Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 9.085
Filter
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 32-43, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the M1 and M2 macrophage modulation after stimuli with different materials used during endodontic treatment. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cell culture, from males C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, gene expression analysis of markers to M1 and M2 macrophages was performed by qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla and MRC1) and cytokine quantification by Luminex® (GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α) after exposure to the five endodontic sealers: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS and a calcium hydroxide-based paste. For normal values, ANOVA test was used, followed by Tukey post-test. For non-normal values, the Kruskall-Wallis test was used. BioRootTM RCS and EndoSequence BC SealerTM stimulated the highest expression of markers for M1 macrophages, while calcium hydroxide-based paste stimulated the lowest expression of these gene markers. For M2 protein markers, BioRootTM RCS presented the highest stimulation while calcium hydroxide-based paste also presented the lowest stimulation. It was concluded that all the evaluated filling materials increased the genetic expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers: TNF-α and IL-10 respectively. The others proinflammatory mediators showed differences against the filling materials. However, this process did not induce the inflammatory response polarization, resulting in a hybrid macrophage.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a modulação dos macrófagos M1 e M2 após estímulos com diferentes materiais utilizados durante o tratamento endodôntico. Em cultura de células de macrófagos derivados da medula óssea de camundongos machos C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), após a exposição à cinco cimentos endodônticos: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS e pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio foi realizada a análise da expressão gênica dos marcadores para macrófagos M1 e M2 por qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla e MRC1) e quantificação de citocinas por Luminex® (GM -CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β e TNF-α). Para valores normais, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA, seguido do pós-teste de Tukey. Para valores não normais, foi utilizado o teste de Kruskall-Wallis. BioRootTM RCS e EndoSequence BC SealerTM estimularam maior expressão de marcadores para macrófagos M1, enquanto a pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio estimulou expressão mais baixa desses marcadores gênicos. Para o marcador de proteínas para M2, BioRootTM RCS apresentou a maior estimulação, enquanto a pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio também apresentou menor estimulação. Concluiu-se que os materiais obturadores avaliados aumentaram a expressão genética de marcadores pró- e anti-inflamatórios: TNF-α e IL-10 respectivamente. Os demais marcadores pró inflamatórios mostraram diferenças em relação aos materiais obturadores. No entanto, esse processo não induziu a polarização da resposta inflamatória, resultando em um macrófago híbrido.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Root Canal Filling Materials , Phenotype , Materials Testing , Epoxy Resins , Macrophages , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 367-376, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248948

ABSTRACT

One lung ventilation (OLV) often results in trauma to the unventilated contralateral lung. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different OLV regimens on the injury of the unventilated contralateral lung to identify the best conditions for OLV. Forty rabbits were divided into five groups: a sham group, OLV group I (fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) 1.0, tidal volume (VT) 8mL/kg, respiratory rate (R) 40 breaths/min and inspiratory/expiratory ratio (I:E) 1:2), OLV group II (FIO2=1.0, VT 8mL/kg, R 40 breaths/min, I:E 1:2, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cm H2O), OLV group III (FIO2 1.0, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 breaths/min, I:E 1:2 and PEEP 5 cm H2O) and OLV group IV (FIO2 0.8, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 breaths/min, I:E 1:2 and PEEP 5 cm H2O). Animals from all OLV groups received two-lung ventilation (TLV) to establish a baseline, followed by one of the indicated OLV regimens. The rabbits in the sham group were intubated through trachea and ventilated with fresh air. Arterial blood gas samples were collected, lung injury parameters were evaluated, and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) in the unventilated lung were also measured. In OLV group I, the unventilated left lung had higher TNF-α, IL-8 and lung injury score but lower SPA than the ventilated right lung. In OLV groups I to III, the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-8 and lung injury score in the left lung decreased but SPA increased. No differences in these parameters between OLV groups III and IV were observed. Strategic ventilation designed for OLV groups III and IV reduced OLV-induced injury of the non-ventilated contralateral lung in rabbits.(AU)


