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1.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 19 ago. 2022. f:18 l:22 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 313).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1392542

ABSTRACT

Informe con datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras de laboratorio, vigilancia de reservorios de enfermedades zoonóticas, y vacunación antirrábica de animales, durante junio de 2022.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/transmission , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
2.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(2): 143-154, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1395017

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo de la investigación fue estimar la población de canes con propietario y evaluar algunos aspectos de su estado sanitario en el distrito de Huancarama. El estudio fue cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Se efectuó en noviembre de 2020. Las viviendas se seleccionaron mediante un muestreo estratificado aleatorio proporcional que contemplaba a los centros poblados como estratos. Se realizó una encuesta a los jefes de familia en las viviendas utilizando como instrumento una guía de entrevista validada por expertos. La información recolectada se transfirió a una hoja de Excel® para ser procesada con el software Epidat 4.2. El 70% (IC95% = 65,8-74,2%) de las viviendas tuvo canes. Los centros poblados con mayor tenencia de canes fueron Tunyabamba y Mateclla (100%, respectivamente). La mayoría de viviendas tuvo un solo can (51,3%), con predominio del sexo macho (68,8%) y edades entre 2 y 8 años (77,6%). Pocas familias tuvieron en confinamiento a sus canes (19%) y los han esterilizado (2%). Sin embargo, aunque la mayoría de los canes fueron vacunados contra la rabia (81,9%), son pocos los que tuvieron control veterinario (16%). Todos los centros poblados, a excepción de California, tuvieron en promedio un can por vivienda. En el distrito existen 1.717 canes con propietario y una razón de tres personas por cada can. Los centros poblados de Llactabamba, Acco, Tunyabamba, Lambraspata, Los Ángeles, Sotapa Pararani y otros tuvieron una razón de dos personas por can. En conclusión, existe excesiva cantidad de canes en el distrito de Huancarama, constituyendo una proporción elevada en relación con la de personas.


ABSTRACT The objective of the research was to estimate the population of dogs with an owner and to evaluate some aspects of their sanitary status in the district of Huancarama. The study was quantitative, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional. It was carried out in November 2020. The dwellings were selected through a proportional random stratified sampling considering the populated centers as strata. A survey of household heads was conducted using an interview guide validated by experts as an instrument. The information collected was transferred to an Excel* sheet to be processed later with the Epidat 4.2 software. 70% (95% CI = 65, 8-74, 2%) of the dwellings had dogs. The populated centers with the highest proportion of dog ownership were Tunyabamba and Mateclla (100%, respectively). Most of the dwellings had only one dog (51, 3%), with a predominance of the male sex (68, 8%) and ages between 2-8 years (77, 6%). Few families have their dogs confined (19%) and have them sterilized (2%). However, although the majority of the dogs were vaccinated against rabies (81,9%), few had veterinary control (16%). All populated centers, with the exception of California, had an average of one can per dwelling. In the district there are 1.717 dogs with owners and a ratio of three people to each dog. The population centers of Llactabamba, Acco, Tunyabamba, Lambraspata, Los Angeles, Sotapa Pararani, and others had a ratio of two people per dog. In conclusion, there is an excessive number of dogs in the district of Huancarama, constituting a high proportion in relation to that of people.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Population , Rural Areas , Urban Area , Dogs , Rabies , Sex , Family , Family Characteristics , Stratified Sampling , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wolves , Housing
3.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 29 julio 2022. f:12 l:16 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 310).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1392416

ABSTRACT

Informe con datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras de laboratorio, vigilancia de reservorios de enfermedades zoonóticas, y vacunación antirrábica de animales, durante mayo de 2022.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jun. 20, 2022. 43 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1392901

ABSTRACT

Los casos de rabia en animales no se registran en nuestro país desde el año 2018, pero es importante que el MINSAL continúe ejecutando acciones de promoción de salud y prevención de la enfermedad para lo cual contamos con documentación regulatoria relacionadas con la realización de las campañas de vacunación felina y canina con la participación intersectorial para mantener los logros alcanzados de cero casos de rabia en humanos en los últimos 13 años. Los presentes lineamientos técnicos establecen las directrices para que el abordaje integral al paciente expuesto al virus de la rabia, vigilancia epidemiológica y medida de prevención y control en los animales causantes de la exposición, para disminuir el riesgo de transmisión de rabia en la población


Cases of rabies in animals have not been registered in our country since 2018, but it is important that MINSAL continues to carry out health promotion and disease prevention actions, for which we have regulatory documentation related to carrying out rabies campaigns. feline and canine vaccination with intersectoral participation to maintain the achievements of zero cases of rabies in humans in the last 13 years. These technical guidelines establish the guidelines for a comprehensive approach to the patient exposed to the rabies virus, epidemiological surveillance and prevention and control measures in the animals causing the exposure, to reduce the risk of rabies transmission in the population


