for the physical domain SF-12 score were 39.2 and 47.9 points respectively (p = 0.01). No differences in muscle strength were observed. After a multivariable analysis, previous ARDS due to COVID-19 was independently associated with erectile dysfunction, with an odds ratio of 30.6 (95% confidence intervals, 3.08300.3, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Among men with ARDS due to COVID-19, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction was high and independently associated with a severe disease four months after discharge.

Humans , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , COVID-19/complications , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Erectile Dysfunction/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Sleep , RNA, Viral , Prospective Studies , Hand Strength , Disease Progression , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 135-138, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928550


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), has been identified in the human testis, but the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through sexual intercourse still needs to be defined. The goal of our study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in the semen of patients suffering or recovering from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), still testing positive at nasopharyngeal swabs but showing mild or no symptoms at the time of sampling. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in semen was performed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR targeting open reading frame (ORF) 1ab. Medical history of the enrolled patients was taken, including COVID-19-correlated symptoms, both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of interview. Results of real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR in semen showed no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 36 patients suffering or recovering from COVID-19 but still positive in a nasopharyngeal swab, from over 116 patients enrolled in the study. SARS-CoV-2 detection and persistence in semen would have an impact on both clinical practice and public health strategies, but our results would suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is not present in the semen of men recovering from COVID-19.

Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Semen
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 92-97, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935355


Objective: To evaluate the application of real-time RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR in the detection of norovirus in oysters and analyzing the genetic characteristics of the isolates. Methods: Real-time fluorescent RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ in fresh oysters collected from the markets in Beijing from November 2014 to October 2015. The detection rate of the parallel test was also analyzed. In addition, the reliability of semi-nested RT-PCR was evaluated by agreement rate and consistency test (Kappa value). The positive products of norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ capsid protein region gene by semi-nested RT-PCR were sequenced. Software BioEdit was used for sequence alignment, and software Mega 6.0 was used to construct the evolutionary tree. Results: In 72 samples, the detection rate of norovirus was 31.94% (23/72) by real-time RT-PCR, 38.89% (28/72) by semi-nested RT-PCR and 48.61% (35/72) by parallel test. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 73.61%, a moderate degree (Kappa value =0.43). A total of 13 norovirus strains were successfully sequenced, and 11 strains (7 GⅡ.17 strains, 2 GⅡ. 4 Sydney_ 2012 strains, 1 GⅡ. 1 strain and 1 GⅡ. 21 strain) were obtained from norovirus positive samples by two RT-PCR methods, two strains (1 GⅡ. 17 strain and 1 GⅡ. 3 strain) were obtained from real-time RT-PCR negative samples which were positive for norovirus by semi-nested RT-PCR. The similarity between these strains and reference strains from diarrhea patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products were 84.4% - 100.0%. Conclusions: The parallel test of norovirus in oysters by two RT-PCR methods can improve the detection rate and detect more genotypes. Norovirus strains in oysters were highly homologous with reference strains from diarrheal patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products. Therefore, surveillance, prevention and control for norovirus should be carried out in people who have frequent contacts with oysters and related environments.

Animals , Humans , Beijing , Norovirus/genetics , Ostreidae , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Protein & Cell ; (12): 120-140, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929156


Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped negative-sense RNA virus and a member of the filovirus family. Nucleoprotein (NP) expression alone leads to the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs), which are critical for viral RNA synthesis. The matrix protein, VP40, not only plays a critical role in virus assembly/budding, but also can regulate transcription and replication of the viral genome. However, the molecular mechanism by which VP40 regulates viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/budding is unknown. Here, we show that within IBs the N-terminus of NP recruits VP40 and is required for VLP-containing NP release. Furthermore, we find four point mutations (L692A, P697A, P698A and W699A) within the C-terminal hydrophobic core of NP result in a stronger VP40-NP interaction within IBs, sequestering VP40 within IBs, reducing VP40-VLP egress, abolishing the incorporation of NC-like structures into VP40-VLP, and inhibiting viral RNA synthesis, suggesting that the interaction of N-terminus of NP with VP40 induces a conformational change in the C-terminus of NP. Consequently, the C-terminal hydrophobic core of NP is exposed and binds VP40, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis and initiating virion assembly/budding.

Humans , Ebolavirus/physiology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(supl.2): 1-32, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351083


Resumen En las últimas décadas ha habido un importante desarrollo de dispositivos inhalados (DI) que permiten aumentar la eficacia de las drogas y disminuir los eventos adversos. Su correcto uso es de fundamental importancia para el control de las enfermedades respiratorias obstructivas. En la Argentina no existen recomendaciones locales sobre el uso de los DI. Se revisó la base biofísica, indicación, ventajas y limitaciones, técnica de correcto uso, errores frecuentes, mantenimiento y limpieza de cada DI. El uso de nebulizaciones ha quedado restringido a la administración de drogas que no están disponibles en otros DI (ejemplo: tratamiento de fibrosis quística), o ante la falla de los otros DI. No deben ser usados durante la pandemia de SARS-CoV2. Los inhaladores de dosis medida (aerosol) deben ser indicados siempre con aerocámaras (AC), las que reducen la incidencia de eventos adversos y aumentan el depósito de la droga en el pulmón. Son los dispositivos de elección junto a los inhaladores de polvo seco. Los aerosoles se deben usar en pacientes que no generan flujos inspiratorios altos. Los inhaladores de polvo seco deben recomendarse en aquellos que pueden realizar flujos inspiratorios enérgicos. Se revisaron los diferentes DI en fibrosis quística y en pacientes con asistencia respiratoria mecánica. La elección del DI dependerá de varios factores: situación clínica, edad, experiencia previa, preferencia del paciente, disponibilidad de la droga y entrenamiento alcanzado con el correcto uso.

Abstract Last decades, a broad spectrum of inhaled devices (ID) had been developed to enhance efficacy and reduce adverse events. The correct use of IDs is a critical issue for controlling obstructive respiratory diseases. There is no recommendation on inhalation therapy in Argentina. This document aims to issue local recommendations about the prescription of IDs. Each device was reviewed regarding biophysical laws, indication, strength, limitations, correct technique of use, frequent mistakes, and device cleaning and maintenance. Nebulization should be restricted to drugs that are not available in other IDs (for example, for treatment of cystic fibrosis) or where other devices fail. Nebulization is not recommended during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. A metered-dose inhaler must always be used with an aerochamber. Aerochambers reduce the incidence of adverse events and improve lung deposition. Metered-dose inhalers must be prescribed to patients who cannot generate a high inspiratory flow and dry powders to those who can generate an energetic inspiratory flow. We reviewed the use of different IDs in patients with cystic fibrosis and under mechanical ventilation. The individual choice of an ID will be based on several variables like clinical status, age, previous experience, patient preference, drug availability, and correct use of the device.

Humans , Asthma , COVID-19 , Argentina , RNA, Viral , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(12): 1812-1816, dic. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389407


ABSTRACT Several cases of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) associated with SARS-CoV-2 have been published, most being acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Between April and December 2020, 1,499 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to Hospital del Salvador, in Santiago, Chile, serving a population of 521,920 adults. In the same period, seven cases of GBS were admitted. Three females had a demyelinated type of GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. All three presented with progressive flaccid symmetrical areflexic weakness with inability to walk, one needed intubation and mechanical ventilation due to SARS-CoV2 infection. All had a favorable, rapid response to intravenous immunoglobulin. In two patients, the onset of GBS was almost concomitant with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A causal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and GBS has been questioned since no increase of GBS has occurred during the pandemic. However, a rise in GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection could be hidden due to a general decrease of GBS due to the decrease of all other infections. Lack of reporting due to the pandemic could be an added factor.

Se han publicado varios casos de síndrome de Guillain Barre (SGB) asociados con el SARS-CoV-2, la mayoría de los cuales son polirradiculoneuropatía desmielinizante inflamatoria aguda. Entre abril y diciembre de 2020, se ingresaron 1.499 casos de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en el Hospital del Salvador de Santiago de Chile, que atiende a una población de 521.920 adultos. Durante el mismo período se admitieron siete casos de SGB. Tres pacientes de sexo femenino con SGB tipo desmielinizante asociado a una infección por SARS-CoV-2. Las tres presentaron debilidad simétrica, flácida y arrefléctica progresiva, con incapacidad para caminar, una necesitó intubación y ventilación mecánica debido a la infección por SARS-CoV2. Todas tuvieron una respuesta rápida y favorable a la inmunoglobulina intravenosa. En dos pacientes, la aparición de SGB fue casi concomitante con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Una relación causal entre el SARS-CoV-2 y SGB ha sido cuestionada ya que no se ha producido ningún aumento de SGB durante la pandemia. Sin embargo, un aumento de SGB asociado con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 podría ocultarse en una disminución general de SGB debido a la disminución de todas las demás infecciones asociadas a este. La sub-notificación debido a la dimensión de la pandemia podría ser también un factor.

Humans , Female , Adult , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 275-279, sept.-oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348224


El SARS-CoV-2, causante de que estemos viviendo una pandemia mundial, tuvo sus orígenes en China, desde donde ha traspasado fronteras rápidamente, llegando a todos los rincones del mundo. Muchos han sido los equipos de investigación que se enfrentan el reto de conseguir una vacuna que logre combatir este mortal virus. Es por este motivo que en esta investigación se pretendió analizar la bibliografía referida a la vacuna Johnson & Johnson (J&J) contra COVID-19: distribución mundial de la vacuna, mecanismo de acción, indicaciones, contraindicaciones y efectos secundarios. Varios estudios demuestran que su eficacia varía de acuerdo con la edad y género de cada individuo; sin embargo, esta vacuna alcanzó un grado de certeza moderada. Los efectos adversos en su mayoría son leves y se resolvieron al cabo de dos días, siendo excepción algunos casos, ya que se registró un efecto adverso poco común denominado trombocitopenia prevalente en mujeres de 18 a 40 años, por este motivo, la FDA (Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de EE.UU.) recomienda la precaución en el uso de la vacuna con respecto a este efecto adverso que en algunos casos podría ser mortal (AU)

The SARS-CoV-2, which caused us to be experiencing a global pandemic, had its origins in China, from where it has crossed borders rapidly, reaching all corners of the world. Many research teams have faced the challenge of getting a vaccine to fight this deadly virus. For this reason, this research aimed to analyze the literature on the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine: global distribution of the vaccine, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications and side effects. Several studies show that its effectiveness varies according to the age and gender of each individual, but this vaccine reached a moderate degree of certainty. The adverse effects are mostly mild and resolved within two days, with some exceptions being a rare adverse effect called prevalent thrombocytopenia in women aged 18 to 40 years. For this reason, the FDA recommends caution in the use of the vaccine with respect to this potentially fatal adverse effect in some cases (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Contraindications, Drug , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Proteins , Effectiveness , RNA, Viral , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Virus Inactivation
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 344-348, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388250


INTRODUCCIÓN: La medición de carga viral (CV) de virus hepatitis B (VHB) y C (VHC) es fundamental en el seguimiento de pacientes con terapia antiviral. La metodología más utilizada para su determinación es COBAS ®-TaqMan ®. Recientemente, se desarrolló la tecnología Xpert ®, que se debe evaluar. OBJETIVO: Comparar la medición de la CV de VHB y VHC por metodología Xpert® con COBAS®-TaqMan® como método de referencia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: 39 muestras de suero de pacientes con VHB y 39 con VHC, previamente cuantificadas por COBAS ®-TaqMan ®, fueron analizadas mediante Xpert® y los resultados se compararon utilizando la regresión de Deming y gráfico Bland-Altman. RESULTADOS: Hubo una alta correlación entre Xpert® y COBAS®-TaqMan®. Para VHB, la ecuación de Deming fue XpertHBV = 0,44 + 0,99xCOBASTaqManHBV, con coeficiente de correlación de 0,94 y diferencia entre medias de -0,401 log10 (IC95%: -1,985 a 1,183). Para VHC, la ecuación de Deming fue XpertHCV = 0,36 + 0,87x COBASTaqManHCV, con coeficiente de correlación de 0,98 y diferencia entre medias de 0,328 log (IC95%: -0,449 a 1,105). CONCLUSIÓN: El nuevo sistema Xpert® muestra una buena correlación con COBAS ®-TaqMan ® para la medición de la CV de VHB y VHC, siendo una buena alternativa para el seguimiento de pacientes en tratamiento.

BACKGROUND: The measurement of viral load (VL) of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses is essential in the follow-up of patients with antiviral therapy. The most widely used methodology for this determination is COBAS®-TaqMan®. Recently, the Xpert® technology was developed and needs to be evaluated. AIM: To compare the measurement of the VL of HBV and HCV by Xpert® methodology with COBAS®-TaqMan® as a reference method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 39 serum samples from patients with HBV and 39 with HCV, previously quantified by COBAS®-TaqMan®, were analyzed using Xpert® and the results were compared using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: There was a high correlation between Xpert® and COBAS®-TaqMan®. For HBV, the Deming equation was XpertHBV = 0.44 + 0.99xCOBASTaqManHBV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and a difference between means of -0.401 log (95% CI: -1.985 to 1.183). For HCV, the Deming equation was XpertHCV = 0.36 + 0.87x COBASTaqManHCV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and a difference between means of0.328 log10 (95% CI: -0.449 to 1.105). CONCLUSION: The new Xpert® system shows a good correlation with COBAS®-TaqMan® for the measurement of the VL of HBV and HCV, being a good alternative for the follow-up of patients under treatment.

Humans , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , RNA, Viral , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepacivirus/genetics , Viral Load
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 135-142, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287262


Abstract Most countries in Latin America have already reported thousands of confirmed cases and vulnerable populations are the most affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Preventive measures such as hygiene, social distancing, and isolation, essential to stop the spread of coronavirus, are difficult to accomplish for vulnerable populations due to their living conditions. Seroepidemiological surveys are assets to measure the transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Until July 1st, the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Barrio Padre Mugica, one of the largest slums in Buenos Aires City, was 5.9%. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) immediately after the outbreak, and to identify neighbourhood, household and individual factors associated with seroconversion. The prevalence based on IgG was 53.4% (95% CI 52.8% to 54.1%). For each polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed case, nine people tested IgG positive, indicating a high rate of undetected (probably asymptomatic) infections. Hence, the high rate of undiagnosed people suggests that clinical criteria and epidemiological nexus should be considered. The high seroprevalence observed in the context of an intense epidemic in a vulnerable area might serve as a reference to other countries. This study contributes to future decision making by understanding population immunity against SARS-CoV2 and its relation to living conditions and foccus that comprehensive biosocial, household-level interventions are needed.

Resumen Muchos países de América Latina han informado miles de casos confirmados y las poblaciones vulnerables son las más afectadas por la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Las medidas preventivas como la higiene, el distanciamiento social y el aislamiento, fundamentales para frenar la propagación del coronavirus, son difíciles de lograr en estas poblaciones debido a sus condiciones de vida. Los estudios seroepidemiológicos son de gran utilidad para medir la transmisión del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hasta el 1 de julio, la tasa de incidencia de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en el Barrio Padre Mugica, uno de los barrios marginales más grandes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, era del 5.9%. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos inmunoglobulina G (IgG) para SARS-CoV-2 inmediatamente después del brote, e identificar factores del barrio, hogar e individuales asociados con la seroconversión. La prevalencia basada en IgG fue del 53.4% (IC del 95%: 52.8% a 54.1%). Para cada caso confirmado por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-qPCR), nueve personas dieron positivo en IgG, lo que indica una alta tasa de infecciones no detectadas y probablemente asintomáticas. La alta tasa de personas no diagnosticadas sugiere que se deben considerar los criterios clínicos y el nexo epidemiológico. La alta seroprevalencia observada en el contexto de una intensa epidemia en una zona vulnerable podría servir de referencia a otros países. Este estudio contribuye a la toma de decisiones futuras al comprender la inmunidad de la población contra el SARS-CoV2 en su relación con las condiciones de vida y por su enfoque en la necesidad de intervenciones integrales a nivel del hogar.

Humans , Poverty Areas , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Seroepidemiologic Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(4): 527-532, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389481


Background: There are multisystemic consequences secondary to SARS- CoV-2 infection. Aim: To characterize neurological complications in patients admitted due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Review of medical records of patients aged over 15 years with COVID-19 evaluated by the neurology team between April and August 2020 at a university hospital. Severity of the infection, referral reasons, neurological diagnoses and laboratory results were registered. The diagnoses were defined by consensus among the members of the hospital neurology group. Cerebrovascular and inflammatory diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system were defined as "probably associated" or "possibly associated" to COVID-19. Results: Ninety-six patients had at least 1 new neu- rological complication. 74% were admitted due to pneumonia and 20% due to a neurological disease. The most common reasons for neurological referral were impaired consciousness (39%), focal neurological deficit (24%), headache (9%) and seizures (5%). The most relevant neurological diagnoses were delirium in 48 patients, stroke in 24, critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in 17, seizures in 14, brachial plexopathy in 3, compressive neuropathies in 5, encephalitis in 1, possible vasculitis in 1 and Guillain-Barré syndrome in 1. Stroke and epilepsy were associated with increased length of hospital stay, but without differences in mortality. Conclusions: The spectrum of neurological complications of COVID-19 is wide. There are clinical entities typical of critically ill patients and also diseases associated directly and indirectly with the SARS-CoV2 infection.

Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurology , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/virology , RNA, Viral , Hospitals, University
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 184-187, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248747


Abstract Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are an uncommon neoplasm that occurs in immunosuppressed patients of any age. Usually, it presents as multifocal tumors mainly in the spinal cord, epidural region, gastrointestinal tract and liver, upper respiratory tract and skin, the latest with few cases reported in the literature and related with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The authors present the first case of a Colombian adult patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection and multifocal Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in the skin and epidural region, confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies.

Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Smooth Muscle Tumor , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , RNA, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 1-4, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248991


ABSTRACT Mass vaccination offers the best strategy to fight against COVID-19 pandemic, and SARS-CoV2 vaccines are being approved in several countries for emergency use. In Brazil, vaccine approval is expected in the next few days, however potential concerns exist regarding vaccine recommendations for specific populations, such as patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To address these questions, the Brazilian IBD Study Group (GEDIIB) provides this practical advice with key recommendations about the COVID-19 vaccines in IBD population.

RESUMO A vacinação em massa oferece a melhor estratégia para enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, e as vacinas contra SARS-CoV2 estão sendo aprovadas em vários países para uso emergencial. No Brasil, a aprovação da vacina é esperada em breve, no entanto, existem potenciais preocupações em relação às recomendações de vacinas para populações específicas, como pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII). Para responder essas questões, o Grupo Brasileiro de Estudos IBD (GEDIIB) fornece conselhos práticos com recomendações importantes sobre as vacinas para COVID-19 na população com DII.

Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19 , Brazil , RNA, Viral , Vaccination , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 88-98, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388211


Resumen La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019, causada por el virus SARS-CoV2, fue declarada pandemia en marzo de 2020 por la OMS. La proteína S, de la superficie viral ha sido identificada como antígeno óptimo para el desarrollo de vacunas. En pandemia, el proceso tradicional de desarrollo de vacunas ha debido acelerarse para avanzar en una respuesta adecuada al problema, acortando los tiempos. La seguridad, inmunogenicidad, protección frente a la infección, fenómeno de "aumento dependiente de anticuerpos", duración de la protección se estudian en paralelo, a diferencia de la manera tradicional en que se llevaba a cabo en etapas sucesivas. Actualmente en Fase III hay 4 tipos vacunas: inactivadas; en base a proteínas purificadas o recombinantes, en base a ácidos nucleicos ADN/ARN y en base a vectores virales. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer los estudios que preceden a las vacunas que actualmente están en estudios de Fase III y describir las características principales de estos estudios. Actualmente el mundo se encuentra en una situación inédita en el último siglo. Dentro las opciones para enfrentar este hecho, una vacuna o idealmente varias, seguras, eficaces e inmunogénicas, parecen ser una de las mejores alternativas para retomar en un plazo razonable la normalidad perdida.

Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus, was declared a pandemic in March 2020 by the WHO. Protein S from the viral surface has been identified as the optimal antigen for vaccine development. In a pandemic, the traditional vaccine development process has had to be accelerated to advance in an adequate response to the problem, shortening the times. Safety, immunogenicity, protection against infection, antibody dependent enhancement phenomena and duration of protection are studied in parallel, unlike the traditional way in which it was carried out in successive stages. Currently in Phase III there are 4 types of vaccines: inactivated; based on purified or recombinant proteins, based on DNA / RNA nucleic acids and based on viral vectors. The objective of this review is to understand the studies that precede the vaccines that are currently in Phase III studies and to describe the main characteristics of these studies. Currently the world is in a situation unprecedented in the last century. Among the options to face this fact, one vaccine or, ideally, several, safe, effective and immunogenic, seem to be one of the best alternatives to regain lost normality within a reasonable time.

Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , Viral Vaccines , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2