Ventilação pulmonar unilateral (OLV) frequentemente resulta em trauma no pulmão contralateral não ventilado. Este estudo visa avaliar os efeitos de diferentes regimes de OLV sobre a lesão do pulmão contralateral não ventilado para identificar as melhores condições para OLV. Quarenta coelhos foram divididos em cinco grupos: um grupo falso, OLV grupo I (fração de oxigênio inspirado (FIO2) 1.0, volume corrente (VT) 8mL/kg, frequência respiratória (R) 40 respirações/min e relação inspiração/expiração (I:E) 1:2), OLV grupo II (FIO2=1.0, VT 8mL/kg, R 40 respirações/min, I:E 1:2, e pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP) 5 cm H2O), OLV grupo III (FIO2 1.0, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 respirações/min, I:E 1:2 e PEEP 5 cm H2O) e OLV grupo IV (FIO2 0.8, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 respirações/min, I:E 1:2 e PEEP 5 cm H2O). Os animais de todos os grupos OLV receberam ventilação nos dois pulmões (TLV) para estabelecer uma linha de base, seguida por um dos regimes OLV indicados. Os coelhos do grupo falso foram intubados através da traqueia e ventilados com ar fresco. Amostras de gases no sangue arterial foram coletadas, parâmetros de lesão pulmonar foram avaliados e as concentrações de TNF-α e IL-8 no fluido de lavagem bronco alveolar (BALF) e proteína A do surfactante pulmonar (SPA) no pulmão não ventilado também foram medidas. No grupo OLV I, o pulmão esquerdo não ventilado tinha maior índice de TNF-α, IL-8 e lesão pulmonar, mas menor SPA do que o pulmão direito ventilado. Nos grupos OLV I a III, as concentrações de TNF-α, IL-8 e a pontuação de lesão pulmonar no pulmão esquerdo diminuíram, mas o SPA aumentou. Não foram observadas diferenças nestes parâmetros entre os grupos OLV III e IV. A ventilação estratégica projetada para os grupos OLV III e IV reduziu a lesão induzida por OLV do pulmão contralateral não ventilado em coelhos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Pulmonary Ventilation , Acute Lung Injury/complications , One-Lung Ventilation/veterinary
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 377-382, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248933

ABSTRACT

The function and protection of the parathyroid glands are increasingly popular research topics. New Zealand white rabbits are the most commonly used animal model of parathyroid ischemia. However, information on the vasculature of their parathyroid glands is limited. We used 94 healthy New Zealand white rabbits, 3-4 months of age and 2-3kg in weight, for exploration of the parathyroid glands, which were stained using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) after removal. The following types were classified according to the relationship between the position of the inferior parathyroid gland and the thyroid: Type A, Close Type, Type B, and Distant Type. There were 188 cases, 4 where the inferior parathyroid glands were located near the dorsal side of thyroid (2.13%), 8 where the inferior parathyroid glands were located superior to the upper pole of the thyroid (4.26%), 20 where the inferior parathyroid glands were located parallel to the thyroid (10.64%), and 155 cases where the inferior parathyroid glands were located inferior to the lower pole of thyroid (82.45%). Identifying the location and classifying the vasculature of the parathyroid glands in New Zealand white rabbits will provide an anatomical model to assist in future research.(AU)


A função e proteção das glândulas paratireoidianas é um tópico de pesquisa cada vez mais popular. Coelhos brancos da Nova Zelândia são o modelo animal mais comumente usada para isquemia da paratireóide. Porém, informação sobre a vasculatura de suas glândulas paratireóides é limitada. Foram usados 94 coelhos brancos da Nova Zelândia saudáveis, com 3-4 meses de idade, 2-3kg de peso, para exploração das glândulas paratireóides, que foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina (HE) após a remoção. Os seguintes tipos foram classificados de acordo com a relação entre a posição da glândula paratireoidiana inferior e a tireoide: Tipo A, Tipo Próximo, Tipo B e Tipo Distante. Houve 188 casos, 4 em que as glândulas paratireoidianas inferiores estavam localizadas próximas ao lado dorsal da tireoide (2.13%), 8 onde as glândulas paratireoidianas inferiores estavam localizadas superiores ao polo superior da tireoide (4.26%), 20 onde as glândulas paratireoidianas inferiores estavam localizadas paralelo à tireoide (10.64%) e 155 casos em que as glândulas paratireoidianas inferiores estavam localizadas inferiores ao polo inferior da tireoide (82.45%). A identificação da localização e a classificação da vasculatura das glândulas paratireóides em coelhos brancos da Nova Zelândia fornecerão um modelo anatômico para auxiliar em pesquisas futuras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Parathyroid Glands/anatomy & histology , Parathyroid Glands/blood supply
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 322-332, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed the efficacy and safety of a single injection of three bulking agents over the short- and long-term follow-ups in rabbits. Dermal and preputial matrices were compared with Deflux (DxHA) injection. Material and methods: Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three groups. Group I (n=8) underwent the injection of a lyophilized dermal matrix (LDM) beneath the seromuscular layer of the bladder wall. Rabbits in group II (n=8) were injected with lyophilized preputial matrix (LPM). Rabbits of group III (n=8) were injected with DxHA as the control group. They were followed up for 1 and 6 months after the injection. Subcutaneous injection of all bulking agents was also performed in nude mice. Biopsies were stained with LCA (leukocyte common antibody), CD68, CD31, and CD34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MTT assay were also performed. Results: Immunohistochemistry staining with CD68 and LCA revealed higher inflammation grade in LDM as compared with LPM and DxHA. Fibrosis grade was also higher in LDM both in short- and long-term follow-ups. However, no significant difference was detected in CD31 and CD34 staining between control and experimental groups. SEM analysis showed that the particle size of LPM was more similar to DxHA. MTT assay revealed that cell proliferation was similar in DxHA, LDM, and LPM. In-vivo assay in nude mice model showed more promising results in LPM as compared with LDM. Conclusion: The long-term results demonstrated that LPM was more similar to Deflux with the least local tissue reaction, inflammation, and fibrosis grade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dextrans , Hyaluronic Acid , Rabbits , Urinary Bladder , Injections , Mice , Mice, Nude
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 287-294, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154463