Subject(s)
Rabies , Disease , Disease Prevention , Population , Rabies virus , Vaccination , El Salvador
5.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(2): 74-80, abr./jun. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399545

ABSTRACT

As doenças de notificação obrigatória em bovinos podem gerar impactos sociais e econômicos significativos na cadeia pecuária brasileira, além de consequências negativas no mercado internacional devido a embargos sanitários. Para auxiliar no entendimento de como um sistema de vigilância epidemiológica com mais recursos pode gerar mais credibilidade para o país, foram realizadas análises de correlação entre a notificação de doenças e a estrutura veterinária disponível nos Órgãos Executores de Sanidade Agropecuária (OESAs), a partir dos dados contidos no Sistema Nacional de Informação Zoossanitária (SIZ), entre os anos de 2017 e 2019. Com base nos dados do serviço veterinário, foram produzidos o Índice de Estrutura Física Oficial (IEFO) e o Índice de Recursos Humanos do Serviço Oficial (IRHSO). Foi realizada análise de correlação entre a notificação de doenças de bovinos com a capacidade de estrutura física e recursos humanos de vigilância epidemiológica disponíveis no Serviço Veterinário brasileiro. Os estados AP, RR e SC foram os que mais notificaram brucelose e tuberculose no período e estão entre os melhores índices de estrutura e recursos humanos do país. A análise dos índices mostrou que a raiva não possui correlação significativa com estrutura e recursos humanos do serviço, entretanto, brucelose e tuberculose possuem correlação positiva com estrutura veterinária oficial disponível para a vigilância em bovinos. Portanto, melhorias na estrutura podem refletir no incremento dos índices de notificação das doenças de bovinos, assim como na qualidade de suas informações.


Notifiable diseases in cattle can generate significant social and economic impacts on the Brazilian livestock chain, in addition to impacts on the international market due to sanitary embargoes. To help understand how an epidemiological surveillance system with more resources can generate more credibility for the country, correlation analyzes were carried out between the notification of diseases and the veterinary structure available in the Executing Bodies of Agricultural Health (OESAs), based on the data contained in the National System of Zoosanitary Information (SIZ), between the years 2017 to 2019. Based on public data from the veterinary service, the Official Physical Structure Index (IEFO) and the Official Service Human Resources Index (IRHSO) were produced. Correlation analysis was performed between the notification of bovine diseases with the capacity of physical structure and human resources for epidemiological surveillance available in the Brazilian Veterinary Service. AP, RR and SC were the states that most notified brucellosis and tuberculosis in the period and are among the best indices of structure and human resources in the country. The analysis of correlation indices showed that the rabies disease does not have a significant correlation with the structure and the human resources of the service, however, brucellosis and tuberculosis does have a positive correlation with the official veterinary structure available for surveillance in cattle. Therefore, Improvements in the structure can reflect in the increase of the notification rates, as well as in the quality of its information.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Structure of Services , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Rabies/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Bovine/epidemiology , Brucellosis, Bovine/epidemiology
6.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 13 abr. 2022. f:20 l:23 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 295).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1382143

ABSTRACT

Informe con datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras de laboratorio, vigilancia de reservorios de enfermedades zoonóticas, y vacunación antirrábica de animales.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
7.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 22 abr. 2022. f:20 l:24 p. tab, mapas, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 296).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1390666

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente informe es exponer la situación actual de la vacunación antirrábica de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con el fin de realizar una planificación estratégica de prevención y control de la enfermedad. Se utilizaron datos sobre vacunación realizada por veterinarias privadas estimados a partir de la venta de talonarios por parte del Consejo Profesional de Médicos Veterinarios (CPMV); así como la vacunación realizada por los efectores públicos de salud: Instituto de Zoonosis Luis Pasteur (IZLP) y Mascotas de la Ciudad (MC).


Subject(s)
Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution , Immunization Programs/supply & distribution , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data
8.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 11 mar. 2022. f: 20 l: 24 p. tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 6, 290).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1380976

ABSTRACT

La vigilancia epidemiológica permite alertar en forma temprana acerca de la ocurrencia de casos y del riesgo de transmisión en un lugar y tiempo determinados, registrar la tendencia a través del tiempo en diferentes áreas geográficas y monitorear las variantes de los virus circulantes. Su propósito es servir a las acciones de prevención y control, y a la orientación de las políticas públicas. La confirmación del diagnóstico por el laboratorio especializado y la efectiva notificación de los casos humanos y animales resultan elementos fundamentales para la vigilancia. En este informe se ofrecen datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935292

ABSTRACT

From 2011 to 2020, there were 111 213 cases of rabies exposed people recruited from the rabies immunization clinic of a hospital in Beijing. The monthly distribution of patients in each year was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The distribution of patients showed remarkable seasonality, with the exposure peak from May to October. The ratio of male to female was 1∶1.3. The majority of patients were aged 20-29 years old (39.1%) and in-service personnel (56.5%). Level-Ⅱ wounds (84.2%) were more common than level-Ⅲ wounds (14.9%). The number of visits to level-Ⅲwounds increased rapidly since 2017. The most common injured body part was hand (60.7%). Dogs were the most common animal for injuries (60.6%), followed by cats (32.3%), of which most were host animals (75.5%). The vaccination rate from 2016 to 2020 [49.8% (24 276/48 703)] was significantly higher than that from 2011 to 2015[18.6% (6 559/35 272)](χ²=8597.18, P<0.001).


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Animals , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
10.
S. Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 37(1)2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396122

ABSTRACT

Background: The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICDs) of South Africa (SA) provides technical support to healthcare workers (HCWs) with regard to infectious diseases through the NICD clinician hotline. Queries to the hotline are often about rabies prophylaxis. An analysis of these queries may help to identify knowledge gaps amongst HCWs regarding prevention of rabies in humans in SA. Methods: A retrospective descriptive review was conducted to analyse rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) queries received by the NICD from 01 January 2016 to 31 December 2019. Results: A total of 4655 queries were received by the NICD clinician hotline for the study period, of which 2461 pertained to rabies PEP (52.87%). The largest number of calls were placedby HCWs (n = 2313/2437; 94.9%). Queries originated mainly from Gauteng (n = 912/2443; 37.3%) and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 875/2443; 35.8%) provinces. A total of 50 different types of animals were related to exposures involving humans. Dogs (67.7%) and cats (11.8%) were the animals most frequently reported and exposure category III was most common (88.6%). Approximately equal numbers of callers were advised active management of administering rabies PEP and conservative management of withholding PEP. This did not seem to be affected by the exposure category related to the call. Conclusion: This analysis shows the ongoing demand by HCWs for technical support regarding patient management following potential exposure to rabies. Gaps in HCWs rabies knowledge provide unique learning points on guiding training to achieve the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rabies , Communicable Diseases , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Lyssavirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 667-677, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388300

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las zoonosis son enfermedades transmitidas desde un hospedador animal al ser humano o viceversa. En Chile, las zoonosis de Notificación Obligatoria (NO) son: brucelosis, carbunco, triquinosis, hidatidosis, leptospirosis, dengue, enfermedad de Chagas, hantavirosis y rabia. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la tendencia y caracterizar la mortalidad por zoonosis de NO en Chile entre 1997-2018. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio ecológico de la mortalidad por zoonosis de NO. Se utilizaron bases de mortalidad y población oficiales. Se describió la mortalidad relativa, general y específica, según variables sociodemográficas. Se calcularon tasas de mortalidad anuales brutas (TMb) y ajustadas (TMa, método directo). Se evaluó la tendencia temporal con modelos de regresión de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: Entre 1997 y 2018 la mortalidad por zoonosis de NO correspondió al 0,12% (2.359 muertes) de la mortalidad total, siendo las principales causas la enfermedad de Chagas (59,8%), hidatidosis (23,9%) y hantavirosis (13,8%). La TMa general disminuyó significativamente (B: -0,017; IC95%: -0,024; -0,009) al igual que hidatidosis (B: -0,011; IC95%: -0,013; -0,008), sólo hantavirosis mostró un aumento (no significativo). CONCLUSIÓN: La mortalidad por zoonosis de NO disminuyó durante el período estudiado; solo la hantavirosis mostró un aumento en su tendencia. Se sugiere enfocar estrategias para prevenir la transmisibilidad y mortalidad por hanta, así como mejorar el acceso a tratamiento para las otras zoonosis.


BACKGROUND: Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from an animal host to humans or vice versa. In Chile, the zoonoses of mandatory notification are brucellosis, anthrax, trichinosis, hydatidosis, leptospirosis, dengue, Chagas disease, hantavirosis and rabies. AIM: To assess the trend and characterize the mortality from zoonoses of mandatory notification in Chile between 1997-2018. METHODS: An official mortality and population data were used. Relative, general and specific mortality rates were described according to sociodemographic variables. Crude and adjusted annual mortality rates (direct method) were calculated. Temporal trend was evaluated with the Prais-Winsten regression model. RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2018, the mortality rate due to zoonosis of mandatory notification corresponded to 0.13% (2152 deaths) of the total mortality, being Chagas disease (59.2%), hydatidosis (24.6%) and hantavirosis (13.5%) the main causes. The general adjusted mortality rate decreased significantly (B: -0.017; IC95%: -0.024; -0.009) as did hydatidosis (B: -0.011; IC95%: -0.013; -0.008), and only hantavirosis showed an increase trend (not significant). CONCLUSION: Mortality due to zoonoses decreased during the period; only hantavirosis showed an increasing trend. It is suggested to focus on strategies to prevent contagion and mortality by hantavirosis, as well as to improve access to treatment for the other zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zoonoses/mortality , Rabies/mortality , Trichinellosis/mortality , Brucellosis/mortality , Chile/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/mortality , Hantavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Notification , Dengue/mortality , Echinococcosis/mortality , Ecological Studies
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jun. 10, 2021. 1 p. Algoritmo.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255075

ABSTRACT

Muy pronto


Coming Soon


Subject(s)
Rabies , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
13.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2401, jan-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1222347

ABSTRACT

A raiva é uma antropozoonose viral que se desenvolve de forma progressiva e aguda podendo apresentar até 100% de letalidade. O seu agente etiológico é o vírus rábico do gênero Lyssavirus pertencente à família Rhabdoviridae. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo divulgar informações acerca da ocorrência da raiva em humanos em virtude da sua expressiva importância para saúde pública e analisar a percepção da população sobre a raiva humana, de forma a obter dados relacionados a conhecimentos básicos sobre a doença. Para isso, foi criada uma página informativa denominada "@contraraiva_" na rede social Instagram para a realização de postagens interativas sobre o tema abordado, e uso de um questionário criado a partir da plataforma Google Forms em diferentes mídias sociais para a obtenção e coleta de dados. Foram obtidas 1.075 respostas, provenientes de diferentes localidades. O questionário alcançou todas as regiões brasileiras, todos 26 estados e o Distrito Federal. As informações publicadas pela página criada ajudaram a sanar dúvidas relacionadas aos principais aspectos da doença. Os dados obtidos a partir do questionário contribuem para o planejamento de ações voltadas para a educação em saúde de forma mais estratégica, visando contribuir para os pontos em que a população tem menos conhecimentos.(AU)


Rabies is a viral anthropozoonosis that is developed in a progressive and acute way and can present up to 100% lethality. Its etiologic agent is the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus gene belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family. This study aimed at disseminating information about the occurrence of rabies in humans due to its expressive importance for public health, and at analyzing the population perception on human rabies in order to obtain data related to basic knowledge about the disease. For that purpose, an information page called "@ contraraiva _" was created on the social network Instagram for providing interactive posts on the topic, and a questionnaire was created from the Google Forms platform on different social media to obtain and collect data. A total of 1,075 responses were obtained from different locations. The questionnaire included all Brazilian regions, all 26 states and the Federal District. The information published on the created page helped to clarify doubts related to the main aspects of the disease. The data obtained from the questionnaire contribute towards the planning of actions aimed at health education in a more strategic way, aiming at contributing to the points where the population is less knowledgeable.(AU)


La rabia es una antropozoonosis viral que se desarrolla de forma progresiva y aguda y puede presentar hasta un 100% de letalidad. Su agente etiológico es el virus de la rabia del género Lyssavirus perteneciente a la familia Rhabdoviridae. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo difundir informaciones sobre la ocurrencia de la rabia en humanos en virtud de su importancia expresiva para la salud pública, y analizar la percepción de la población sobre la rabia humana, con el fin de obtener datos relacionados a los conocimientos básicos sobre la enfermedad. Para ello, se creó una página de información denominada "@ contraraiva _" en la red social Instagram para realizar publicaciones interactivas sobre el tema abordado, y utilizar un cuestionario creado a partir de la plataforma Google Forms en diferentes redes sociales para la obtención y recolección de datos. Se obtuvieron 1.075 respuestas de diferentes lugares. El cuestionario llegó a todas las regiones brasileñas, a los 26 estados y al Distrito Federal. Las informaciones publicadas en el sitio web creado, ayudaron a sanar dudas relacionadas a los principales aspectos de la enfermedad. Los datos obtenidos del cuestionario contribuyen a la planificación de acciones orientadas a la educación para la salud de forma más estratégica, con el objetivo de contribuir a los puntos donde la población tiene menos conocimientos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Rabies , Rabies virus , Public Health , Health Education , Lyssavirus , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 26: e51343, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287639

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN. El cyberbullying es un problema creciente, sobre todo entre la población adolescente. Este fenómeno amerita investigación científica que apunte a explicarlo en el mayor número de aspectos posibles, incluyendo las emociones. En este marco, la presente investigación se ocupa de analizar la ira en adolescentes involucrados en situaciones de cyberbullying. Se realizó un estudio con diseño cualitativo y método fenomenológico-hermenéutico, en el que se entrevistaron 31 adolescentes entre los 12 y 17 años de edad, implicados en situaciones de cyberbullying en los roles de víctimas o espectadores. Las víctimas de ciberacoso sienten ira, especialmente, cuando las agresiones provienen de parte de personas a quienes consideraban sus amigos. Esta emoción se experimenta junto con otros afectos como la tristeza y la vergüenza. Para los espectadores, la ira está asociada a situaciones de injusticia y a la percepción de que los agresores no tienen empatía hacia las víctimas. Los adolescentes reconocen los efectos negativos que el cyberbullying tiene sobre la imagen de las personas en entornos digitales. Comprender el lugar que ocupan las emociones en las agresiones mediadas por TIC es fundamental para generar conocimiento que sirva de base para el diseño e implementación de programas de intervención psicosocial del ciberacoso, y promover espacios de reflexión sobre de lo que significa la intimidad, la amistad y la confianza en la era digital.


RESUMO. O cyberbullying é um problema crescente, especialmente entre a população adolescente. Esse fenômeno merece pesquisas científicas que visam explicá-lo no maior número possível de aspectos, incluindo emoções. Dentro dessa estrutura, a presente investigação se preocupa em analisar a raiva em adolescentes envolvidos em situações de cyberbullying. Foi realizado um estudo com desenho qualitativo e método fenomenológico-hermenêutico, no qual foram entrevistados 31 adolescentes entre 12 e 17 anos de idade, envolvidos em situações de cyberbullying no papel de vítimas ou espectadores. As vítimas do cyberbullying sentem raiva, principalmente quando os ataques são de pessoas que consideram amigas. Essa emoção é experimentada junto com outros afetos, como tristeza e vergonha. Para os espectadores, a raiva está associada a situações de injustiça e à percepção de que os agressores não têm empatia pelas vítimas. Os adolescentes reconhecem os efeitos negativos que o cyberbullying tem sobre a imagem das pessoas em ambientes digitais. Compreender o lugar que as emoções ocupam nas agressões mediadas pelas TIC é essencial para gerar conhecimento que serve de base para o desenho e implementação de programas de intervenção psicossocial do cyberbullying e promover espaços de reflexão sobre o que significa intimidade, amizade e confie na era digital.


ABSTRACT. Cyberbullying is a growing problem, especially among the adolescent population. This phenomenon warrants scientific research that aims to explain it in as many aspects as possible, including emotions. In this context, this research deals with the analysis of anger in adolescents involved in cyberbullying situations. A study with qualitative design and the phenomenological-hermeneutic method was conducted, in which 31 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 were interviewed, involved in cyberbullying situations in the roles of victims or bystanders. Victims of cyberbullying feel angry, especially when the assaults come from people they considered their friends. This emotion is experienced along with other affections such as sadness and shame. For bystanders, anger is associated with situations of injustice and the perception that aggressors have no empathy for the victims. Adolescents recognize the negative effects that cyberbullying has on people's image in digital environments. Understanding the place of emotions in ICT-mediated aggressions is essential to generate knowledge that serves as the basis for the design and implementation of psychosocial intervention programs in cyberbullying, and to promote spaces for reflection on what intimacy, friendship, and trust mean in the digital age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Rabies/psychology , Cyberbullying/psychology , Online Social Networking , Psychotherapy , Shame , Mental Health/education , Adolescent/physiology , Affect , Aggression/psychology , Emotions , Empathy , Information Technology , Sadness/psychology
15.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200188, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1156670

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the repercussions on mental health of groups and populations in the context of the new coronavirus pandemic. Method: Narrative review carired out in three databases, in March 2020, using the descriptors mental health and coronavirus. A total of 19 publications were analyzed, organized in a synoptic chart, containing type of publication, authors, country, sample, objective, and main results. From this analysis, two thematic axes emerged: identification of problems and vulnerable groups in mental health; and mental health interventions and actions. Results: The first axis showed manifestations of suffering - anguish, insomnia, anger, stress, fear. The second revealed the need to build government policies and general guidelines; production of information and communication; and mental health care practices. Conclusions: The repercussions on mental health in the population intensified with the pandemic, identifying vulnerable groups, and the need to build coping strategies and policies aimed at mental health during epidemics.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar las repercusiones en la salud mental de grupos y poblaciones dentro del contexto de la pandemia del nuevo coronavirus. Método: Revisión narrativa realizada en tres bases de datos, en marzo de 2020, utilizando los descriptores salud mental y coronavirus. Fueron analizadas 19 publicaciones, organizadas en un cuadro sinóptico, conteniendo: tipo de publicación, autores, país, muestra, objetivo y principales resultados. De ese análisis, emergieron dos ejes temáticos: identificación de problemas y grupos vulnerables en salud mental; e intervenciones y acciones en salud mental. Resultados: El primer eje evidenció manifestaciones de sufrimiento -- angustia, insomnio, rabia, estrés, miedo. El segundo reveló la necesidad de construcción de políticas gubernamentales y directrices; producción de informaciones y comunicación; y prácticas asistenciales en salud mental. Conclusiones: Las repercusiones en la salud mental se intensificaron con la pandemia, identificando grupos vulnerables y la necesidad de construir estrategias y políticas de afrontamiento en salud mental durante epidemias.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar as repercussões na saúde mental de grupos e populações no contexto da pandemia do novo coronavírus. Método: Revisão narrativa realizada em três bases de dados, em março de 2020, utilizando os descritores saúde mental e coronavírus. Foram analisadas 19 publicações, organizadas em um quadro sinóptico, contendo: tipo de publicação, autores, país, amostra, objetivo e principais resultados. Dessa análise, emergiram dois eixos temáticos: identificação de problemas e grupos vulneráveis em saúde mental; e intervenções e ações em saúde mental. Resultados: O primeiro eixo evidenciou manifestações de sofrimento - angústia, insônia, raiva, estresse, medo. O segundo revelou a necessidade de construção de políticas governamentais e diretrizes gerais; produção de informações e comunicação; e práticas assistenciais em saúde mental. Conclusões: As repercussões na saúde mental na população se intensificaram com a pandemia, identificando-se grupos vulneráveis, e a necessidade de construção de estratégias e políticas de enfrentamento voltadas à saúde mental durante epidemias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Groups , Mental Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/psychology , Anxiety , Rabies , Adaptation, Psychological , Narration , Fear , Psychological Distress
16.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020354, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154143

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever os casos de raiva humana no estado do Ceará, Brasil, no período 1970-2019. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, sobre dados secundários da Secretaria da Saúde e do hospital de referência do Ceará. Resultados: Dos 171 casos, 75,7% ocorreram em homens, 60,0% nas idades até 19 anos e 56,0% em áreas urbanas. O cão foi agente transmissor em 74,0% dos casos; sagui em, 16,7%; e morcego, em 7,3%. Entre 1970 e 1978, houve crescimento do número de casos (pelo Joinpoint Regression Program, percentual da mudança anual [APC] = 13,7 - IC95% 4,6;41,5); e entre 1978 e 2019, redução (APC = -6,7 - IC95% -8,8;-5,9). Houve redução da transmissão por cães (71 casos; último caso em 2010) e aumento relativo por mamíferos silvestres (5 casos a partir de 2005). Conclusão: O estudo evidencia mudança na dinâmica da transmissão da raiva no período observado, com redução da transmissão por cão e incremento de casos por animais silvestres.


Objetivo: Describir los casos de la rabia humana en Ceará, Brasil, 1970-2019. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con datos secundarios de la Secretaría de Salud y del hospital de referencia de Ceará. Resultados: De los 171 casos, 75,7% ocurrió en hombres, el 60,0% en los 19 años y el 56,0% en áreas urbanas. El perro fue transmisor en 74,0%, el mono tití en 16,7% y el murciélago el 7,3%. Entre 1970 y 1978, hubo un aumento de casos (por el Joinpoint Regression Program, cambio porcentual anual [APC] = 13,7 - IC95% 4,6; 41,5), entre 1978 y 2019 una disminución (APC= -6,7 - IC95% -8,8; -5,9). Hubo una reducción de la transmisión por perros (71 casos, el último en 2010) y un aumento por mamíferos salvajes (5 casos, desde 2005). Conclusión: El estudio muestra un cambio en la dinámica de la transmisión de la rabia en los últimos años, con reducción de la transmisión por perros y aumento de casos por animales salvajes.


Objective: To describe cases of human rabies in Ceará State, Brazil between 1970 and 2019. Methods: This was a descriptive study using secondary data from the Ceará State Department of Health and the state reference hospital. Results: Of 171 cases, 75.7% occurred in males, 60.0% in <19-year-olds, and 56.0% in urban areas. Rabies was transmitted by dogs in 74.0% of cases, marmosets in 16.7% and bats in 7.3%. Between 1970 and 1978, there was an increase of cases (using the Joinpoint Regression Program, annual percentage change [APC] = 13.7 - 95%CI 4.6;41.5), while between 1978 and 2019 there was a decrease (APC = -6.7 - 95%CI -8.8;-5.9). There was a reduction in transmission by dogs (71 cases, last case in 2010) and an increase by sylvatic animals (5 cases since 2005). Conclusion: This study demonstrates changes in rabies transmission dynamics during the period studied, with a reduction in transmission by dogs and an increase of transmission by sylvatic animals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabies/transmission , Rabies/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rabies virus/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Neglected Diseases , Epidemiological Monitoring
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01042021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288079

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Rabies is considered one of the most relevant public health problems owing to its high fatality rate and the high number of deaths worldwide. METHODS We included patients with human rabies who attended a reference hospital in the state of Ceará during 1976-2019. RESULTS Data were available for 63 out of 171 (36.8%) patients. Of these patients, 48 (76.2%) were attacked by dogs. In recent years, wild animals have been the most common aggressor species (marmosets and bats). Only 39 (70%) patients were initially correctly suspected with rabies. Bites were the most frequent exposure (56; 96%), most commonly on the hands (21; 42%) and the head (9; 18.4%). Only 14 (22%) patients had sought medical assistance before the onset of symptoms, and only one completed post-exposure prophylaxis. The most prevalent signs and symptoms included aggressiveness/irritability (50; 79.4%), fever (42; 66.7%), sore throat/dysphagia (40; 63.5%), and myalgia (28; 44.4%). Hydrophobia was present in 17 patients (22.0%). CONCLUSIONS Most cases of human rabies in Ceará occurred due to the failure to seek medical assistance and/or the failure of the health system in initiating early post-exposure prophylaxis. There is a need for specific information and education campaigns focusing on the cycle of sylvatic rabies as well as prevention measures. Health professionals should undergo refresher training courses on the signs and symptoms of rabies and on the specific epidemiological features of the disease in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies virus , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41(spe3): e207756, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340443

ABSTRACT

A prevalência dos castigos físicos em crianças/adolescentes é muito elevada. Sua aceitação social é ampla, sendo que as legislações brasileiras criam brechas para sua ocorrência. Entre os cientistas, há dissenso quanto aos limites entre castigos e abusos físicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi contribuir com as discussões nesse âmbito, buscando verificar se grupos de pais/responsáveis sem e com histórico de notificação ao sistema de proteção por abuso físico se diferenciariam quanto à forma de punir/castigar e quanto a variáveis psicossociais consideradas fatores de risco para abuso físico. A abordagem adotada no estudo foi quantitativa, com delineamento transversal e comparativo. Participaram do estudo pais/cuidadores que faziam utilização da punição corporal: 47 sem histórico de notificação e 40 com histórico de notificação por abuso físico. Os instrumentos utilizados para a coleta de dados foram: Questionário de Caracterização Sociodemográfica, Roteiro de Entrevista sobre Prática Parental, Inventário de Potencial de Maus-Tratos Infantil (Child Abuse Potential Inventory - CAP). Os pais notificados relataram punições corporais mais graves (ou seja, mais frequentes, mais gravosas e em regiões do corpo mais vulneráveis) e mais angústia, rigidez, infelicidade, problemas com a criança, problemas com os outros e solidão. Todavia, em ambos os grupos, segundo o reportado, a raiva moveria o ato de punir. Esses resultados reiteram a ideia de que todas as formas de punição física são maus-tratos (expressões de violência), pois decorrem das necessidades dos cuidadores ("descarga emocional"). Remetem, porém, a um fenômeno heterogêneo, em termos de gravidade e de fatores associados, que precisa ser assim considerado na proposição de programas de prevenção e de tratamento.(AU)


Physical punishment of children / adolescents is highly prevalent and socially accepted, with a series of loopholes in the Brazilian legislation that favor this practice. Scientists tend to disagree in regard to the limits between physical punishment and physical abuse. This study aimed to contribute to the discussions around this theme, verifying whether practices of physical punishment and psychosocial variables considered risk factors for physical abuse differ among parents / caregivers with and without history of physical abuse notifications to protection agencies. The study was conducted with parents / caregivers who adopt practices of corporal punishment, 47 of whom without and 40 with history of physical abuse notification. Data were collected by means of Characterization Questionnaire, Parental Practice Interview, and Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP). Notified parents reported more severe corporal punishments (more frequent, more dangerous, in more vulnerable body regions) and more distress, severity, unhappiness, problems with the child and other people, and loneliness. Both groups reported that the act of punishing was moved by anger. These results reiterate the notion that all forms of physical punishment are maltreatment (expressions of violence) resulting from the needs of the caregivers ("emotional discharge"). However, these practices refer to a heterogeneous phenomenon in terms of severity and associated factors, which must be considered when proposing prevention and treatment programs.(AU)


Los castigos corporales de niños/adolescentes tiene una prevalencia muy elevada. Su aceptación social es amplia, y las legislaciones brasileñas no logran abarcar las puniciones adecuadas para esta práctica. No existe un consenso entre los científicos en cuanto a los límites entre punición corporal y maltrato físico. El objetivo del presente estudio fue contribuir con las discusiones sobre ese tema, verificando si grupos de padres/responsables sin y con antecedentes de notificación al Sistema de Protección por maltrato físico se diferenciarían en la forma de castigar/punir y en variables psicosociales consideradas factores de riesgo para maltrato físico. Este es un estudio cuantitativo, de tipo transversal y comparativo. Participaron en el estudio padres/cuidadores que hacían uso del castigo corporal: 47 sin antecedentes de notificación al sistema; 40 con antecedentes de notificación por maltrato físico. Los instrumentos utilizados para la recolección de datos fueron: Cuestionario de Datos Sociodemográficos, Entrevista sobre Práctica Parental, Inventario de Potencial de Maltrato Infantil (Child Abuse Potential Inventory - CAP). Los padres notificados reportaron castigos corporales más graves (es decir, más frecuentes, más graves, en regiones del cuerpo más vulnerables) y más angustia, rigidez, infelicidad, problemas con el niño, problemas con los demás y soledad. Según el reportado, en ambos grupos, la rabia movería el acto de castigar. Estos resultados reiteran la idea de que todas las formas de castigo físico son maltrato (manifestación de violencia), pues se derivan de las necesidades de los cuidadores ("descarga emocional"). Sin embargo, remiten a un fenómeno heterogéneo, en términos de gravedad y de factores asociados, que necesita considerarse en la propuesta de programas de prevención y de tratamiento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Punishment , Child Abuse, Sexual , Child Rearing , Domestic Violence , Poverty , Rabies , Violence , Child Abuse , Protective Factors , Consensus , Physical Abuse , Anger
19.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 4 sept. 2020. a) f: 20 l:23 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, V, 211).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1282570

ABSTRACT

El aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO) es una medida excepcional que el Gobierno Nacional adopta en un contexto crítico. Con el fin de proteger la salud pública frente a la propagación de la Covid-19, se dispuso que todas las personas que habitan, o se encuentren temporalmente, en las jurisdicciones donde rige esta normativa deberán permanecer en sus domicilios habituales, sólo pudiendo realizar desplazamientos mínimos e indispensables para aprovisionarse de artículos de limpieza, medicamentos y alimentos (Decreto Nacional 297/2020). En la Ciudad de Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) rige desde el 20 de marzo el ASPO, y se ha ido flexibilizando a lo largo del tiempo. En este contexto se modificaron conductas, actividades e incluso asistencia a los centros de salud para consultas no relacionadas con Covid-19. En este informe pretendemos dar cuenta de la situación en relación a la denuncia de accidentes por mordeduras de animales de compañía. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Rabies/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Bites and Stings/prevention & control , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Accidents, Home/statistics & numerical data , Pets , Animals, Domestic
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 413-421, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138566

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Chile, se produjeron vacunas desde fines del siglo XIX hasta inicios del siglo XXI de manera ininterrumpida. La producción se realizó en institutos del Estado, desde donde se abastecía al Servicio de Salud para los programas de vacunación. Además de fabricar, envasar y distribuir vacunas, los institutos del Estado, en particular el Instituto Bacteriológico (IB), exportaron vacunas a Latinoamérica y realizaron investigación y desarrollo, destacándose en este ámbito con la vacuna Fuenzalida-Palacios para el control de la rabia humana y canina. El presente estudio provee un listado de vacunas producidas en Chile en los institutos del Estado entre fines del siglo XIX y el año 2005, y una discusión sobre las visiones del rol de Estado que justificaron las acciones respecto de la producción de vacunas en Chile. El Estado desarrollista de mediados del siglo XX, dio paso al Estado neoliberal que se institucionalizó con la constitución de 1980 definiendo el rol subsidiario que ha guiado la discusión en materia de producción de vacunas locales en las últimas décadas.


Abstract In Chile, vaccines were produced from the late 19th century to the early 21st century without interruption. The production was carried out in State institutes, from where the health service was supplied for the vaccination programs. In addition to manufacturing, packaging and distributing vaccines, the State institutes, in particular the Instituto Bacteriológico (IB), exported vaccines to Latin America and carried out research and development, standing out in this area with the Fuenzalida-Palacios vaccine for the control of human and canine rabies. The present study provides a list of vaccines produced in Chile at State institutes between the end of the 19th century and 2005, and a discussion on the visions of the State role that justified the actions regarding the production of vaccines in Chile. The developmental State of the mid-twentieth century gave way to the neoliberal State that was institutionalized with the 1980 constitution, which defines the subsidiary role of the State that has guided the discussion on local vaccine production in the last decades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabies , Rabies Vaccines , Chile , Immunization Programs , Dogs , Academies and Institutes
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