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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200372, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136859

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a pandemic. We herein report four COVID-19 cases with long-term positive viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) for about 61 days. Despite treatment with recombinant human interferon, convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients, arbidol, etc., nucleic acid results were still positive for SARS-CoV-2. After treatment with ritonavir-boosted danoprevir (DNVr, 100/100 mg, once daily), all four patients showed two to three consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA and were thus discharged from hospital. Therefore, DNVr may be a potentially effective antiviral for COVID-19 patients with long-term positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1470-1475, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057090

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The recent development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically changed the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, and interferon-based regimes have become a poor treatment choice in clinical practice. Today DAAs offer shorter, well-tolerated, highly effective curative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DAAs in patients with end-stage renal disease and HCV genotype 1 infection in real clinical practice. METHODS Thirty-six patients who attended our clinic, were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), undergoing hemodialysis, and fulfilled the criteria of age >18 years, genotype 1 infection, with a detectable HCV RNA level were considered for the study. Patients with GT1a infection received OBV/PTV/r plus DSV plus RBV for 12 weeks; GT1b infected patients received this regimen without RBV for 12 weeks. RESULTS The study was conducted on 33 patients. The mean age was 52.30 ±13.77 years, and 70 % of them were male. By the fourth week of treatment, HCV RNA levels decreased below 15 IU/ml in all patients. Sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 rate was 100%. Nine patients had side effects during treatment. Of the patients with side effects, 89.9% were in group 1a and 11.1% in group 1b. CONCLUSION In this study, treatment with OBV/PTV/r and DSV with or without RBV resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in HCV GT1-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SVR was achieved in all patients with few side effects.


RESUMO O recente desenvolvimento de agentes antivirais de ação direta (DAAs) mudou drasticamente o tratamento da hepatite C crônica, e os regimes livres de interferon tornaram-se pobres escolhas para tratamento na prática clínica. Hoje os DAAs oferecem terapias curativas mais curtas, bem toleradas e altamente eficazes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e segurança dos DAAs em pacientes com doença renal em estágio terminal e infecção pelo genótipo 1 do HCV na prática clínica real. MÉTODOS Trinta e seis pacientes, que se inscreveram em nossa clínica com diagnóstico de hepatite C crônica (CHC), inclusive no programa de hemodiálise, e preencheram os critérios de idade >18 anos, foram considerados para infecção pelo genótipo 1 com nível detectável de RNA do HCV. Os pacientes com infecção por GT1a receberam OBV/PTV/r mais DSV mais RBV por 12 semanas. Os pacientes infectados com GT1b receberam este regime sem RBV por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS O estudo foi realizado em 33 pacientes. A idade média foi de 52,30±13,77 anos e 70% deles eram do sexo masculino. Na semana 4 do tratamento, os níveis de ARN do VHC diminuíram para menos de 15 UI/ml em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) 12 foi de 100%. Nove pacientes apresentaram efeitos colaterais durante o tratamento. Dos pacientes com efeitos colaterais, 89,9% estavam no grupo 1a e 11,1% no grupo 1b. CONCLUSÃO Neste estudo, o tratamento com OBV/PTV/r e DSV com ou sem RBV resultou em altas taxas de resposta virológica sustentada em pacientes infectados pelo VGC GT1 com doença renal em estágio final (ESRD). A RVS foi alcançada em todos os pacientes com poucos efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Uracil/analogs & derivatives , Uracil/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/blood , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Macrocyclic Compounds/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Anilides/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041520

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis E/immunology , Croatia/epidemiology , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180432, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003137

ABSTRACT

Abstract By decreasing the pre-seroconversion window period, nucleic acid testing (NAT) has improved the safety of blood products and reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. Between 2011 and 2017, NAT determinations for approximately 898,202 donations were performed at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo (FPS-HSP). Three seronegative HIV-viremic donations were detected. The NAT yield rate per million donations was 3.34 for HIV, and the acute HIV-1 infections detected are described, followed by a brief review of the situation in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Blood Donors , DNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180465, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041598

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We evaluated the anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody prevalence and HEV-RNA in archived serum samples of non-A-C hepatitis, or suspected cases of HEV infection from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon from 1993 to 2014. METHODS Serum samples (n = 318) were tested using ELISA and immunoblotting, and screened for HEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. RESULTS Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected in 3.4% (11/318) and 5.9% (19/318) of the samples, respectively. All samples were HEV-RNA negative. CONCLUSIONS HEV was detected at a low prevalence. Broader serological and molecular evaluation of HEV infection in the Amazon region should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 803-807, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041495

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The prevalence, public health impact, and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) are poorly understood in Brazil. METHODS Serum samples from 535 individuals from three rural Afro-descendant communities located in eastern Brazilian Amazon were collected in October 2015 and tested for presence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Serologically positive samples were also tested for HEV-RNA. RESULTS Two cases were confirmed for anti-HEV IgM (0.3 %) and two cases for anti-HEV IgG (0.3 %). No sample was positive for HEV-RNA. CONCLUSIONS Results indicated low prevalence of HEV infection in Afro-descendant rural communities from the eastern Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Blacks , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 737-741, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977103

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have identical transmission routes, explaining the high prevalence of coinfections. The main aim of this study was to detect fluctuations in serological HCV levels in HIV patients. METHODS: We analyzed samples of 147 patients who attended an outpatient service that supports HIV/AIDS patients in São Paulo city. We also recruited 22 HCV-monoinfected patients who attended the Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory in São Paulo city, to compare the test results. Serological testing of the blood samples was performed for the detection of HCV antibodies. The samples were then analyzed using real-time PCR for RNA viral quantification and sequencing. RESULTS We found that 13.6% of the study population was coinfected with HIV and HCV. In 20% of coinfected patients, fluctuations in serology results were detected in samples collected during the follow-up. No changes in anti-HCV serological markers were observed in HCV-monoinfected patients. An HCV viral load was detected in 9,5% of the samples collected from HIV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important clinical data to public health professionals and highlight the importance of periodic monitoring of HCV/HIV coinfected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Coinfection , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Middle Aged
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 418-423, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Brazilian Public Health Service provides freely αPEG-IFN to treat patients infected with HCV. The primary goal of HCV therapy is the long-term elimination of HCV from the blood to reduce the risk of HCV associated complications and death. Patient viremia affects the treatment duration and response, thus influencing clinical decisions. We developed a high-throughput method to perform the quantification of RNA hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus load in plasma samples to monitor patients under treatment. The method is based on a duplex detection, in a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay and it has been validated according to the rules established by the official Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). This new method was compared to a commercial kit (Cobas/Taqman HCV Test v2.0 - Roche), showing virus load results with significant correlation between them (p= 0,012) using commercial and clinical panels. In addition, 611 samples from patients treated with peguilated alfa-interferon (αPEG-IFN) from different regions of Brazil were analyzed. Our one-step real-time RT-PCR assay demonstrated good performance in viral load measurement and in treatment course monitoring, with acceptable sensitivity and specificity values.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Viral Load/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Viremia , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Brazil , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/blood , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/blood , Hepacivirus/genetics , Genotyping Techniques , Genotype
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(4): 460-465, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888490

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las metas globales para controlar la epidemia de HIV contemplan que la carga viral sea indetectable en 90 % de las personas en tratamiento. El costo de la medición de la carga viral en lotes de muestras puede reducirse y, así, aumentar la cobertura cuando los recursos son limitados; sin embargo, su eficacia disminuye al aumentar la prevalencia del fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral. Objetivo. Evaluar estrategias para disminuir la proporción de pacientes con fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral en los lotes de muestras y, de esta manera, aumentar el ahorro en las pruebas de carga viral. Materiales y métodos. Las estrategias evaluadas fueron: a) la organización de los lotes de muestras según el esquema de tratamiento antirretroviral, y b) la exclusión de aquellos pacientes con antecedente reciente de fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral, aquellos con menos de 12 meses de tratamiento antirretroviral y aquellos sin tratamiento antirretroviral previo. Los resultados de los lotes se compararon con los resultados individuales. Resultados. El valor diagnóstico negativo fue similar para los pacientes con esquema de primera línea (100,0 %; IC95% 99,5-100,0) o de segunda línea de tratamiento (99,4 %; IC95% 96,9-99,9). La incidencia del fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral fue menor en los pacientes con tratamiento de primera línea (p<0,01), lo cual permitió un mayor ahorro en las pruebas de laboratorio en este grupo (74,0 %; IC95% 71,0-76,7) que en los pacientes con tratamiento de segunda línea (50,9 %; IC95% 44,4-57,3) (p<0,01). Conclusión. La selección de las muestras que se incluyeron en los lotes para determinar la carga viral del HIV según el tipo de esquema de tratamiento, permitió maximizar el porcentaje de ahorro en pruebas de laboratorio.


Abstract Introduction: HIV viral load testing is a key factor to evaluate the accomplishment of the UNAIDS target of 90% of viral suppression among people receiving antiretroviral therapy. Pooled samples are a potentially accurate and economic approach in resource-constrained settings, but efficiency can be negatively affected by high prevalence rates of virological failure. Objective: Strategies were assessed to increase the relative efficiency of pooled HIV viral load testing in resource-constrained settings. Materials and methods: We evaluated two strategies: a) plasma samples were not included in pools if patients had <12 months on antiretroviral therapy, patients had previous viral load >1,000 copies/ml, or were antiretroviral therapy naïve patients, and b) plasma pools were organized separately for first and second-line antiretroviral therapy regimens. Individual viral load tests were used to compare pooled results. Results: Negative predictive values were similar for patients on first (100.0%; 95% CI 99.5 to 100.0) and second-line antiretroviral therapy regimens (99.4%; 95% CI 96.9 to 99.9). However, the incidence of virological failure among individuals on first-line antiretroviral therapy was lower than second-line antiretroviral therapypatients (p <0.01), resulting in greater savings in laboratory tests in patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (74.0%; 95% CI 71.0 to 76.7) compared with the group of patients on second-line antiretroviral therapy (50.9%; 95% CI 44.4 to 57.3) (p<0.01). Conclusion: Selecting the samples to be included in the pools and selecting the pools according to ART regimens are criteria that could lead to decreased spending on laboratory tests for HIV viral load determination in resource-constrained settings.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Specimen Handling/methods , Viremia/blood , HIV Infections/blood , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Viral Load/economics , Cost Control/methods , Health Resources/economics , Specimen Handling/economics , Viremia/economics , Viremia/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Failure , Patient Selection , Viral Load/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Drug Resistance, Viral , Anti-Retroviral Agents/classification , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Developing Countries , Guatemala
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 535-539, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Hepatitis E/diagnosis
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 255-259, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status. METHODS One hundred and thirty-eight patients with TB were tested for anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV1/2 antibody markers. HCV RNA from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples was submitted to reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The 5′ non-coding region of the HCV genome was sequenced, and genotypes of HCV isolates were determined. FINDINGS Anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV antibodies were detected in 27 [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13-26%], 17 (12%; 95% CI, 7-18%), and 34 (25%; 95% CI, 17-32%) patients, respectively. HCV isolates belonged to genotypes 1 (n = 12) and 3 (n = 4). Some characteristics were significantly more frequent in patients infected with HCV. Among them, non-white individuals, alcoholics, users of illicit drugs, imprisoned individuals, and those with history of previous TB episode were more commonly infected with HCV (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS HCV screening, including detection of anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, will be important to improving the management of co-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing TB treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Antibodies/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 110-112, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041396