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Despite high success rates in the treatment of urinary incontinence, complications related to the use of polypropylene (PP) meshes are still a concern, especially in vaginal prolapses surgeries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) coating on the integration of PP meshes implanted in the vaginal submucosa of rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (n=15): PP, implanted with conventional PP meshes; and PRP, implanted with autologous PRP coated PP meshes. Animals in both groups (n=5) were euthanized at 7, 30 and 90 days postoperatively, the vaginas extracted and sent to immunohistochemical analysis for the assessment of the pro-inflammatory agent TNF-α, anti-inflammatory agents TGF-β and IL-13, collagen metabolism marker MMP-2, and angiogenesis marker CD-31. AxioVision™ image analysis was used for the calculation of the immunoreactive area and density. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p <0.05). Results: Animals in the PRP group showed significantly increased expression of the angiogenesis agent CD-31 at all experimental times when compared to the PP group (p <0.0001). However, no differences concerning the expression of the other markers were observed between the groups. Conclusion: The addition of autologous PRP gel to PP meshes can be simply and safely achieved and seems to have a positive effect on implantation site angiogenesis. Further investigations are required to ascertain PPR coated meshes clinical efficacy in prolapses and stress urinary incontinence surgeries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Polypropylenes , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Rabbits , Surgical Mesh , Vagina/surgery , Collagen
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 9-15, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aiming to evaluate cortical bone microarchitecture and osteonal morphology after irradiation, twelve male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were divided: control group (no radiation-NIr); and 3 irradiated groups, sacrificed after: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) and 21 (Ir21d) days. A single radiation dose of 30 Gy was used. Computed microtomography analyzed the cortical microarchitecture: cortical thickness (CtTh), bone volume (BV), total porosity (Ct.Po), intracortical porosity (CtPo-cl), channel/pore number (Po.N), fractal dimension (FD) and degree of anisotropy (Ct.DA). After scan, osteonal morphology was histologically assessed by means: area and perimeter of the osteons (O.Ar; O.p) and of the Haversian canals (C.Ar; C.p). Microtomographic analysis were performed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey and Dunnet tests. Osteon morphology analyses were performed by Kruskal-Wallis, and test Dunn's. Cortical thickness was significant difference (p<0.010) between the NIr and irradiated groups, with thicker cortex at Ir7d (1.15±0.09). The intracortical porosity revealed significant difference (p<0.001) between irradiated groups and NIr, with lower value for Ir7d (0.29±0.09). Bone volume was lower in Ir14d compared to control. Area and perimeter of the osteons were statistically different (p<0.0001) between NIr and Ir7d. Haversian canals also revealed lower values (p<0.0001) in Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) compared to NIr and irradiated groups. Cortical microarchitecture was affected by radiation, and the effects appear to be time-dependent, mostly regarding the osteons morphology at the initial days. Cortex structure in Ir21d revealed similarities to control suggesting that microarchitecture resembles normal condition after a period.


