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Protein & Cell ; (12): 717-733, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888715


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is spread primary via respiratory droplets and infects the lungs. Currently widely used cell lines and animals are unable to accurately mimic human physiological conditions because of the abnormal status of cell lines (transformed or cancer cells) and species differences between animals and humans. Organoids are stem cell-derived self-organized three-dimensional culture in vitro and model the physiological conditions of natural organs. Here we showed that SARS-CoV-2 infected and extensively replicated in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived lung organoids, including airway and alveolar organoids which covered the complete infection and spread route for SARS-CoV-2 within lungs. The infected cells were ciliated, club, and alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, which were sequentially located from the proximal to the distal airway and terminal alveoli, respectively. Additionally, RNA-seq revealed early cell response to virus infection including an unexpected downregulation of the metabolic processes, especially lipid metabolism, in addition to the well-known upregulation of immune response. Further, Remdesivir and a human neutralizing antibody potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung organoids. Therefore, human lung organoids can serve as a pathophysiological model to investigate the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to discover and test therapeutic drugs for COVID-19.

Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Drug Discovery , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Lipid Metabolism , Lung/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 207-212, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748922


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. METHODS: After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over 1 h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. RESULTS: Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p = 0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p = 0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p = 0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24 h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p = 0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. CONCLUSION: Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24 h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out. .

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: O tratamento da dor pós-operatória em mastectomia continua sendo um grande desafio apesar da abordagem multimodal. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito analgésico da lidocaína intravenosa em pacientes submetidas a mastectomia, como também, o consumo de opioide pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Após aprovação pelo comitê de ética e pesquisa em seres humanos do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira em Recife - Pernambuco foi realizado ensaio clínico aleatório encoberto placebo controlado com lidocaína intravenosa na dose de 3 mg/kg infundida em uma hora, em 45 mulheres submetidas a mastectomia sob anestesia geral. Excluída uma paciente do grupo placebo. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes quanto à idade, índice de massa corpórea, tipo de intervenção cirúrgica e necessidade de opioide no pós-operatório. Solicitaram opioide 2/22 pacientes nos grupos da lidocaína e 3/22 placebo (p = 0,50). Identificada a dor ao despertar em 4/22 no grupo lidocaína e 5/22 (p = 0,50) no grupo placebo; na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica em 14/22 e 12/22 (p = 0,37) nos grupos lidocaína e placebo respectivamente. Ao avaliar a dor 24 horas após o procedimento cirúrgico 3/22 e 2/22 (p = 0,50) das pacientes relataram dor em ambos os grupos respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A lidocaína intravenosa na dose de 3mg/kg administrada em um período de uma hora no transoperatório de mastectomia não promoveu analgesia adicional em relação ao grupo placebo nas primeiras 24 horas e não diminuiu o consumo de opioide. Contudo, um efeito benéfico da lidocaína intravenosa em pacientes selecionadas e/ou em outros regimes terapêuticos não pode ser descartado. .

JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio en la mastectomía continúa siendo un gran reto a pesar del abordaje multimodal. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto analgésico de la lidocaína intravenosa en pacientes sometidas a mastectomía, así como el consumo postoperatorio de opiáceos. MÉTODOS: Después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética e Investigación en seres humanos del Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, en Recife, Pernambuco, se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, encubierto, placebo controlado con lidocaína intravenosa en una dosis de 3 mg/kg infundida en una hora, en 45 mujeres sometidas a mastectomía bajo anestesia general. Una paciente del grupo placebo fue excluida. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron similares en cuanto a la edad, índice de masa corporal, tipo de intervención quirúrgica y necesidad de opiáceos en el postoperatorio. Solicitaron opiáceos 2/22 pacientes en los grupos de la lidocaína y 3/22 placebo (p = 0,50). Fue identificado el dolor al despertar en 4/22 en el grupo lidocaína y 5/22 (p = 0,50) en el grupo placebo; en la sala de recuperación postanestésica en 14/22 y 12/22 (p = 0,37) en los grupos lidocaína y placebo, respectivamente. Al calcular el dolor 24 h después del procedimiento quirúrgico 3/22 y 2/22 (p = 0,50) de las pacientes relataron dolor en ambos grupos respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La lidocaína intravenosa en una dosis de 3 mg/kg administrada en un período de una hora en el transoperatorio de mastectomía no generó analgesia adicional con relación al grupo placebo en las primeras 24 h y no disminuyó el consumo de opiáceos. Sin embargo, no puede ser descartado un efecto beneficioso de la lidocaína intravenosa en pacientes seleccionadas y/o en otros regímenes terapéuticos. .