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Improving HIV diagnostics and treatment is necessary to end the AIDS epidemic. Pooled plasma can be used to identify patients with acute HIV disease, even before serological tests. During dengue outbreaks, patients having symptoms common to other acute viral diseases might seek medical care. METHODS: We evaluated HIV RNA in pooled seronegative dengue samples. RESULTS: After excluding individuals with a known HIV diagnosis, an HIV-1 prevalence of 0.73% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-1.76; 4/546 samples] was found. CONCLUSIONS: Promoting strategies to diagnose these individuals and provide them with medical treatment might be instrumental for controlling the HIV epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , HIV-1/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Prevalence , Middle Aged
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The relationship between patient survival and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) in liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C remains unclear. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients with and without BPAR and to identify risk factors for BPAR. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 169 HCV-RNA-positive patients who underwent LT at three centers. RESULTS: BPAR occurred in 39 (23.1%) of the HCV-RNA-positive recipients after LT. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 92.1%, 90.3%, and 88.5%, respectively, in patients without BPAR, and 75.7%, 63.4%, and 58.9% in patients with BPAR (P<0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that BPAR was associated with the non-use of basiliximab and tacrolimus and the use of cyclosporin in LT recipients with HCV RNA-positive. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the immunosuppression status of HCV-RNA-positive LT recipients should be carefully determined in order to prevent BPAR and to improve patient survival.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Graft Rejection/mortality , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/blood , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The treatment strategy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been changing rapidly since the introduction of direct-acting antivirals such as daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DCV and ASV for HCV in real-life practice. METHODS: Patients were treated with 60 mg of DCV once daily plus 200 mg of ASV twice daily for 24 weeks, and followed for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12) and safety. RESULTS: This retrospective study included eight patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection. All of the enrolled patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, and their mean age was 65.75 years. One patient was a nonresponder and two patients relapsed with previous pegylated interferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) treatment. None of the patient showed NS5A mutation. An SVR12 was achieved in 88% of cases by the DCV and ASV combination therapy. The serum transaminase level and the aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio were improved after the treatment. DCV and ASV were well tolerated in most of the patients, with treatment discontinuation due to adverse events (elevated liver enzyme and decompensation) occurring in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, combination of DCV and ASV treatment achieved a high sustained virological response with few adverse events even in those with cirrhosis, advanced age, and nonresponse/relapse to previous interferon-based therapy. Close monitoring of safety issues may be necessary when treating chronic HCV patients receiving DCV and ASV, especially in older patient and those with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
16.
Recife; s.n; 2016. 72 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871422

ABSTRACT

A dengue é a mais importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos, no que diz respeito à morbidade e mortalidade, que afeta os seres humanos. Este vírus é transmitido pelos vetores Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti, este último é o principal vetor nas Américas. O controle da doença se baseia na vigilância laboratorial e vigilância entomológica. A vigilância laboratorial visa aprimorar a capacidade do diagnóstico, detectando precocemente a circulação viral e monitorando os sorotipos circulantes. Dentro deste tipo de vigilância, a RT-PCR é um método bastante usado no diagnóstico da doença em humanos e mosquitos, porém, a má conservação do material pode comprometer a integridade do RNA e trazer resultados falso-negativos. O desenvolvimento de melhores métodos de vigilância do vírus dengue (DENV) em mosquitos é de grande valor para os programas de controle. Desta maneira, o presente projeto visou otimizar a técnica de RT-PCR Multiplex para detecção de DENV em amostras de Ae. aegypti infectadas artificialmente pelo vírus. Primers que amplificam uma região de 80 pb do gene rpL8 de mosquito foram desenhados no site Primer3 e avaliados na ferramenta online Multiple Primer Analyzer, junto com primers que amplificam os sorotipos DENV. Não houve competição de primers e foi observado bandas distintas no gel de agarose. Foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes formas de preservação do material genético das amostras (RNA later®, freezer -80°C e nitrogênio líquido) por 7 dias, onde não houve diferenças significativas em relação à integridade do RNA. O efeito de diferentes formas de extração de RNA (Kit da QIAGEN®, TRIzol® e Chomczymski-Sacchi) também foi avaliado e o método Chomczymski-Sacchi obteve o melhor desempenho. A otimização desta técnica permitirá uma maior confiabilidade nos resultados, já que além da detecção dos sorotipos, haverá uma confirmação da qualidade do RNA, aprimorando a capacidade do diagnóstico e auxiliando a prevenção e controle da transmissão da dengue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/virology , RNA Stability , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , DNA Primers , RNA, Viral/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(3): 337-346, jul.-sep. 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765462

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To date there has been no statistical evaluation of the profiles of immunoglobulin classes and viral replication as variables in the study of HTLV-1 infection and circulation among families in virus-endemic areas of Colombia. Objective: To evaluate the correlation of several immunological and molecular characteristics with the transmission and circulation of HTLV-1 among families in the town of Tumaco. Materials and methods: Plasma levels of HTLV-1 specific immunoglobulin classes IgG, IgM and IgA1, as well as IgG and sIgA in oral fluids, were calculated for 32 members of 10 family groups from Tumaco in which the mother and at least one child were infected with the virus. Levels of the different immunoglobulin classes were correlated with viral RNA circulating in plasma or oral fluids and the proviral burden as detected by RT-PCR. Results: Significant differences were determined between mothers and carrier children for immunoglobulin levels (p=0.037) and proviral burden (p=0.002). The overall estimate of IgG in plasma and sIgA in oral fluids could be correlated with the circulation of free viral RNA in both fluids and high proviral burden, and associated with HAM/TSP mothers. The detection of anti- tax IgG in plasma revealed differences between HAM/TSP mothers and their offspring. Conclusion: The study of immunological and molecular variables permitted the analysis of HTLV-1 circulation among families of Tumaco. The strong correlation between levels of IgM specific for the virus and viral RNA circulating in fluids indirectly confirmed the transmission of HTLV-1 among families.


Introducción. Todavía no hay una evaluación estadística de los perfiles de las clases de inmuno- globulina s y la replicación viral, como variables para estudiar la infección y la circulació n del HTLV-1 en familias de zonas endémicas en Colombia. Objetivo. Evaluar la correlación de varias características inmunológicas y moleculares, con la transmisión y circulación del virus en familias del municipio de Tumaco. Materiales y métodos. Se calcularon los niveles de IgG, IgM e IgA1 en plasma, e IgG y IgA secretoria en fluido oral, de 32 miembros de 10 grupos familiares de Tumaco, en los que la madre y, al menos, un hijo estaban infectados con el virus. La concentración de las diferentes clases de inmunoglobulinas se pudo correlacionar con la circulación de ARN viral libre en plasma y fluido oral, y la carga proviral, según su detección mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcripción inversa. Resultados. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en los niveles de inmunoglobulinas (p=0,037) y en la carga proviral (p=0,002) entre madres e hijos portadores. La estimación total de IgG en plasma e IgA secretoria en fluido oral, se pudo correlacionar con la circulación de ARN viral libre en ambos fluidos y una alta carga proviral, y se asoció con las madres paraparesia espástica tropical o mielopatía asociada con el HTLV-1. La detección en plasma de IgG anti-Tax reveló diferencias entre ellas y sus hijos. Conclusión. El estudio de las variables inmunológicas y moleculares permitió analizar la circulación del HTLV-1 en familias de Tumaco. La fuerte asociación entre los niveles de IgM específica para el virus y el ARN viral circulante en los fluidos y la carga proviral, confirmó indirectamente la transmisión intrafamiliar del virus.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , RNA, Viral/analysis , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/isolation & purification , HTLV-I Antibodies/analysis , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , Family Health , Viremia/immunology , Viremia/epidemiology , Viremia/virology , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/blood , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , HTLV-I Antibodies/blood , HTLV-I Infections/immunology , HTLV-I Infections/transmission , HTLV-I Infections/virology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Proviruses/isolation & purification , Colombia/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Endemic Diseases , Mothers
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 627-629, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749733

ABSTRACT

Although HCV has hepatic tropism, the presence of the virus in extra-hepatic compartments has been well documented. Platelets have been described as carriers of the virus in the circulation and may be a natural reservoir for the virus. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the levels of HCV RNA in plasma and platelets are equal or differ in some way. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation of the stability of HCV RNA in plasma and isolated platelets. Four aliquots of whole plasma obtained from patients infected with HCV were incubated at 37 °C for 0, 48, 96 and 144 h. After incubation, the plasma and platelet pellet was obtained from each aliquot. Viral RNA in plasma and platelets was quantified by q-PCR. The results showed a decrease in HCV RNA levels in plasma with incubation time. However, platelet HCV RNA levels were stable up to 144 h incubation. The results of this study showed that HCV RNA in platelets, although at lower concentrations than in plasma, is preserved from degradation over time, suggesting that the virus may persist longer in the body when associated with platelets, which could have an impact on the efficiency of antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Platelets/virology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Plasma/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/blood
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(1): 9-13, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746481

ABSTRACT

Background There are limited studies on the prevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Objective Identify the prevalence and risk factors for HCV infection in university employees of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Digital serological tests for anti-HCV have been performed in 3153 volunteers. For the application of digital testing was necessary to withdraw a drop of blood through a needlestick. The positive cases were performed for genotyping and RNA. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used, with P-value <0.05 indicating statistical significance. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were also used. Results Prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.7%. The risk factors associated with HCV infection were: age >40 years, blood transfusion, injectable drugs, inhalable drugs (InDU), injectable Gluconergam®, glass syringes, tattoos, hemodialysis and sexual promiscuity. Age (P=0.01, OR 5.6, CI 1.4 to 22.8), InDU (P<0.0001, OR=96.8, CI 24.1 to 388.2), Gluconergam® (P=0.0009, OR=44.4, CI 4.7 to 412.7) and hemodialysis (P=0.0004, OR=90.1, CI 7.5 – 407.1) were independent predictors. Spatial analysis of the prevalence with socioeconomic indices, Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index by the geoprocessing technique showed no positive correlation. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection was 0.7%. The independent risk factors for HCV infection were age, InDU, Gluconergan® and hemodialysis. There was no spatial correlation of HCV prevalence with local economic factors. .


Contexto Existem escassos estudos sobre a prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C. Objetivos Identificar a prevalência e os fatores de risco para a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C em funcionários de uma Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos Testes sorológicos digitais para anti vírus da hepatite C foram realizados em 3.153 voluntários. Para a aplicação do teste digital foi necessário retirar uma gota de sangue através de uma picada de agulha. Nos casos positivos foram realizados genotipagem e RNA. Os testes Qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher foram utilizados, com valor de P<0,05 sendo considerado como estatisticamente significante. Regressão logística univariada e multivariada também foram aplicadas. Resultados A prevalência de anti vírus da hepatite C foi de 0,7%. Os fatores de risco associados com a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C foram idade >40 anos, transfusão de sangue, uso de drogas injetáveis, uso de drogas inalatórias, Gluconergam® injetável, uso de seringas de vidro, tatuagens, hemodiálise e promiscuidade sexual. Idade (P=0,01, OR 5,6, IC 1,4-22,8), uso de drogas inalatórias (P<0,0001, OR=96,8, IC 24,1-388,2), Gluconergam® injetável (P=0,0009, OR=44,4, IC 4,7-412,7) e hemodiálise (P=0,0004, OR=90,1, IC 7,5-407,1) foram preditores independentes. A análise espacial da prevalência com índices socioeconômicos, produto interno bruto e índice de desenvolvimento humano, por meio da técnica de geoprocessamento, não mostrou correlação positiva. Conclusões A prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C foi de 0,7%. Os fatores de risco independentes para a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C foram idade, uso de drogas inalatórias, Gluconergan® injetável e hemodiálise. Não houve correlação espacial da prevalência de vírus da hepatite C com fatores econômicos locais. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Hepatitis C/transmission , Hepatitis C/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , RNA, Viral/blood , Spatial Analysis , Universities/statistics & numerical data
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(1): 23-47, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-741507

ABSTRACT

Over recent years Brazil has played an increasingly active role internationally, the result of its model of integration and its foreign policy directives. The health sector is a valuable and strategic area for Brazilian technical cooperation to achieve various objectives, including its development goals. This article describes the main directives of Brazilian foreign policy, conceptually defining and characterizing South-South Cooperation, illustrated through an analysis of two Brazilian technical cooperation initiatives in healthcare: one in South America, the other in Africa. The study concludes that, irrespective of the interests and power asymmetries existing in South-South Cooperation, the objectives of this cooperation were achieved through the technical work.


Nos últimos anos, o Brasil foi ativo no âmbito internacional, tanto por seu modelo de inserção como pelas diretrizes de política externa. O setor saúde é uma ferramenta valiosa e estratégica utilizada pela cooperação técnica brasileira para lograr seus objetivos de desenvolvimento. Este artigo descreve as principais diretrizes de política externa brasileira, conceitua e caracteriza a Cooperação Sul-Sul, ilustrada mediante análise de duas iniciativas de cooperação técnica em saúde do Brasil: na América do Sul e na África. O estudo conclui que, independentemente dos interesses e das assimetrias de poder que existem na Cooperação Sul-Sul, os objetivos dessa cooperação foram alcançados por meio do trabalho técnico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Outbreaks , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile virus/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mortality , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Survival Analysis , Serum/immunology , Serum/virology , Tunisia/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/pathology , West Nile Fever/virology
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