Resumo Com o objetivo de avaliar a microarquitetura óssea cortical e a morfologia dos osteons após irradiação, foram utilizados doze coelhos machos da Nova Zelândia. Os animais foram divididos: grupo controle (sem radiação-NIr); e 3 grupos irradiados, sacrificados após: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) e 21 (Ir21d) dias. Foi utilizada uma dose única de radiação de 30 Gy. A microtomografia computadorizada analisou a microarquitetura cortical: espessura cortical (CtTh), volume ósseo (BV), porosidade total (Ct.Po), porosidade intracortical (CtPo-cl), número de canal/ poro (Po.N), dimensão fractal (DF) e grau de anisotropia (Ct.DA). Após a varredura, a morfologia dos osteosn foi avaliada histologicamente por meio de: Área e perímetro do osteon (O.Ar; O.p) e dos canais de Havers (C.Ar; C.p). A análise microtomográfica foi realizada por ANOVA, seguida pelos testes de Tukey e Dunnet. As análises morfológicas do osteon foram realizadas por Kruskal-Wallis e testadas por Dunn. A espessura cortical foi diferente (p<0,010) entre os grupos controle e irradiados, com córtex mais espesso no Ir7d (1,15±0,09). A porosidade intracortical revelou diferenças significativas (p<0,001) entre os grupos irradiados e o controle, com menor valor para Ir7d (0,29±0,09). O volume ósseo foi menor no Ir14d em relação ao controle. Área e perímetro do osteon foi diferente (p<0,0001) entre o controle e Ir7d. Os canais haversianos também revelaram valores mais baixos (p<0,0001) em Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) em relação ao controle e demais grupos irradiados. A microarquitetura cortical é afetada pela radiação e os efeitos parecem ser dependentes do tempo, principalmente em relação à morfologia dos osteons nos dias iniciais. A estrutura cortical em Ir21d revelou semelhanças com o controle, sugerindo que a microarquitetura se assemelha à condição normal após um período.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Haversian System , Bone and Bones , Porosity , Fractals
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 26-33, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180720

ABSTRACT

Abstract The limited options for bone repair have led to an extensive research of the field and the development of alloplastic and xenogeneic grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone repair with two bone substitutes: deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) in critical-size defect. A total of 8-mm defects were made in the parietal bones of rabbits (n=12). The animals were divided into three experimental groups: sham (defect filled with a blood clot), DBB (defect filled with DBB), and BCP (defect filled with BCP). After the experimental periods of 15 and 45 days, the animals were euthanized and submitted to histomorphometric analysis. The total defect area, mineralized tissue area, biomaterial area, and soft tissue area were evaluated. A greater amount of immature bone tissue and biomaterial particles were observed in the BCP group compared to DBB and sham at 45 days (p<0.05). There was no difference in the qualitative pattern of bone deposition between DBB and BCP. However, the sham group did not show osteoid islands along with the defect, presenting a greater amount of collagen fibers as well in relation to the DBB and BCP groups. There was a greater number of inflammatory cells in the DBB at 45 days compared to BCP and sham groups. In conclusion, BCP and DBB are options for optimizing the use of bone grafts for maxillofacial rehabilitation. Bone defects treated with BCP showed greater deposition of bone tissue at 45 days.


Resumo As opções limitadas para reparo ósseo levaram ao desenvolvimento de abrangente pesquisa na área de enxertos aloplásticos e xenogênicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o reparo ósseo com dois substitutos ósseos: osso bovino desproteinizado (DBB) e cerâmica fosfática de cálcio bifásica (BCP) em defeito de tamanho crítico. Material e métodos: defeitos críticos de 8 mm foram feitos nos ossos parietais de coelhos (n=12). Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais: sham (defeito preenchido com coágulo sanguíneo), DBB (defeito preenchido com DBB) e BCP (defeito preenchido com BCP). Após os períodos experimentais de 15 e 45 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e submetidos à análise histomorfométrica. Foram avaliadas a área total de defeitos, área de tecidos mineralizados, área de biomateriais e área de tecidos moles. Resultados: maior quantidade de tecido ósseo imaturo e de partículas de biomaterial foram observados no grupo BCP em comparação aos grupos DBB e sham aos 45 dias (p<0,05). Não houve diferença no padrão qualitativo de deposição óssea entre DBB e BCP. Ainda, o grupo sham não apresentou ilhas osteóides ao longo do defeito, apresentando maior quantidade de fibras colágenas em relação aos grupos DBB e BCP. Houve maior quantidade de células inflamatórias no DBB aos 45 dias em comparação aos grupos BCP e sham. Conclusões: BCP e DBB são opções para otimizar o uso de enxertos ósseos na reabilitação de pacientes. Defeitos ósseos tratados com BCP mostraram maior deposição de tecido ósseo aos 45 dias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Bone Substitutes , Hydroxyapatites , Osteogenesis , Bone Matrix , Bone Regeneration , Calcium Phosphates , Cattle , Ceramics
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06639, 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1250494