Humans , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , DNA , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , Protein Stability , Protein Subunits/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA, Viral/ultrastructure , Scattering, Small Angle , Solutions , Solvents , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Zinc Fingers
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 44-49, jan-feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742974


INTRODUCTION: In 2010, to reduce the occurrence of serious pneumococcal disease, the Ministry of Health in Brazil incorporated the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the immunization schedule of children younger than two years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of vaccination on the incidence of infectious respiratory diseases in infants before and after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved primary care and hospital networks from a city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: A 40% reduction in the prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was observed after introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Male children were 28% more likely to develop the disease. The prevalence ratio ([PR] = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.53, p < 0.05) suggested that not being vaccinated was associated with the occurrence of pneumonia. The prevalence of CAP was 70% lower (PR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.37, p<0.05) in children vaccinated as recommended compared to children with delayed vaccination, suggesting that the updated vaccine schedule improves protection. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine appeared to reduce the number of pneumonia cases in children during the study period. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the vaccine against the occurrence of pneumococcal pneumonia. .

Humans , HIV-1 , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Alternative Splicing , Blotting, Western , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , HIV-1 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunoprecipitation , Protein Binding , RNA Interference , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Trans-Activators/metabolism
Gut and Liver ; : 421-427, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175278


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study aimed to clarify whether virological response within 2 weeks after therapy initiation can predict a null response to pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy in patients with high viral load genotype 1b hepatitis C. METHODS: The participants consisted of 72 patients with high viral load genotype 1b. The dynamics of viral load within 2 weeks were measured. RESULTS: Significant differences between null responders and nonnull responders were noted for interleukin (IL)-28B genotype, amino acid 70 substitution, alpha-fetoprotein, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyaluronic acid, and viral response. The area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic curve of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA level decline at 2 weeks (AUC=0.993) was the highest among the factors predicting the null response. When the cutoff value for the HCV RNA level decline at 2 weeks was set at 0.80 log, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in predicting a null response were 82%, 96%, 82%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. In comparison, values for the non-TT and mutant type of amino acid 70 substitution were similar to those for HCV RNA level decline at 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Virological response at 2 weeks or the combination of IL-28B and amino acid 70 substitution are accurate predictors of a null response.

Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Area Under Curve , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Genotype , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Male , Medication Adherence , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88111


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. It causes acute hepatitis with a high propensity for chronic infection. Chronic HCV infection can progress to severe liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the last decade, our basic understanding of HCV virology and life cycle has advanced greatly with the development of HCV cell culture and replication systems. Our ability to treat HCV infection has also been improved with the combined use of interferon, ribavirin and small molecule inhibitors of the virally encoded NS3/4A protease, although better therapeutic options are needed with greater antiviral efficacy and less toxicity. In this article, we review various aspects of HCV life cycle including viral attachment, entry, fusion, viral RNA translation, posttranslational processing, HCV replication, viral assembly and release. Each of these steps provides potential targets for novel antiviral therapeutics to cure HCV infection and prevent the adverse consequences of progressive liver disease.

Tetraspanin 28/metabolism , Genome, Viral , Hepacivirus/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Virus Assembly , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149673


BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: The ultimate goal of antiviral therapy using interferon/pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin in chronic C-viral hepatitis is to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). Several studies have shown that the reappearance rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum after the achievement of an SVR is less than 1%; the durability of an SVR in Korean patients is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the durability of the virologic response in chronic hepatitis C patients with an SVR to antiviral therapy. METHODS: A total of 156 patients who were treated successfully with interferon/peginterferon and ribavirin were evaluated retrospectively. Patients received either subcutaneous conventional interferon alpha 3x10(6) units three times a week or subcutaneous pegylated interferon (alpha-2a: 180 microgram, alpha-2b: 80-100 microgram) once a week in combination with ribavirin at 600-1,200 mg daily (depending on body weight). Patients with HCV genotype 1 were treated for 48 weeks, whereas those with non-genotype 1 were treated for 24 weeks. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients underwent treatment with conventional interferon and ribavirin, whereas 74 patients were treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. An SVR was achieved in 73 patients (73/156, 46.8%). HCV RNA reappeared in eight patients (8/73, 11.0%; detected by qualitative PCR), including one patient with persistent viremia (1/73, 1.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Reappearance of HCV RNA after earlier achievement of an SVR might appear more frequently than previously reported. Close follow-up of these patients is recommended and the implication of temporary viremia should be determined in the future.

Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Genotype , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Viremia/drug therapy
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12966


BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates via RNA intermediates, which could serve as targets for RNA interference (RNAi). Vector-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) can induce sustained RNAi in comparison to small interfering RNA. Lentiviral vector is known to induce prolonged RNAi with high transduction efficiency. In this study, we sought to test the in vitro efficacy of shRNA delivered by a lentiviral vector in suppressing the replication of HBV. METHODS: Two shRNA sequences against the hepatitis B viral protein HBx (sh1580 and sh1685) were cloned downstream of the U6 promoter in an HIV-based plasmid to generate third-generation lentiviral vectors. HepAD38 cells were transduced with anti-HBx lentiviral vectors, and HBV replication was induced for 5 days. HBV DNA was isolated and quantified using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Lentiviral vectors encoding the shRNA against HBV transduced HepAD38 cells with high efficacy. The total intracellular HBV DNA content was significantly reduced by both sh1580 and sh1685 (2.9% and 12.0%, respectively; P<0.05). HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) was also suppressed significantly (19.7% and 25.5%, respectively; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA against HBx can effectively suppress the replication of HBV and reduce HBV cccDNA in cell culture systems.

Cell Line, Tumor , Genetic Vectors , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Trans-Activators/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Replication
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91382


We have previously described the development of a onetube SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in various biological samples. The twofold aim of the present study was to verify that the optimized SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR conditions could detect ISAV isolates of different geographic origins, and to analyze the growth patterns of the selected ISAV isolates in the Chinook head salmon embryo (CHSE) -214 cells by this assay to better characterize their CHSE-phenotypes. A total of 24 ISAV isolates were used in this study. The results indicated that the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR could detect ISAV of different geographic origins or laboratory sources. The capacity of ISAV isolates to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in the CHSE-214 cell line, viral titration of the infected CHSE-cell harvests, and analysis of viral RNA levels in CHSE-214 cells at post-infection day zero, 7 and 14 by SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR confirmed the existence of three CHSE-phenotypes of ISAV: replicating cytopathic, replicating non-cytopathic, and non-replicating non-cytopathic. The identification of these three CHSE- phenotypes of ISAV has important implications from diagnostic and biological points of view.

Animals , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Isavirus/genetics , Phenotype , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Salmon/embryology , Time Factors , Virus Replication
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Mar; 43(3): 272-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55996


Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of Orbivirus genus in family Reoviridae. The virus genome is composed of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. The RNA segment L2 encodes an outer capsid viral protein VP2, which is the main determinant of neutralization and serotype-specific immune response. BTV serotype 1 (BTV-1) specific novel primer pair was designed using VP2 gene sequences available in GenBank to amplify 1240-1844 bp region because two hypervariable and three conserved regions have been reported within these 604 nucleotides. This primer pair successfully amplified cell culture adapted six Indian isolates of BTV-1 from different geographical regions of the country. The 604 bp PCR product of VP2 gene of all six BTV-1 yielded two fragments of 273 and 331 bp when digested with Taq1 restriction enzyme. This indicated that there is only one TaqI site at 1513 bp (within 1240-1844 bp region) of VP2 gene of BTV-1 Indian isolates. The in silico restriction analysis revealed that in BTV-1 South African isolate (BTV-1SA) there is no TaqI site while in BTV-1 Australian isolates (BTV-1AUS), there are two TaqI sites (at 1513 and 1567 bp) within 1240-1844 bp region of VP2 gene. The earlier reported VP2 gene based primer pair for BTV-1 was used in the present study to amplify 2242-2933 bp region of six BTV-1 Indian isolates as three conserved regions have been reported within these 691 nucleotides. The digestion of 691 bp PCR products with XmnI yielded three fragments of 364, 173 and 154 bp with all the six Indian isolates of BTV-1 suggesting that there are two XmnI sites within 2242-2933 bp region of VP2 gene. A single XmnI site was observed in silico in BTV-1AUS and BTV-1SA isolates at different positions within this region. The in vitro and in silico restriction profile analyses of partial VP2 gene sequences using TaqI and XmnI restriction enzymes indicated a close relationship of Indian isolates of BTV-1 with BTV-1AUS isolates but not with BTV-1SA isolate.

Bluetongue virus/genetics , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Conserved Sequence , DNA Restriction Enzymes/metabolism , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Genes, Viral , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction