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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06927, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340346

ABSTRACT

Histopathology is an old science that is still currently utilized for disease diagnosis and research. The routinely processed histologic slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin are still used worldwide in most if not every histopathology laboratory. The technique is inexpensive, quick to perform, and allows the diagnosis of a fantastic variety of tissue changes and diseases. Skills in description and interpretation in histopathology are a craft that can be learned by repeatedly and systematically observing simple rules. In this article, we offer a few advices to help trainees in veterinary pathology at the start of their careers. Those advices are drawn from our experience in the diagnostic pathology routine and from the veterinary pathology literature. To enhance the understanding of these important steps in the histopathologic description of tissues, we decided to illustrate most concepts expressed here. We hope that our effort can add a bit to the development of future pathologists. Just like Alice, let us follow the White Rabbit into his burrow for this challenging experience!(AU)


A histopatologia é uma ciência antiga, mas ainda usada para diagnosticar e investigar a patogênese de doenças. As lâminas histológicas processadas rotineiramente e coradas por hematoxilina e eosina ainda são utilizadas em virtualmente todos os laboratórios de histopatologia do mundo. A técnica não é cara, é de execução rápida e permite o diagnóstico de uma fantástica variedade de doenças. As habilidades em descrever e interpretar os achados histopatológicos é um ofício que pode ser aprendido pela observação repetida e sistemática de regras simples. Para ajudar os estudantes de patologia no início de suas carreiras, abordamos aqui algumas dessas regras, extraídas tanto de nossa experiência quanto da literatura relacionada à patologia veterinária. Para aumentar a compreensão dos tópicos, decidimos ilustrar praticamente todos os conceitos expressados neste manuscrito. Esperamos que nosso esforço possa contribuir um pouco para o desenvolvimento de aspirantes a patologistas. Assim como Alice no País das Maravilhas, vamos seguir o coelho branco até a sua toca para essa aventura desafiadora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Hematoxylin
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1463-1472, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134463

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an accessory organ involved on the olfactory pathway, that detects pheromones and emits signals in order to modulate social and reproductive behavior. The VNO stem cells replace neurons throughout life. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cells derived from the vomeronasal organ from New Zealand rabbits. Five male rabbits with 120 days were used for cell isolation and culture. Results: VNO-derived cells presented labelling for proliferation (PCNA), undifferentiated profile (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), mesenchymal stem cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105 and Stro-1). Also, presence of cytoskeletal (Vimentin, b-tubulin and CK-18) and absence of hematopoietic markers (CD34, CD117 and CD45) both by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. By PCR it was possible to verify the expression of some undifferentiated profile (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) and mesenchymal (CD73, CD105 and Vimentin) genes. Functionally, VNO-derived cells differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, and presented no tumorigenic potential when injected to Balb/c nu/nu mice. In conclusion, the rabbit VNO-derived cells have a profile that could be supportive to VNO olfactory/neuroreceptor epithelium by delivering factors to epithelial turnover or even by differentiation into epithelial cells to replacement of commissural epithelium.


RESUMEN: El órgano vomeronasal (OVN) es un órgano accesorio de la vía olfatoria, que detecta feromonas y emite señales que afectan la modulación del comportamiento social y reproductivo. Las células madre OVN reemplazan las neuronas durante toda la vida. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y caracterizar células derivadas del órgano vomeronasal de conejos raza Nueva Zelanda. Para el aislamiento y el cultivo celular se utilizaron cinco conejos machos con una edad de 120 días. Las células del OVN presentaron etiquetado para la proliferación (PCNA), un perfil indiferenciado (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), células madre mesenquimales (CD73, CD90 y CD105 y Stro-1). Además, se ob- servó presencia de citoesqueleto (Vimentina, β-tubulina y CK-18) y ausencia de marcadores hematopoyéticos (CD34, CD117 y CD45) tanto por inmunofluorescencia como por citometría de flujo. Me- diante PCR fue posible verificar la expresión de algunos genes de perfil indiferenciado (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) y mesenquimatoso (CD73, CD105 y Vimentin). Las células derivadas del OVN se diferencian in vitro en adipocitos, osteocitos y condrocitos, y no presentan un potencial tumorigénico al ser infiltrados en ratones Balb / c nu / nu. En conclusión, las células derivadas de OVN de conejo tienen un perfil que podría ser compatible con el epitelio olfatorio / neurorreceptor de OVN transmitiendo factores al recambio epitelial o incluso mediante la diferenciación en células epiteliales para reemplazar el epitelio comisural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Vomeronasal Organ/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Bulb/cytology , Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Mucosa/cytology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Flow Cytometry , Neurons/physiology
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(3): 110-114, jul./set. 2020. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370267

ABSTRACT

Rabbits have been used as an experimental model in many studies. These studies are important not only for veterinary clinicians, but also for researchers in different fields. The aim of this research was to describe gross morphological measurement, shape and arterial supply of the adrenal glands in healthy New Zealand rabbits. Dissections were performed in 30 adult rabbits, 15 males and 15 females, without macroscopic adrenal pathology. Adrenal measurements were made with a digital caliper: length, width, and thickness. The origin of the adrenal arteries was also determined. Both adrenal glands were localized cranially to the respective kidneys. The mean of the right adrenal gland was 0.88 cm length, 0.42 cm width and 0.16 cm thickness; the left gland measured 0.72 cm, 0.46 cm, and 0.17 cm, respectively. The right gland was significantly more elongated than the left (p = 0.0003) and the means of the measurements did not differ between sexes. Most of the right adrenal glands had a piriform shape (73.3%), whereas most of the left gland exhibited a "bean-shaped" aspect (60.0%). The arterial supply was found to arise from different arteries: lumbar, aorta, renal, caudal mesenteric, and testicular or ovarian. Comparatively, the descriptions of shape, position and arterial irrigation of the adrenal gland in rabbits are similar to those available in rodents. The data from the present investigation will assist in the interpretation of pathological and / or experimental findings in New Zealand rabbits.


Coelhos têm sido utilizados como modelo experimental em muitos estudos. Esses estudos são importantes não apenas para médicos veterinários, mas também para pesquisadores de diferentes campos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi descrever as medidas morfológicas macroscópicas, forma e suprimento arterial das glândulas adrenais em coelhos saudáveis da raça Nova Zelândia. As dissecções foram realizadas em 30 coelhos adultos, 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, sem sinais macroscópicos de patologia adrenal. As medidas adrenais foram realizadas com paquímetro digital: comprimento, largura e espessura. A origem das artérias adrenais também foi determinada. Ambas as glândulas adrenais foram localizadas cranialmente nos respectivos rins. A média da glândula adrenal direita foi de 0,88 cm de comprimento, 0,42 cm de largura e 0,16 cm de espessura; a glândula esquerda mediu 0,72 cm, 0,46 cm e 0,17 cm, respectivamente. A glândula direita foi significativamente mais alongada que a esquerda (p = 0,0003) e as médias das medidas não diferiram entre os sexos. A maioria das glândulas adrenais direitas tinha uma forma piriforme (73,3%), enquanto a maioria da glândula esquerda exibia um aspecto em "forma de feijão" (60,0%). Verificou-se que o suprimento arterial provém de diferentes artérias: lombar, aorta, renal, mesentérica caudal e testicular ou ovariana. Comparativamente, as descrições de forma, posição e irrigação arterial da glândula adrenal em coelhos são semelhantes às disponíveis em roedores. Os dados da presente investigação ajudarão na interpretação de achados patológicos e / ou experimentais em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Adrenal Glands/anatomy & histology , Dissection/veterinary , Endocrine System/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation/physiology , Models, Anatomic
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1404-1408, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040145

ABSTRACT

Las glándulas tiroides consisten en dos partes denominadas lobos que se encuentran en ambos lados de la laringe. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las medidas, topografía y vascularización de la glándula tiroides de conejos Nueva Zelanda. Las disecciones anatómicas se realizaron en 36 cadáveres adultos, 17 machos y 19 hembras, con masa corporal media de 2,5 kg y longitud cara-sacral media de 40 cm. Los cadáveres fueron obtenidos del sector de necropsia de la Universidad. Los especímenes tuvieron la arteria aorta torácica canalada, por la cual se inyectó solución de formaldehído al 10 %, seguida de látex coloreado. En los machos, el lobo izquierdo de la glándula tiroidea midió 1,40 x 0,40 x 0,01 cm y el derecho 1,36 x 0,56 x 0,01 cm; en las hembras, el lobo izquierdo midió 1,50 x 0,49 x 0,01 cm y el derecho 1,37 x 0,48 x 0,01cm. No hubo diferencia significativa (p> 0,05) entre las medias de las medidas entre machos y hembras, pero la extensión del lóbulo izquierdo de las hembras y la anchura del lóbulo derecho de los machos fueran significativamente mayores (p <0,05). La extremidad craneal de los lobos tiroideos se encontraba al nivel del cartílago cricoide en casi todos los especímenes. El extremo caudal presentó topografía más variable, desde el tercer hasta el décimo anillo traqueal, habiendo predominado al nivel del quinto anillo. Invariablemente, la irrigación arterial fue determinada por las arterias tiroideas izquierda y derecha, originadas de la arteria carótida común. Las anastomosis entre las arterias tiroideas fueron comunes. La constancia en las dimensiones y irrigación de la glándula tiroidea puede ser ventajosa en la elección del Coelho como modelo experimental para el estudio de esta glándula.


The thyroid glands consist of two parts called lobes located on both sides of the larynx. The aim of this study was to characterize the measures, topography and arterial irrigation of New Zealand´s rabbits thyroid glands. The anatomical dissections were performed in 36 adult cadavers, 17 males and 19 females, with a mean body mass of 2.5 kg and a mean cranium-sacral length of 40 cm. The specimens were obtained from the necropsy unit of the University. The cadavers had the thoracic aorta artery cannulated, through which 10 % formaldehyde solution was injected, followed by injection colored latex. In males, the left lobe of the thyroid gland measured 1.40x0.40x0.01cm and the right 1.36x0.56x0.01cm; in females, the left lobe measured 1.50x0.49x0.01cm and the right one was 1.37x0.48x0.01cm. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the means of the measurements between males and females, but the left lobe length of the females and the right lobe width of the males were significantly higher (p <0.05). The cranial extremity of the thyroid lobes was at the level of the cricoid cartilage in almost all specimens. The caudal end showed more variable topography, from the third to the tenth tracheal ring in few specimens, but predominated at the level of the fifth ring. Invariably, arterial irrigation was determined by the left and right thyroid arteries, originating from the common carotid artery. Anastomoses between the thyroid arteries were common. The constancy in dimensions and irrigation of the thyroid gland may be advantageous in choosing the rabbit as an experimental model for the study of this gland.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Thyroid Gland/blood supply , Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , Thyroid Gland/anatomy & histology
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 473-480, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011260

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a correção da medida ultrassonográfica da área do músculo Longissimus dorsi, em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia, pela análise de covariância usando modelos mistos. Foram realizadas análises em delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (operadores) e seis blocos (animais), considerando na análise: a inexistência de covariáveis; a covariável comprimento de olho de lombo; a covariável profundidade de olho de lombo; e as duas covariáveis juntas. Como os animais são uma amostra aleatória, o efeito de bloco foi considerado como aleatório. Consideraram-se as covariáveis como medidas com efeito fixo sem erro, independentemente do tratamento e do comportamento linear. As estatísticas de critério de decisão CV%, R ² e R ¯ ² evidenciaram relação direta entre si e podem ser consideradas para avaliar a precisão experimental em ensaios com avaliação de carcaças. Os valores das estatísticas AIC, BIC e AICC apresentam coerência com a interpretação dos critérios de decisão e indicam que o modelo com duas covariáveis proporciona resultados acurados. A inclusão das covariáveis complementa o controle de local com melhoria na precisão do experimento. A utilização das medidas ultrassonográficas de profundidade e comprimento corrige a média da área do músculo Longissimus dorsi avaliado por diferentes operadores.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the correction ultrasonographic measurement of area the Longissimus dorsi muscle in New Zealand rabbits by covariance analysis using mixed linear models. The analyzes were performed in randomized block design with 5 treatments (operators) and 6 blocks (animals), considering in the analysis: absence of covariates; rib eye length as covariate; rib eye depth as covariate; the two covariates together. As the animals are a random sample, the block effect was considered to be random. The covariates were considered as measures of fixed effect without error, independent of treatment and linear comportment. The decision criterion statistics CV%, R², and R ¯ ²showed a direct relationship between them and can be taken into consideration to evaluate the experimental accuracy in tests with carcass evaluation. The AIC, BIC, and AICC statistics are consistent with the interpretation of the decision criteria and indicate that the two covariates in model provides accurate results. The inclusion of covariates complements the local control to improve the accuracy of the experiment. The use of ultrasound measurements of depth and length corrects the mean area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle evaluated by different operators.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Meat Industry , Ultrasonography/veterinary
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(4): 710-721, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955394

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion, derived from adipose tissue, on reduction of local and remote tissue damage caused by the event of experimental intestinal I/R in New Zealand breed rabbits. For obtaining, characterization, and cultivation of MSC derived from adipose tissue (MSC-Adp), 3 juvenile animals (four months old) were used. The cells were considered to be viable for therapy after the fourth passage (in vitro phase). For the in vivo stage, 24 young adult animals (six months old) were used, weighing approximately 3.5 kg, in which were randomly divided into two groups, called: IR treated with MSC (I2H/R5H MSC 3D; I2H/R5H MSC 7D); IR treated with PBS (I2H/R5H PBS 3D; I2H/R5H PBS 7D). The animals were anesthetized and submitted to pre-retro-umbilical midline celiotomy. The extramural peri-intestinal marginal artery was located and clamped (predetermined and standardized region) with the aid of a vascular clip, promoting a 2 hour blood flow interruption. After this period, blood flow was reestablished, inhalatory anesthesia was suspended, and the animals awaken. After 5 hours of reperfusion, the treatments were performed by intravenous infusion according to the experimental groups. The animals were evaluated 72 hours and seven days after the treatment as for the macroscopic appearance (color and peristaltism) of the jejunal segment, and by histological evaluation of the ischemic segment for the presence or absence of destruction of the intestinal mucosa, edema, bleeding, dilation of lymph vessels, and presence of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells, both in the mucosa and submucosa. The observed results revealed that the groups treated with MSC-Adp obtained smaller mucosal and submucosal lesions when compared to the groups treated with PBS. Also, MSC-Adp treated groups obtained controlled inflammatory response and higher mitotic rate, outcomes related to the therapeutic potential of MSC. Infusion of stem cells attenuated the lesions caused by intestinal I/R in both MSC groups when compared to the group treated with PBS.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como principal objetivo avaliar a eficácia da infusão células tronco mesenquimais (CTM) derivada de tecido adiposo sobre diminuição das lesões teciduais locais e remotas, causadas pelo evento de I/R intestinal experimental, em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Para obtenção, cultivo e caracterização das CTM provenientes de tecido adiposo (ADCTM) foram utilizados 3 animais jovens. As células foram consideradas viáveis para terapia a partir da quarta passagem (fase in vitro). Para etapa in vivo foram utilizados 24 animais, adulto-jovens, pesando aproximadamente 3,5kg, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais, denominados IR Tratado com CTM (I2H/R5H CTM 3D; I2H/R5H CTM 7D); IR Tratado PBS (I2H/R5H PBS 3D; I2H/R5H PBS 7D). Os animais foram anestesiados e submetidos à celiotomia mediana pré-retroumbilical. A artéria marginal peri-intestinal extramural foi localizada e clampeada (região predeterminada e padronizada) com auxílio de um clipe vascular, promovendo uma interrupção do fluxo sanguíneo durante 2 horas. Após esse período, o fluxo sanguíneo foi restabelecido, a anestesia inalatória suspendida e os animais despertados. Após 5 horas de reperfusão realizou-se os tratamentos por infusão endovenosa, conforme grupos experimentais. Os animais foram avaliados 72 horas e sete dias após o tratamento quanto ao aspecto macroscópico (coloração e peristaltismo) do segmento jejunal e por meio de avaliação histológica do segmento isquemiado quanto à presença ou ausência de destruição de mucosa intestinal, edema, hemorragia, dilatação de vasos linfáticos e presença de células inflamatórias polimorfornucleares, tanto em mucosa quanto submucosa. Os resultados observados revelaram que os grupos tratados com ADCTM obtiveram menores lesões em mucosa e submucosa quando comprados aos grupos tratados com PBS. Ainda os grupos tratados com ADCTM obtiveram resposta inflamatória controlada e maior taxa mitótica, resultados relacionados ao potencial terapêutico das CTM.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/genetics , Rabbits/injuries , Infusions, Intravenous/veterinary , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Ischemia/veterinary
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 797-805, maio-jun. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911373

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar, por radiografia, histologia e densitometria óssea, o efeito da HA/ßTCP em grânulos de absorção rápida em defeito ósseo crítico em rádio de coelhos. Foram utilizados 35 coelhos machos, da raça Nova Zelândia, e realizou-se um defeito crítico nos rádios direito e esquerdo. Os animais foram distribuídos em GI, enxerto autólogo e GII, HA/ßTCP em grânulos de absorção rápida. Avaliações radiográficas foram feitas antes da cirurgia, após, aos oito, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias e avaliações histológicas e de densitometria. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao se comparar a densidade mineral óssea obtida ao longo do tempo de estudo. Observou-se formação de rede vascular entre os poros da biocerâmica desde o primeiro tempo de avaliação, (oito dias). Foram observados tecido ósseo primário e trabéculas em tecido ósseo preexistente a partir de 30 dias da implantação. Aos 60 dias, constatou-se presença de matriz óssea em segmentos ósseos preexistentes, caracterizando a formação óssea centrípeta. A biocerâmica HA/ßTCP nanoestruturada micro-macroporosa em grânulos de absorção rápida não causa alterações microscópicas indicativas de rejeição, permite a invasão e a multiplicação celular, bem como propicia a regeneração óssea, constituindo um implante apropriado para preenchimento de falhas ósseas críticas.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HA/ ßTCP on rapid absorption granules in rabbit radiography, histology, and bone densitometry. Thirty - five male rabbits of the New Zealand breed were used and a critical defect was performed on the right and left radios. The animals were distributed in GI, autologous graft and GII HA / ßTCP in rapidly absorbed granules. Radiographic, histological, and densitometry evaluations were performed before surgery, then after eight, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. A significant difference was found when comparing the bone mineral density obtained over the study time. Formation of vascular network between the bioceramic pores was observed by the first evaluation time, (eight days). Primary bone tissue and trabeculae were observed from preexisting bone tissue after 30 days of implantation. At 60 days, the presence of bone matrix was observed from the preexisting bone segments, characterizing the centripetal bone formation. The micro-macroporous nanocomposite HA / ßTCP of rapidly absorbing granules do not cause microscopic changes indicative of rejection, allows invasion, cell multiplication, and promotes bone regeneration, constituting an appropriate implant for filling of critical bone failures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Absorption, Physiological , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/injuries , Bone and Bones/injuries
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1845-1854, nov.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-970552

ABSTRACT

O número de transplantes de órgãos e tecidos em humanos e animais tem crescido significativamente nos últimos anos, principalmente após o advento de técnicas modernas e mais seguras indutoras de imunossupressão. Objetiva-se com o presente estudo avaliar macro e microscopicamente o alotransplante parcial de bexiga a fresco em coelhos, utilizando como agente imunomodulador células-tronco mesenquimais derivadas do tecido adiposo (ADSC) alogênicas. Foram utilizados 25 coelhos, sendo um deles macho e doador das ADSCs, e os outros 24 eram fêmeas, submetidas a alotransplante parcial de bexiga, tratadas com ciclosporina (GCi) ou células-tronco mesenquimais (GCe). Conclui-se que o GCe teve melhor aceitação histológica do implante em relação ao GCi aos 30 dias de avaliação.(AU)


The number of organ and tissue transplantation in humans and animals has grown significantly recently, especially after the advent of modern and safer techniques of immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate macro and microscopically partial urinary bladder fresh allograft in rabbits, using as immunomodulatory agent cyclosporine or allogenic adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). For this purpose, 25 rabbits were used. One male was the donor of ADSCs; 24 females received a partial urinary bladder allograft and were treated with cyclosporine (GCi) or mesenchymal stem cells (GCe). We conclude that the GCe group had better histological acceptance of the implant than GCi group at 30 days evaluation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/genetics , Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation/veterinary , Mesoderm
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 306-309, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840970

ABSTRACT

The abdominal aorta of the rabbit has been in the focus of research to develop new platforms of training diagnostic and therapeutic protocols; and for testing endovascular devices and materials, however, few descriptions of the anatomy of the abdominal aorta and its emerging visceral branches has been reported on the scientific literature for this specie. Anatomical variations are common and should have in mind during research and clinical trials. The aim of this study was to describe the different patterns that can occur in the visceral branches arising from the abdominal aorta in the rabbit.


La aorta abdominal del conejo ha sido objeto de estudio e investigación para desarrollar nuevas plataformas de entrenamiento para protocolos diagnósticos y terapéuticos así como para probar las virtudes de materiales y equipos endovasculares, sin embargo, existen muy pocas descripciones en la literatura de las ramas viscerales que emergen de la aorta abdominal en esta especie. Las variaciones anatómicas son eventos de ocurrencia común y por lo tanto deben ser considerados para realizar investigación y ensayos clínicos. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido describir los diferentes patrones que pueden presentar las ramas viscerales que emergen de la aorta abdominal en el conejo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anatomic Variation , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Viscera/blood supply
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1232-1238, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-840873

ABSTRACT

Al realizarse estudios sobre muestras óseas para analizar características como dureza, densidad y salud, se suelen utilizar equipamientos que permiten la cuantificación de la densidad electrónica, proporcional a la densidad másica, que se relaciona directamente con la densidad mineral ósea. El test conocido como densitometría ósea se suele realizar con equipos de rayos X, ultrasonido o por medio de la utilización de isótopos radioactivos. Este estudio cuantifica la cantidad mineral ósea por superficie y suele ser utilizado para evaluar, entre otros, riesgos de fracturas o estado de osteoporosis. La técnica de tomografía computada utiliza imágenes bidimensionales de rayos X y métodos de reconstrucción tomográfica implementados en algoritmos computacionales para obtener información de la estructura interna de un objeto, de forma no destructiva. Equipamientos especialmente desarrollados logran obtener imágenes con resolución sub-milimétrica, dando lugar a la técnica conocida como micro-tomografía. La posibilidad de estudiar estructuras óseas con este grado de resolución y obtener imágenes morfológicas tridimensionales con información de la densidad electrónica, presenta una importante opción para estudios específicos sobre, entre otros, crecimiento de hueso y estudios de nuevos componentes que permiten acelerar el crecimiento de tejidos dañados. En el presente trabajo se analizan muestras óseas del cráneo de conejos donde se han dañado determinadas zonas y se han injertado diferentes sustancias tendientes a evaluar respuestas de reparación de tejido óseo. El análisis se realiza a los fines de estudiar la performance de la técnica de micro-tomografía desarrollada en laboratorio con el objetivo de observar su potencialidad en este tipo de estudios y la capacidad de estos análisis en la caracterización de las propiedades físicas de este tipo de muestras.


When performing studies on bone samples aiming at analyzing its physical characteristics such as hardness, density and health, typically it is used to utilize different equipment for the quantification of electron density, which results proportional to mass density, which is directly related to bone mineral density. The test known as bone densitometry is usually done using X-ray equipment, ultrasound or through the utilization of radioactive isotopes. This analysis quantifies the amount of mineral bone on a surface and is usually implemented to assess, among others, risks of fractures or the osteoporosis state in a patient. The computed tomography technique uses two-dimensional X-ray images and tomographic reconstruction methods implemented on computational algorithms to obtain information about the internal structure of an object in a nondestructively way. Specially developed equipment able to obtain images with sub-millimeter resolution, results in the technique known as micro-tomography. The ability to study bone structures at sub-millimeter levels and obtain three-dimensional morphological images with electron density information, presents an important option for specific studies on bone growth and studies on new components that allow the growth of damaged tissues. In this paper rabbits cranium bone samples where certain areas have been damaged and have been filled with different substances specially designed to evaluate repair responses on bone tissue are analyzed. The analysis is performed in order to study the performance of the micro-tomography technique developed in the laboratory in order to observe its potentiality in this type of studies and the ability of these analysis in the characterization of the physical properties of such samples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , X-Ray Microtomography , Bone Density
11.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 19(2): 69-75, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833037

ABSTRACT

Vinte e quatro coelhos adultos foram separados em dois grupos (n=12) - controle (GI) e tratado (GII) e submetidos ao enxerto osteocondral alógeno para reparo ósseo e cartilaginoso do sulco troclear, conservado em glicerina a 98%. Os animais do GII receberam ainda injeção intra-articular de 2,0 x 106 células mononucleares autólogas e dexametasona intramuscular. Foram realizadas avalições radiográficas aos 45 e 90 dias de pós-operatório. Nos coelhos do grupo tratado e controle não foi notado sinais de reação características de enxerto-contra-hospedeiro e aos 45 e 90 dias de pós-operatório ocorre osteólise devido aos micromovimentos na interface implante-osso e pressão efetiva nos espaços articular. A implantação de enxerto alógeno conservado em glicerina, associado à inoculação de células mononucleares autógenas e dexametasona intramuscular promove intensa neoformação óssea e com bom reparo do defeito ósseo em coelhos.


Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided two groups (n = 12), control (GI) and treated (GII), and submitted to allogenic osteochondral graft for bone and cartilage repair of the trochlear groove, preserved in 98% glycerin. The GII yet received intra-articular injection of 2,0 x 106 autologous mononuclear cells and intramuscular dexamethasone. Radiographs at 45 and 90 days postoperatively avaliations were performed. In rabbits treated and control group was not skimmed signals characteristic reaction of graft-versus-host and at 45 and 90 days postoperatively osteolysis occurs due to micro motion at the implant-bone interface and effective pressure in the joint spaces. The implantation of allograft preserved in glycerol, associated with inoculation of autologous mononuclear cells and intramuscular dexamethasone intense bone and good repair of bone defects in rabbits neogenesis occurs.


Veinticuatro conejos adultos fueron divididos en dos grupos (n = 12) - control (GI) y tratado (GII) y sometidos a injerto osteocondral alógeno para reparo óseo y cartilaginoso de ranura tróclea, conservado en glicerina a 98%. Los animales del GII recibieron inyección interarticular de 2,0 x 106 células mononucleares autólogas y dexametasona intramuscular. Se realizó evaluaciones radiográficas a los 45 y 90 días posoperatorio. En los conejos tratados y del grupo control no se ha notado señales de reacciones características de injerto contra hospedero, y a los 45 y 90 días de posoperatorio ocurrió osteólisis debido a los micro movimientos en la interfaz, implante óseo y presión efectiva en los espacios articular. La implantación de injerto alógeno conservado en glicerina, asociado a la inoculación de células mononucleares autógenas y dexametasona intramuscular, promueve intensa neo formación ósea y con buen reparo del defecto óseo en conejos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Radiography/trends , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Transplantation, Homologous/veterinary
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1293-1298, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772311

ABSTRACT

Rabbits have been used as urologic models in many studies. The aim of this study was to characterize the renal morphology and anatomical variations of the renal pedicle in rabbit. The research ethics committee of Rio de Janeiro Federal Rural University approved this study. The animals were obtained from the university's necropsy unit. Dissections were performed in 50 adult rabbits, male and females, without macroscopic renal pathology. Kidney measurements were made with a digital caliper: length, width, and thickness. The length and origin of the renal arteries and main branches and length of the renal veins were also determined. The terminology of Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria was followed. The mean and standard deviation of the length of the right kidney was 3.150±0.2588 cm in males and 3.127±0.3769 cm in females and in the left kidney was 3.083±0.0818 cm in males and 3.162±0.0848 cm in females. The width of the right kidney was 1.933±0.0848 cm in males and 1.996±0.0680 cm in females and in the left kidney was 1.850±0.0659 cm in males and 2.004±0.0940 cm in females. There was no significant difference in the measurements between the two sexes and antimeres and in the measures of renal vessels in relation to sex, but the left artery and renal vein were always larger than the right in both sexes. The results of the present study are expected to contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of comparative and applied anatomy.


Los conejos se han utilizado como modelos urológicos en muchas investigaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la morfología renal y variaciones anatómicas del pedículo renal en el conejo. El comité de ética de la investigación de Río de Janeiro Universidad Federal Rural aprobó este estudio. Los animales se obtuvieron de unidad de necropsia de la universidad. Las disecciones se realizaron en 50 conejos adultos, machos y hembras, sin patología renal macroscópica. Se realizaron con un calibrador digital las siguientes mediciones en el riñón : longitud, ancho y grosor. También se determinaron la longitud y el origen de las arterias renales y ramas principales y longitud de las venas renales. Se siguió la terminología de Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. La Media y DE de la longitud del riñón derecho fue 3,150±0,2588 cm en machos y 3,127±0,3769 cm en hembras y en el riñón izquierdo fue 3,083±0,0818 cm en machos y 3,162±0,0848 cm en hembras. El ancho del riñón derecho fue 1,933±0,0848 cm en machos y 1,996±0,0680 cm en las hembras y en el riñón izquierdo fue 1,850±0,0659 cm en machos y 2,004±0,0940 cm en hembras. No hubo diferencias significativas en las mediciones entre los dos sexos y los antímeros, así como en las medidas de los vasos renales en relación con el sexo; pero la arteria y vena renal izquierda fueron siempre mayores que las del lado derecho en ambos sexos. Se espera con los resultados del presente estudio contribuir al conocimientos en el campo de la anatomía comparada y aplicada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Anatomic Variation , Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Rabbits/anatomy & histology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 632-637, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755521

ABSTRACT

The origin and distribution of the femoral nerves in both antimeres were studied in 30 New Zealand rabbits (15 males and 15 females). The specimens were collected after natural death and fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution. In males, the femoral nerve originated from the ventral branches of the fourth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves in seven animals (46.67%), in two animals (13.33%) from the ventral branches of the fifth and sixth lumbar spinal nerves, in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve, in three animals (20%) from the ventral branches of the fifth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves, in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branches of the fourth and fifth lumbar spinal nerves, and in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branches of the fifth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves. In females, the femoral nerve originated from the ventral branches of the fourth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves in four animals (26.67%), in two cases (13.33%) from the ventral branches of the fifth and sixth lumbar spinal nerves, in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve, in three animals (20%) from the ventral branches of the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves, in four animals (26.67%) from the ventral branches of the fifth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves and in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branches of the fourth and seventhlumbar spinal nerves. In all animals the femoral nerves were distributed in different branches to the major and minor psoas, femoral quadriceps, sartorius and pectinius muscles.


Se estudió el origen y distribución del nervio femoral de ambos antímeros en 30 conejos neozelandeses, 15 machos y 15 hembras. Los animales fueron recolectados después de su muerte natural y se fijaron en formaldehído al 10%. En los machos, el nervio femoral se originó a partir de los ramos ventrales del cuarto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares en siete casos (46,67%); en tres casos (20%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares; en dos casos (13,33%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto y sexto nervios espinales lumbares, mientras que en tres animales (n=1 respectivamente), desde los ramos ventrales del quinto nervio espinal lumbar (6,67%), los ramos ventrales del cuarto y quinto nervios lumbares espinales (6,67%) y desde los ramos ventrales del quinto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares. En las hembras, el nervio femoral se originó a partir de los ramos ventrales del cuarto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales en cuatro casos (26,67%); en otros cuatro casos (26,67%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbar, en tres casos (20%) desde los ramos ventrales del sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares, en dos casos (13,33%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto y sexto nervios espinales, y en dos animales (n=1, respectivamente) procedían desde los ramos ventrales del quinto nervio espinal lumbar (6,67%) y de los ramos ventrales del cuarto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares (6,67%). Los nervios femorales en todos los animales estaban distribuidos en diversos ramos de los músculos psoas mayor y menor, cuádriceps femoral sartorios y pectinatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Femoral Nerve/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/anatomy & histology
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(4): 1407-1417, Dec. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734691

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a comparison of the morphological structure of the filiform papillae in New Zealand white rabbits as domestic mammals and Egyptian fruit bats as wild mammals. This study was carried out on the tongues of adult healthy New Zealand white rabbits and Egyptian fruit bats of both sexes. There were four types of lingual papillae in both animals. In the Egyptian fruit bats, there were six subtypes of the filiform papillae; three on the anterior part (small, conical and giant), two on the middle part (cornflower and leaf-like papillae) while the posterior part contain rosette shape filiform papillae, in addition to transitional papillae and conical papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there were four subtypes of filiform papillae; spoonful conical (on the lingual anterior part), processed (at the anterior edge of lingual prominence), leaf-like (on the posterior area of lingual prominence) and triangular filiform papillae (on the lingual root). The shape, size, number and orientation of the lingual papillae itself and its processes varied according to their location within the tongue (region-specific) in relation to the feeding habits, strategies for obtaining food, climate conditions, and types of food particles.


Se comparó la estructura morfológica de las papilas filiformes de un mamífero doméstico (conejo neozelandes) y de un mamífero silvestre (murciélagos de la fruta egipcio). El estudio fue realizado en animales de ambos sexos. Se observó cuatro tipos de papilas linguales, en ambas especies de animales. En los murciélagos de la fruta egipcio se observaron seis subtipos de papilas filiformes; tres en la parte anterior (pequeño, cónico y gigante), dos en la parte media (aciano y hojas como papilas) mientras que en la parte posterior se observaron papilas filiformes y papilas de transición cónica. En los conejos se observaron cuatro subtipos de papilas filiformes; cónica cucharada (en la parte anterior lingual), procesado (en el margen anterior de la prominencia lingual), tipo hoja (en la zona posterior de la prominencia lingual) y papilas filiformes triangulares (en la raíz lingual). La forma, tamaño, número y orientación de las papilas linguales y sus procesos varían de acuerdo a la función y a la ubicación en la lengua (específicos de la región) en relación con los hábitos de alimentación, las estrategias para la obtención de alimentos, las condiciones climáticas y tipos de partículas de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Tongue/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Feeding Behavior
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(10): 1024-1028, out. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730550

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). A total of 22 adult male rabbits were used. The ophthalmic tests included evaluation of tear production with Schirmer tear test 1(STT1) and Endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT) using two different commercial brand materials. Applanation tonometry, Culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, , conjunctival cytology and conjunctival histology were also performed. Mean (±SD) for STT1, EAPPTTa, EAPPTTb and IOP was 7.27±2.51mm/min, 12.43±1.69mm/min, 15.24±2.07mm/min, 12.89±2.80mm Hg, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. were predominant. The cytological evaluation revealed the presence columnar epithelial cells, superficial squamous keratinized cells, lymphocytes, heterophils, red blood cells, mucus and bacteria. The histological analysis revealed a stratified epithelium, characterized by the presence of columnar epithelial cells with a large number of goblet cells. The reported data can be used for therapeutic or experimental purposes.


O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer valores de referência para testes diagnósticos oftálmicos em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 22 coelhos, machos, adultos foram utilizados. Foi mensurada a produção lacrimal através do teste lacrimal de Shirmer 1 (TLS1) e da Tira endodôntica de papel absorvente (EAPPTT) de duas marcas comerciais distintas. Tonometria de aplanação, identificação da microbiota conjuntival, , citologia e histologia conjuntival também foram realizadas. A média e desvio padrão do TLS1, EAPPTT1, EAPPTT2 e pressão intraocular foi 7,27±2,51 mm/min, 12,43±1,69 mm/min, 15,24±2,07 mm/min e 12,89±2,80 mmHg, respectivamente. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus sp. e Bacillus sp. mostraram-se predominantes. A citologia conjuntival evidenciou a presença de células epiteliais colunares, células escamosas superficiais queratinizadas, linfócitos, heterofilos, células sanguíneas, muco e bactérias. A histologia revelou epitélio estratificado caracterizado pela presença de células epiteliais colunares com grande número de células caliciformes. Os achados deste estudo poderão ser utilizados com fins terapêuticos ou experimentais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Tears/physiology , Microbiota/physiology , Eye/anatomy & histology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Reference Values , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/veterinary
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(2): 732-737, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714337

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to establish in New Zealand female rabbits, the effect of ordinal number of parturitions on some histological parameters on the day after weaning. Tissue fragments of uterus and vagina were obtained from females of first, second and third parturitions and were processed imbedding them in paraffin in order to do histological cuts. In eight microscope fields captured by a camera connected to an optic microscope, the lumen and glandular endometrial epithelium height, as well as the thickness of vaginal and myometrium epithelium thickness were measured. From the results that were obtained it was concluded that there are significant differences (p<0.05) in histological parameters evaluated in uterus and vagina between does of different parturitions, which indicates that the number of parturitions has an effect on histometric characteristics of genital tract organs in breeder female rabbits.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar en conejas Nueva Zelanda el efecto del número ordinal de partos sobre algunos parámetros histológicos, en el día posterior al destete. A partir de hembras de primero, segundo y tercer parto se obtuvieron fragmentos de tejido uterino y vaginal los que se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina para efectuar cortes histológicos. En ocho campos microscópicos capturados con una cámara conectada a un microscopio óptico se midió la altura del epitelio luminal y glandular del endometrio; el grosor del epitelio de la vagina y del miometrio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se concluye que existen diferencias significativas (p<0,05) en los parámetros histológicos evaluados en útero y vagina entre las conejas de distintos partos, lo que indica que el número de partos tiene un efecto sobre las características histométricas de los órganos del tracto genital de la coneja.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Uterus/anatomy & histology , Vagina/anatomy & histology , Parturition , Weaning
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(1): 227-231, Mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708751

ABSTRACT

Thirty three healthy, New Zealand rabbits, underwent a total gastrectomy via laparotomy and subsequent evaluation of gastric dimensions. Were measured the lengths of the lesser and greater gastric curvature, in addition to the largest diameters of the organ. They presented average overall length of the lesser and greater curvature, respectively 6.7 cm and 27.3 cm. In addition, open surgical specimen presented a total area of 172.6 cm2. The sample was divided into two groups by age to perform comparisons between weight and stomach measures. Group 1 consisted of animals with age equal or less than 138 days and group 2 those with more than 138 days. No significant differences were found between the groups. This may suggest the use of younger animals to perform experiments related to surgical training involving the stomach, without dimensional prejudice of organ or generation of technical difficulties. Finally, it was noted also the predominance of the left gastric artery in the irrigation of the gastric wall and the presence of a transparent film between the liver and stomach in all animals.


Treinta y tres conejos, neozelandeses, sanos, se sometieron a una gastrectomía total por laparotomía y posterior evaluación de las dimensiones gástricas. Se midió la longitud de las curvaturas gástricas menor y mayor y el diámetro mayor del órgano. La longitud total promedio de las curvaturas menor y mayor fue de 6,7 cm y 27,3 cm, respectivamente. La zona quirúrgica abierta presentada 172,6 cm2. Según la edad y para hacer comparaciones entre el peso y las medidas gástricas la muestra se dividió en dos grupos. Grupo 1 animales con menos de 138 días y grupo 2 animales que tenían más de 138 días. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Esto puede sugerir que para el entrenamiento quirúrgico el uso de animales más jóvenes puede ser llevado a cabo en los protocolos. Finalmente, se observó en todos los animales predominio de la arteria gástrica izquierda en la irrigación de la pared gástrica y la presencia de una fina capa peritoneal transparente entre el hígado y el estómago.


Subject(s)
Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Stomach/surgery , Gastrectomy
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(3): 991-996, set. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-694991

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the macroscopic morphometry of the ovaries, uterus and vagina in rabbit does in the first, second and third parturition at 24 hours post-weaning in order to determine if there are differences between parturitions. Weaning of the litter was performed at 30 days post-partum and 24 hours later the does were euthanized. Right and left ovaries, uterine horns-cervix and vagina were removed, and the length of each one was measured. Significant differences were found in the average of the right ovary length between the first group with respect to second and third parturition group (P 0.05 and P 0.01). Also, left ovary length was different between the first and second with respect to third parturition group (P <0.001). Average total ovary length increased significantly as the number of parturitions increased in second and third parturition groups (P 0.01 and P0.001). The weight of the left and right ovaries was higher in does in their second and third parturition when compared to those in their first (P 0.5; P 0.01). The average total ovary weight increased significantly as the number of parturitions in second and third parturition groups (P0.001). The length of the left and right uterine horn-cervix of the rabbits after second and third parturition decreased when compared to that of females in their first parturition (P 0.05; P0.001). The average total uterine horns-cervix length decreased significantly as the number of parturitions in second and third parturition groups (P0.001). Furthermore, vagina length in females in their third parturition was greater than that of first and second parturition (P 0.01).The color of the vulva of the majority of females in their first parturition (3/4) was pale pink while. In contrast, the majority of females in their second parturition (3/4) had their vulva intensely red. All of the females (4/4) in the third parturition group had their vulva intensely red...


El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la morfometría macroscópica de los ovarios, útero y vagina en conejas de primero, segundo y tercer parto a las 24 horas post-destete con el propósito de determinar si existen diferencias entre los partos. El destete de la camada se realizó a los 30 días después del parto y 24 horas después fueron eutanasiadas. De cada animal se removieron los ovarios derecho e izquierdo, cuernos-cuello uterinos derecho e izquierdo y la vagina y se midió la longitud de cada uno de los órganos genitales. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la longitud del ovario derecho entre el grupo de primer parto con respecto al de segundo y tercer parto (P 0,05 y P 0,01). Además, la longitud media de ovario izquierdo fue significativamente diferente entre el grupo de primero y segundo parto con respecto al de tercer parto (P <0,001). La longitud total de los ovarios aumentó con el número de partos y fue mayor en los grupos de segundo y tercer parto (P 0,01 y P 0,001). El peso de los ovarios derecho e izquierdo fue mayor en el grupo de segundo y tercer parto al compararlo con el de primero parto (P 0,5; P 0,01). Por otra parte, el peso total de los ovarios aumentó en los grupos de segundo y tercer parto (P 0,001). La longitud del cuerno-cuello uterino izquierdo y derecho de los grupos de segundo y tercer parto disminuyó al compararlo con el de las hembras de primer parto (P 0,05; P 0,001). La longitud total del cuerno-cuello uterino izquierdo y derecho disminuyó significativamente en las hembras de segundo y tercer parto (P 0,001). La longitud de la vagina de hembras de tercer parto fue mayor que la de primero y segundo parto (P 0,01). El color de la vulva de la mayoría de las hembras de primer parto (3/4) fue rosa pálido. En contraste, la mayoría de las hembras en su segundo parto (3/4) presentaron vulva de color rojo intenso. Todas las hembras del grupo de tercer parto (4/4) presentaron vulva de color rojo intenso...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Genitalia, Female/anatomy & histology , Postpartum Period , Weaning
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(1): 67-74, fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-667538

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se as apresentações comerciais de colírios anestésicos aplicados em 63 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia, distribuídos em três grupos (G1, G2 e G3) de 21 animais cada e que receberam instilação de uma gota em cada olho seis vezes ao dia. Os animais do G1 foram tratados com colírio de cloridrato de proparacaína a 0,5%; os do G2, com colírio de cloridrato de tetracaína a 1% associado à fenilefrina a 0,1%; e os do G3, com solução fisiológica. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três subgrupos com sete animais cada, os quais foram tratados por três, sete e 15 dias. No final de cada tratamento, dois animais de cada subgrupo foram sacrificados para exame histológico de fragmentos retirados da conjuntiva, da terceira pálpebra e das pálpebras. Observou-se, ao exame clínico, episclerite em graus diversos em 100% dos animais do G1, no terceiro, sétimo e 15º dia, e em apenas 17,8% nos do G2, nestes mesmos dias. Ao exame microscópico, observaram-se aumento do número de células califormes, proliferação de folículos linfoides, aumento do número de eosinófilos e aumento do espaço intersticial nas pálpebras dos animais do G1. Pôde-se concluir que o colírio de tetracaína a 1% associado à fenilefrina a 0,1% promoveu maior toxicidade à conjuntiva ocular e às pálpebras de coelhos quando comparado ao colírio de proparacaína a 0,5%.


This work aimed to evaluate commercial presentations of anesthetic eye drops in sixty three New Zealand rabbits which were separated equally in three groups (G1, G2 and G3). The G1 group was treated with 0.5% proparacaine chloridrate eye drop, G2 group with 1% tetracaine chloridrate associated with 0.1% phenylephrine eye drop and G3 group with 0.9% physiologic solution eye drop. All of them received one drop in each eye six times a day. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups (seven rabbits), which are treated for 3, 7 and 15 days. At the end of each treatment, two animals in each subgroup were subject to euthanasia, for the purpose of conjunctiva, eyelids and third eyelids histological evaluation. At the clinical exam, different grades of episcleritis were found in all rabbits in G2 group and only in 17.8% of the rabbits in G1 group. Eye and eyelid histologic evaluation of G2 group revealed an upgrade of goblet cells and eosinophil number, lymphoid follicle proliferation and increase of interstitial space in the eyelids. We could conclude that 1% tetracaine associated with 0.1% phenylephrine eye drop caused more eyelid and ocular conjunctiva toxicity than 0.5% proparacaine eye drop.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/analysis , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Ophthalmic Solutions/analysis , Ophthalmic Solutions/chemistry , Tetracaine/analysis , Tetracaine/history , Blepharitis/diagnosis , Blepharitis/veterinary
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(1): 82-87, mar. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638764

ABSTRACT

La cirugía veterinaria experimental en pequeños animales, particularmente en perro, tiene principalmente restricciones de tipo afectivas, por lo que es necesario contar con otro modelo animal, para poder realizar diferentes procedimientos destinados a su aplicación en dicha especie. Dicho modelo debe cumplir con características anatómicas homologables al perro y también con facilidades de uso y manejo. Al ser una especie tradicionalmente utilizada en experimentación, el conejo podría constituir un excelente modelo animal para este propósito. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la anatomo-topografía del estómago del conejo para luego compararla con el perro. Se utilizaron 14 conejos que fueron sometidos a distintas técnicas de conservación para su estudio anatómico posterior; los instrumentos y materiales para realizar dicho estudio morfológico y un registro bibliográfico de parámetros anatómicos del estómago del perro. Los resultados de este ensayo muestran que el conejo posee un estómago de morfología, ubicación y orientación similar a la del perro, con algunas variaciones en sus relaciones con otras estructuras anatómicas. Asimismo la irrigación de este órgano es muy similar a la del perro. De acuerdo a lo observado, en estómago, el conejo podría ser utilizado como modelo animal para someter a prueba distintos ensayos quirúrgicos experimentales.


Experimental veterinary surgery on small animals -particularly dogs- has restrictions, mainly regarding affect; therefore it is necessary to have a model of the animal to perform such procedures. This model must have anatomic characteristics which homologate those of dogs, but it must also fulfill ease of use and handling. Being a species traditionally used in experimentation, rabbits could be an excellent animal model for this purpose. The goal of this study is to describe the anatomotopography of the stomach of the rabbit and then compare it with the dogs. Three elements were considered: 14 rabbits exposed to various conservation techniques for their later anatomical study, the instruments and supplies to develop such morphological study and a bibliographic record of anatomical parameters of the dog's stomach. The results of this essay show that rabbits have a stomach with a morphology, location and orientation similar to the one of a dog, varying on its relation to other anatomical structures, the irrigation of this organ is as well very similar to the one of the dog. According to what was observed on the stomach, rabbits may be used as an animal model to perform different experimental surgical essays.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary/methods , Models, Animal
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