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, snakes from the Bothrops genus are responsible for thousands of accidents, and their venoms are mainly composed of proteolytic enzymes. Although the antibothropic serum produced by the Brazilian Institutes is remarkably efficient, more studies are necessary, especially in veterinary medicine. The venom contain enzymes and non-enzymatic proteins that interfere with hemostasis leading to hemorrhage or even thrombosis. Possible treatment associations with known bothropic antivenom were the reason for the development of the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemostasis alterations caused by Bothrops alternatus venom in rabbits followed by treatments with anti-bothropic serum, tranexamic acid and desmopressin. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were distributed into five groups (n=4) that were experimentally envenomed with 150mcg/kg of B. alternatus venom via intramuscular injection and treated as follow: Group 1 (G1) was the positive control and received venom and PBS/BSA; Group 2 (G2) was treated with tranexamic acid; Group 3 (G3) with desmopressin; Group 4 (G4) with tranexamic acid and anti-bothropic serum; and Group 5 (G5) with anti-bothropic serum and desmopressin. Blood samples were collected before venom administration, and one, four, eight and 12 hours after, for Partial activated partial thromboplastin time, Prothrombin Time, Thrombin Time and fibrinogen evaluation. Thrombin generation (TG) test was carried out with a pool of samples from final times (8 and 12h). At the end of 12h, all animals were euthanized and necropsy was conducted. Samples from muscle tissue, heart, lungs and kidney were analyzed. Classic coagulation tests showed no significant differences amongst groups and times. However, TG indicated that the venom causes a hypocoagulability state, which was not reversed by proposed treatments. Histology showed muscle inflammation, hemorrhage and necrosis, as well as hemorrhage in other tissues with no differences amongst groups. B. alternatus envenomation causes hypocoagulability detected by TG assay, but not through classical coagulation tests. The use of tranexamic acid and desmopressin for hemostasis stabilization after inoculation of the venom did not show advantage in coagulation restoration.(AU)


No Brasil, as serpentes do gênero Bothrops são responsáveis por milhares de acidentes, e seus venenos são compostos principalmente de enzimas proteolíticas. Embora o soro antiofídico produzido pelos institutos brasileiros seja notavelmente eficiente, mais estudos são necessários, especialmente na medicina veterinária. O veneno contem enzimas e proteínas não-enzimáticas que interferem com a hemostasia levando a hemorragias ou trombose. A associação de outros tratamentos ao soro antibotrópico foi a razão para o desenvolvimento do presente estudo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações da hemostasia causadas pelo veneno de Bothrops alternatus em coelhos, após tratamento com soro antibotrópico, ácido tranexâmico e desmopressina. Vinte coelhos da Nova Zelândia foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n = 4) que foram submetidos a experimentos com 150mcg/kg de veneno de B. alternatus por injeção intramuscular. O Grupo 1 (G1) foi o controle positivo e recebeu veneno e PBS / BSA, enquanto o Grupo 2 (G2) foi tratado com ácido tranexâmico, o Grupo 3 (G3) com desmopressina, o Grupo 4 (G4) com ácido tranexâmico e soro antibotrópico, e o Grupo 5 (G5) com soro antibotrópico e desmopressina. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da administração do veneno, e uma, quatro, oito e 12 horas após os tratamentos para realização de tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada parcial (TTPa), tempo de protrombina (TP), tempo de trombina (TT) e mensuração de fibrinogênio. Para o ensaio de geração de trombina (TG) foi realizado com um pool de amostras nos tempos finais (8 e 12h). Ao final das 12h, todos os animais foram sacrificados e a necropsia foi realizada. Amostras de tecido muscular, coração, pulmões e rins foram analisadas. Os testes TTPa, TP, TT e fibrinogênio não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos e os tempos. No entanto, o TG indicou que o veneno causa um estado de hipocoagulabilidade, que não foi revertido pelos tratamentos propostos. Na histologia, foram observadas inflamação muscular, hemorragia e necrose, além de hemorragia em outros tecidos, sem diferenças entre os grupos. O envenenamento por B. alternatus causa hipocoagulabilidade detectada mais precocemente pelo teste de geração de trombina. O uso de ácido tranexâmico e desmopressina para estabilização da hemostasia após a inoculação do veneno não mostrou vantagem na restauração da coagulação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Snakes , Bothrops , Hemostasis , Hemostatic Techniques
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06927, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340346

ABSTRACT

Histopathology is an old science that is still currently utilized for disease diagnosis and research. The routinely processed histologic slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin are still used worldwide in most if not every histopathology laboratory. The technique is inexpensive, quick to perform, and allows the diagnosis of a fantastic variety of tissue changes and diseases. Skills in description and interpretation in histopathology are a craft that can be learned by repeatedly and systematically observing simple rules. In this article, we offer a few advices to help trainees in veterinary pathology at the start of their careers. Those advices are drawn from our experience in the diagnostic pathology routine and from the veterinary pathology literature. To enhance the understanding of these important steps in the histopathologic description of tissues, we decided to illustrate most concepts expressed here. We hope that our effort can add a bit to the development of future pathologists. Just like Alice, let us follow the White Rabbit into his burrow for this challenging experience!(AU)


A histopatologia é uma ciência antiga, mas ainda usada para diagnosticar e investigar a patogênese de doenças. As lâminas histológicas processadas rotineiramente e coradas por hematoxilina e eosina ainda são utilizadas em virtualmente todos os laboratórios de histopatologia do mundo. A técnica não é cara, é de execução rápida e permite o diagnóstico de uma fantástica variedade de doenças. As habilidades em descrever e interpretar os achados histopatológicos é um ofício que pode ser aprendido pela observação repetida e sistemática de regras simples. Para ajudar os estudantes de patologia no início de suas carreiras, abordamos aqui algumas dessas regras, extraídas tanto de nossa experiência quanto da literatura relacionada à patologia veterinária. Para aumentar a compreensão dos tópicos, decidimos ilustrar praticamente todos os conceitos expressados neste manuscrito. Esperamos que nosso esforço possa contribuir um pouco para o desenvolvimento de aspirantes a patologistas. Assim como Alice no País das Maravilhas, vamos seguir o coelho branco até a sua toca para essa aventura desafiadora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Hematoxylin
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880677

ABSTRACT

Rotator cuff injuries are the most common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. Ideal animal shoulder models should have similar shoulder anatomy and function as human, and are able to replicate the microenvironment change after tendon injury. At present, a variety of animal models including rat, mouse, rabbit, sheep, canine, bovine, and primate have been used to study the mechanism of rotator cuff injury, effects of different repair techniques, and factors affecting tendon to bone healing. Although large animal models are more anatomically similar to humans, small animal models are more convenient in revealing the biological mechanism of rotator cuff injury and healing. Choosing appropriate animal models based on research objectives and establishing new small animal models play a critical role in revealing the mechanism of rotator cuff diseases and developing novel treating strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Mice , Rabbits , Rats , Rotator Cuff , Rotator Cuff Injuries , Sheep , Tendon Injuries , Wound Healing
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880414

ABSTRACT

Dry eye is a common ophthalmic disease caused by eye maladjustment due to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), which is often accompanied by symptoms such as increased tear film osmotic pressure and ocular surface inflammation. In the treatment of dry eye patients, dredging gland obstruction caused by meibomian gland secretion is an effective treatment method. Based on electrothermal effect and hyperelasticity of the silicone, an auxiliary treatment instrument for MGD is designed, which can improve the blood circulation of the glands through heat compress and massage to achieve the purpose of dredging the meibomian glands. The therapy device can display the temperature and pressure during the treatment in real time, so that the surgeon can grasp the progress of the treatment in real time. The therapy device constructs a user-oriented interactive interface based on parametric modeling method, which can be customized by 3D printing according to the user's eyeball geometric parameters. The designed therapeutic device was finally tested on New Zealand white rabbits. The experimental results show that the therapeutic device has significant effectiveness and safety, as well as clinical application prospects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dry Eye Syndromes/therapy , Humans , Meibomian Gland Dysfunction , Meibomian Glands , Rabbits , Tears , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879961

ABSTRACT

To establish a rabbit model of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type9 () point mutation with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique. According to the PubMed gene protein data, the PCSK9 protein functional regions of human and rabbit were analyzed by Blast. The 386S (Ser) amino acid functional region of human gene was homologous to the 485S of rabbit gene. Three small guide RNAs and one single-stranded donor oligonucleotide were designed according to the 485S base substitution position and sequence analysis of rabbit gene. The synthetic small guide RNAs, Cas9 mRNA and single-stranded donor oligonucleotide were co-injected into the cytoplasm of rabbit fertilized eggs and the embryos were transferred into the pregnant rabbits. PCR, TA cloning and off-target analysis were performed on the F0 rabbits to identify whether the PCSK9 mutation was successful. Fifteen F0 rabbits were obtained. The sequencing results showed that one of them was PCSK9 point mutation homozygote and two of them were PCSK9 point mutation heterozygotes, and the mutation could be stably inherited. The rabbit model of PCSK9 point mutation was successfully constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 technique, which provides an animal model for exploring the molecular mechanism of impaired PCSK9 function and developing reliable and effective diagnosis and treatment measures.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Mutation , Point Mutation , Proprotein Convertase 9/metabolism , Rabbits
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e9764, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153532

ABSTRACT

Naringenin (NAR) is a major flavanone in citrus fruits that has multiple pharmacological attributes such as anticancer and antiatherogenic. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of NAR in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis (AS) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. A HFD-induced AS ApoE-/- mouse model was established. The mice were treated with HFD, different doses of NAR and simvastatin (Simv). After drug treatment, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plaque area of the aorta of AS mice was determined using oil red O staining. Western blot analysis was applied to measure the levels of autophagy-related proteins [protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), beclin 1, and p62]. The TC, TG, LDL-C, TNF-α, ALT, and MDA levels were significantly increased while the HDL-C, SOD, and GSH-Px levels were decreased in the HFD-induced AS ApoE-/- mice. NAR treatment reversed the expression of the above indicators in mice. After they were treated with different doses of NAR, the LC3B and beclin 1 levels were improved while the p62 protein level was decreased. This study suggested that NAR could promote cell autophagy to improve HFD-induced AS in ApoE-/- mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Flavanones/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Autophagy
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10117, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153531

ABSTRACT

The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis by modulating the proliferation and invasion of ectopic endometrial cells in vitro, but related in vivo studies are rare. This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 in a nude mouse model of endometriosis. Ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ecESCs) were isolated from ectopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis and infected with lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) negative control (LV-NC-shRNA) or lncRNA-H19 shRNA (LV-H19-shRNA). The ecESCs infected with LV-NC-shRNA and LV-H19-shRNA were subcutaneously implanted into forty 6- to 8-week-old female nude mice. The size and weight of the endometriotic implants were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after implantation and compared, and lncRNA H19 levels in endometriotic implants were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All nude mice survived the experimental period, and no significant differences in body weight were observed between the experimental group and the control group. All nude mice developed histologically confirmed subcutaneous endometriotic lesions with glandular structures and stroma after 1 week of implantation. The subcutaneous lesions in the LV-NC-shRNA group after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of implantation were larger than those in the LV-H19-shRNA group, and lncRNA H19 levels in subcutaneous lesions in the LV-NC-shRNA group were significantly higher than those in the LV-H19-shRNA group. Knockdown of lncRNA H19 suppresses endometriosis in vivo. Further study is required to explore the underlying mechanism in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rabbits , Endometriosis/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Endometrium , Mice, Nude
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9422, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153527

ABSTRACT

Hyptis crenata, commonly known as "salva-do-Marajó", "hortelã-do-campo", and "hortelãzinha", is used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil as tea or infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. Due to the pharmacological efficacy and the low toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), we decided to investigate the EOHc antiedematogenic effect in experimental models of inflammation. EOHc was administrated orally at doses of 10-300 mg/kg to male Swiss albino mice. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous injection in the right hind paw of inflammatory stimuli (carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin) 60 min after administration of EOHc. EOHc significantly inhibited the induced edema. The inhibitory effect of EOHc on dextran-induced edema extended throughout the experimental time. For the 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses of EOHc, the inhibition was of 40.28±1.70, 51.18±2.69, and 59.24±2.13%, respectively. The EOHc inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced edema started at 10 mg/kg at the second hour (h) and was maintained throughout the observation period. At 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses the inhibition started earlier, from 30 min. At the edema peak of 180 min, 56, 76, and 82% inhibition was observed for 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses, respectively. Additionally, the effect of EOHc on carrageenan-induced paw edema was influenced by the time of administration. The EOHc also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. In conclusion, the EOHc showed a potent effect, both preventing and reversing the edema, consistent with its anti-inflammatory use in folk medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Hyptis/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Brazil , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Carrageenan , Edema/chemically induced , Inflammation/chemically induced
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10722, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285669

ABSTRACT

Continuous industrial productivity and modern societies have resulted in excess artificial light. The altered circadian rhythm causes many diseases. During intrauterine life, the mother's maternal melatonin rhythm has a major role in influencing organ development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to constant light on the structure and ultrastructure of neonatal skin. Twenty pregnant New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups (n=10 each): control group (12-h light/dark) and constant light group (24-h light). Plasma maternal melatonin and corticosterone during pregnancy were determined. At the end of the experiment, the dorsal skin of the neonates of both groups was collected and prepared for histological, morphometric, and transmission electron microscopic study. Histological and morphometric results of skin of neonates from the constant light group revealed statistically significantly reduced epidermal thickness, decreased number of hair follicle, increased surface area of collagen, and decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells. Ultrastructural examination showed wide intercellular spaces and disrupted desmosomal junctions in the epidermis. Earlier stages of hair follicles were also observed with indented shrunken nuclei, vacuolization, and swollen mitochondria. Dermal fibroblasts with dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron-dense material were detected. Maternal melatonin was significantly reduced in the constant light group while maternal corticosterone showed no significant difference between groups. Therefore, normal maternal circadian rhythm is a key factor for the integrity of neonatal skin structure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Skin , Melatonin , Circadian Rhythm , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Epidermis
20.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202587, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155357

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: the aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of a new silicone vascular prostheses with PTFE vascular prostheses, on a rabbit experimental model. Methods: forty rabbits underwent infra-renal aorta replacement with 4 mm diameter prostheses, twenty animals with PDMS and twenty animals with PTFE (control group). Retrograde aortic angiography was performed to assess patency. Histological graft samples were examined by electron microscopy to evaluate prostheses endothelialization. Results: patency rates were 100% for both grafts after 30 days; after 60 days, patency rate for PDMS was 92.3% (±7.4), and 73,8% (±13.1) at 90 days. PTFE grafts had patency rates of 87.5% (±11.7) at 60 and 90 days. No statistically significant difference was found in between groups for patency rates (p=0.62). Postoperative complications (death, paraplegia) rates (p=0.526) and aortic clamping times (p=0.299) were comparable in both groups. No statistically significant difference for stenosis was found on angiographical analysis between groups (p=0.650). Electron microscopy revealed limited anastomotic endothelial ingrowth in both prostheses. Conclusion: in this experimental model, PDMS and PTFE vascular prostheses had comparable outcomes and PDMS prosthesis could be used as a vascular graft.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar novo tubo de silicone como material para prótese vascular e compará-lo a prótese de PTFE, em modelo experimental com coelhos. Métodos: quarenta coelhos foram submetidos a interposição, na aorta infrarrenal, de próteses de 4mm de diâmetro, sendo 20 animais com PDMS e 20 com PTFE (grupo controle). Foi realizada arteriografia retrógrada da aorta para avaliar a patência das próteses. Para avaliar a endotelização das próteses foi realizada microscopia eletrônica de maneira amostral pareada. Resultados: a patência em 30 dias foi de 100% para as duas próteses. Aos 60 dias, a taxa de patência do PDMS foi de 92,3% (± 7,4), e de 73,8% (±13,1) em 90 dias; as próteses de PTFE tiveram taxas de patência de 87,5% (± 11,7) aos 60 e 90 dias. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre as taxas de patência dos grupos (p=0,62). Não foi observada diferença entre os grupos quanto à evolução com complicações pós-operatórias (p=0,526) e quanto ao tempo de clampeamento da aorta (p=0,299). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao grau de estenose das próteses (p=0,650) à avaliação angiográfica. A microscopia eletrônica mostrou crescimento endotelial limitado às regiões próximas às anastomoses nos dois tipos de próteses. Conclusões: o PDMS mostrou-se passível de utilização como prótese vascular, com resultados comparáveis aos do PTFE no modelo utilizado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/surgery , Polytetrafluoroethylene/therapeutic use , Silicones/therapeutic use , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Polyesters , Rabbits
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL