Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 148
Filter
1.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 19 ago. 2022. f:18 l:22 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 313).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1392542

ABSTRACT

Informe con datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras de laboratorio, vigilancia de reservorios de enfermedades zoonóticas, y vacunación antirrábica de animales, durante junio de 2022.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/transmission , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
2.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 29 julio 2022. f:12 l:16 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 310).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1392416

ABSTRACT

Informe con datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras de laboratorio, vigilancia de reservorios de enfermedades zoonóticas, y vacunación antirrábica de animales, durante mayo de 2022.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
3.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 13 abr. 2022. f:20 l:23 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 295).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1382143

ABSTRACT

Informe con datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras de laboratorio, vigilancia de reservorios de enfermedades zoonóticas, y vacunación antirrábica de animales.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
4.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 11 mar. 2022. f: 20 l: 24 p. tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 6, 290).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1380976

ABSTRACT

La vigilancia epidemiológica permite alertar en forma temprana acerca de la ocurrencia de casos y del riesgo de transmisión en un lugar y tiempo determinados, registrar la tendencia a través del tiempo en diferentes áreas geográficas y monitorear las variantes de los virus circulantes. Su propósito es servir a las acciones de prevención y control, y a la orientación de las políticas públicas. La confirmación del diagnóstico por el laboratorio especializado y la efectiva notificación de los casos humanos y animales resultan elementos fundamentales para la vigilancia. En este informe se ofrecen datos de vigilancia de rabia animal, y de otras enfermedades zoonóticas de notificación obligatoria.


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01042021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288079

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Rabies is considered one of the most relevant public health problems owing to its high fatality rate and the high number of deaths worldwide. METHODS We included patients with human rabies who attended a reference hospital in the state of Ceará during 1976-2019. RESULTS Data were available for 63 out of 171 (36.8%) patients. Of these patients, 48 (76.2%) were attacked by dogs. In recent years, wild animals have been the most common aggressor species (marmosets and bats). Only 39 (70%) patients were initially correctly suspected with rabies. Bites were the most frequent exposure (56; 96%), most commonly on the hands (21; 42%) and the head (9; 18.4%). Only 14 (22%) patients had sought medical assistance before the onset of symptoms, and only one completed post-exposure prophylaxis. The most prevalent signs and symptoms included aggressiveness/irritability (50; 79.4%), fever (42; 66.7%), sore throat/dysphagia (40; 63.5%), and myalgia (28; 44.4%). Hydrophobia was present in 17 patients (22.0%). CONCLUSIONS Most cases of human rabies in Ceará occurred due to the failure to seek medical assistance and/or the failure of the health system in initiating early post-exposure prophylaxis. There is a need for specific information and education campaigns focusing on the cycle of sylvatic rabies as well as prevention measures. Health professionals should undergo refresher training courses on the signs and symptoms of rabies and on the specific epidemiological features of the disease in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies virus , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190402, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092199

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Brazil, rabies occurs mainly within an urban cycle, in which dogs and bats are reservoirs. This paper aims to report the occurrence of rabies in Callithrix sp. in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In June 2019 a hybrid specimen was referred for diagnosis. The Direct Fluorescent Antibody, Mouse Inoculation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction tests were positive. A phylogenetic analysis was compatible with antigenic variant 3, characteristic of Desmodus rotundus. New studies should be undertaken to elucidate the real role of callitrichids in the urban rabies cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies virus/genetics , Callithrix/virology , Phylogeny , Rabies virus/immunology , Urban Population , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0692018, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118049

ABSTRACT

Bovines and equines are the domestic animals with the highest incidence of rabies in Brazil. This study evaluated the data input in testing request forms for rabies in herbivores accompanying samples sent to a certified laboratory of rabies diagnosis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information was obtained systematically from all forms sent to the laboratory in 2013 and 2014 using a collection instrument that listed variables about the kind of form used, municipality of origin, description of the suspected animal, clinical signs, sample collection, and conservation procedure. The 11 most relevant variables (municipality of origin, geographic coordinates, species, gender, breed, age, herd size, clinical signs, persistence of clinical signs, biological material, and sample conservation) were assessed for the quality of the data entered, and percentage data input was calculated per form. In total, 603 forms were sent to the laboratory. The most used form was the FORM SN, (82.0%, 497/603). "Excellent" and "good" data inputs were observed only for one variable describing the location of suspected rabies cases or outbreaks and animals (species, gender, biological material). Quality of data input of variables describing geographic coordinates, age, breed, herd size, clinical signs, persistence of signs, and sample conservation method varied between "average" and "poor". The data input in testing request forms for herbivores are not dully supplied in suspected cases neurological syndromes, pointing to the need to increase awareness and improve training of field staff.(AU)


Bovinos e equinos são os animais domésticos com maior incidência de raiva no Brasil. Este estudo avaliou formulários de solicitação de testes para raiva em herbívoros acompanhando amostras enviadas a um laboratório certificado de diagnóstico de raiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As informações foram obtidas sistematicamente de todos os formulários enviados ao laboratório em 2013 e 2014 utilizando um instrumento de coleta que selecionou variáveis sobre o tipo de formulário utilizado, município de origem, descrição do animal suspeito, sinais clínicos, coleta de amostra e procedimento de conservação. As 11 variáveis mais relevantes (município de origem, coordenadas geográficas, espécie, gênero, raça, idade, tamanho do rebanho, sinais clínicos, persistência de sinais clínicos, material biológico e conservação da amostra) foram avaliadas quanto à qualidade dos dados inseridos, e os dados percentuais foram calculados por formulário. No total, 603 formulários foram enviados para o laboratório. O formulário mais utilizado foi o FORM SN, (82,0%, 497/603). Dados classificados como "excelentes" e "bons" foram observados apenas para uma variável que descreve a localização de casos suspeitos de raiva ou surtos e animais (espécie, gênero, material biológico). A qualidade da entrada dos dados das variáveis que descrevem coordenadas geográficas, idade, raça, tamanho do rebanho, sinais clínicos, persistência de sinais e método de conservação da amostra variou entre "regular" e "ruim". A qualidade dos dados dos formulários de solicitação de testes para herbívoros não foi devidamente fornecida em casos suspeitos de síndromes neurológicas, apontando para a necessidade de aumentar a conscientização e melhorar o treinamento do pessoal de campo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rabies/diagnosis , Herbivory , Rabies virus , Signs and Symptoms , Cattle , Animals, Domestic
8.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018275, 2019. tab, graf, mapa
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012084

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever o perfil epidemiológico da raiva humana no Brasil. Métodos: estudo descritivo dos casos de raiva humana notificados em 2000-2017; estimou-se a incidência e distribuição espacial. Resultados: 188 casos humanos observados, na maioria homens (66,5%), residentes rurais (67,0%), menores de 15 anos de idade (49,6%), com exposição mais frequente por mordedura (81,9%); o período 2000-2008 apresentou maior frequência (85,6%), com 46,6% dos casos envolvendo cães e 45,9% morcegos; incubação mediana de 50 dias, seguida de sintomatologia predominante de febre (92,6%), agitação (85,2%), parestesia (66,7%) e disfagia/paralisia (51,9%); a maioria (70,2%) não fez profilaxia, os demais (29,8%) realizaram-na de forma inoportuna e/ou incompleta; 13 pacientes foram tratados pelo Protocolo de Recife e dois sobreviveram. Conclusão: houve redução na incidência de raiva humana e mudança no perfil epidemiológico, predominando casos transmitidos por morcegos; sugere-se investigar casos secundários e viabilizar a profilaxia pré-exposição em populações sob maior risco de acidentes com morcegos.


Objetivo: describir el perfil epidemiológico de la rabia humana en Brasil. Métodos: descripción de los casos en 2000-2017, con estimación de la incidencia y distribución espacial. Resultados: se observaron 188 casos humanos, la mayoría de hombres (66,5%), residentes rurales (67,0%), menores de 15 años de edad (49,6%), con exposición más frecuente por mordedura (81,9%); el período 2000-2008 presentó mayor frecuencia (85,6%), con un 46,6% de los casos involucrando a perros y 45,9% a murciélagos; la incubación promedio fue de 50 días, seguida de sintomatología predominante de fiebre (92,6%), agitación (85,2%), parestesia (66,7%) y disfagia/parálisis (51,9%); la mayoría (70,2%) no hizo profilaxis y los demás (29,8%) la realizaron de forma inoportuna y/o incompleta; se trataron 13 pacientes con el Protocolo de Recife y dos sobrevivieron. Conclusión: hubo reducción en la incidencia de rabia humana y cambio en el perfil epidemiológico, predominando casos transmitidos por murciélagos; se sugiere investigar casos secundarios y viabilizar la profilaxis preexposición en poblaciones de mayor riesgo a accidentes por murciélagos.


Objective: to describe the epidemiological profile of human rabies in Brazil. Methods: this is a descriptive study of human rabies cases reported in 2000-2017, with an estimate of incidence and spatial distribution. Results: 188 cases were studied, mostly males (66.5%), rural residents (67.0%), children under 15 years (49.6%), with biting being the most frequent form of exposure (81.9%); frequency was highest in the period 2000-2008 (85.6%), with 46.6% of cases involving dogs and 45.9% bats; median incubation was 50 days, followed by, predominantly, symptoms of fever (92.6%), agitation (85.2%), paresthesia (66.7%), and dysphagia/paralysis (51.9%); the majority (70.2%) did not have prophylaxis and for the rest (29.8%) who did have prophylaxis, it was untimely and/or incomplete; 13 patients were treated according to the Recife Protocol, and two survived. Conclusion: human rabies incidence reduced and its epidemiological profile changed, with predominance of cases transmitted by bats; we suggest that secondary cases be investigated, and that pre-exposure prophylaxis be made available to populations at greater risk of accidents involving bats.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies virus/classification , Rabies virus/pathogenicity , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Disease Notification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
9.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 13 jul. 2018. a) f: 28 l:33 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 3, 99).
Monography in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, InstitutionalDB, LILACS | ID: biblio-1103152

ABSTRACT

La rabia es una enfermedad viral, de distribución mundial que afecta al hombre y a todos los mamíferos tanto domésticos como silvestres, con una letalidad del 100% afectando el sistema nervioso central. Se transmite por medio de la inoculación del virus contenido en la saliva del animal infectado, principalmente por mordeduras o el lamido de heridas, o por predación cuando un animal caza un murciélago infectado y toma contacto con el virus desde el encéfalo del quiróptero. Otras formas de transmisión, menos frecuentes son por trasplante de tejidos infectados o por aerosoles. En este apartado, se describe la situación epidemiológica de esta zoonosis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: observación de animales mordedores, detección de virus rábico en muestras mediante diagnóstico de laboratorio, vacunación de animales y control poblacional mediante esterilizaciones quirúrgicas, acciones de control de focos de rabia, y seguimiento de animales con exposición a murciélagos positivos a rabia o no analizables


Subject(s)
Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/immunology , Rabies/pathology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Sterilization, Reproductive/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution , Rabies Vaccines/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 39-43, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897046

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute zoonotic disease, caused by a rhabdovirus that can affect all mammals, and is commonly transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. The definitive diagnosis is laboratorial, by the Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) as a quick test and Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) as a confirmatory test (gold standard). Studies conducted over the past three decades indicate that MIT and Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) can provide the same effectiveness, the latter being considered superior in bioethics and animal welfare. The aim of this study was to compare VICC with MIT, in terms of accuracy, biosafety and occupational health, supply and equipment costs, bioethics and animal welfare, in a Brazilian public health lab. METHODS: We utilized 400 samples of animal neurological tissue to compare the performance of VICC against MIT. The variables analyzed were accuracy, biosafety and occupational health, time spent in performing the tests, supply and equipment costs, bioethics and animal welfare evaluation. RESULTS: Both VICC and MIT had almost the same accuracy (99.8%), although VICC presented fewer risks regarding biosafety and mental health of the technicians, and reduced time between inoculation and obtaining the results (approximately 22 days less). In addition, VICC presented lower supply costs (86.5% less), equipment costs (32.6% less), and the advantage of not using animals. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that VICC can replace MIT, offering the same accuracy and better features regarding cost, results, biosafety and occupational health, and bioethics and animal welfare.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies virus/immunology , Occupational Health , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Containment of Biohazards , Bioethical Issues , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Animal Welfare , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/economics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cell Culture Techniques/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Mice
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(5): 432-440, maio 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895430

ABSTRACT

Foi realizado um levantamento nos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT) das doenças de bovinos registradas entre os anos 2005 a 2014. Foram revisados 1124 casos. Destes, 27,6% foram amostras obtidas de necropsias realizadas por técnicos do LPV-UFMT e 72,3% foram amostras encaminhadas ao LPV-UFMT por veterinários de campo. Em 49,38% dos casos (555/1124) o diagnóstico da doença foi feito através da análise morfológica de lesões e/ou através de exames complementares. Raiva foi a principal causa de morte de bovinos neste estudo (7,82%). As doenças inflamatórias e parasitárias foram as mais prevalentes sendo diagnosticadas em 27,49% dos casos, seguida das doenças tóxicas e toxiinfecções com 9,78%. As demais categorias foram distribuídas em ordem decrescente em: neoplasmas e lesões tumoriformes (4%), doenças degenerativas (3,02%), distúrbios causados por agentes físicos (2,84%), distúrbios metabólicos e nutricionais (1,42%) e outras categorias (0,71%).(AU)


A survey was conducted on files of the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV), Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), about cattle disease recorded during the years 2005 to 2014. From a total of 1124 reviewed cases, 27.6% were samples obtained from autopsies performed by technicians of the LPV-UFMT, and 72.3% were samples sent to LPV-UFMT by field veterinarians. In 49.38% of cases (555/1124) the diagnosis of the disease was made by morphological analysis of lesions and/or through additional tests. Rabies was the major cause of death in cattle in this study (7.82%). Inflammatory and parasitic disease was the most prevalent category diagnosed with 27.49% of cases, followed by toxicoses and toxinfections (9.78%). The other categories were distributed in descending order, as neoplasms and tumor-like lesions (4%), degenerative diseases (3.02%), disorders caused by physical agents (2.84%), metabolic and nutritional disorders (1.42%), and other categories (0.71%).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Brazil , Retrospective Studies
12.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 497-503, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770116

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.


Os surtos de raiva em humanos transmitida por Desmodus rotundus em 2004 e 2005 no nordeste do estado do Pará, Brasil, Amazônia Oriental, fizeram desta uma área prioritária para estudos sobre essa zoonose. Diante disso, o presente estudo fornece dados sobre esse fenômeno em contexto urbano, afim de avaliar uma possível circulação do vírus clássico da raiva (RABV) entre espécies de morcegos em Capanema, cidade localizada na bacia Amazônica. Os morcegos foram coletados em 2011, com auxílio de redes de espera durante as estações seca e chuvosa. Amostras de encéfalo e de sangue foram coletadas para o diagnóstico virológico e sorológico, respectivamente. Das 153 amostras de encéfalo analisadas, nenhuma encontrou-se positiva para infecção pelo RABV, porém, 50,34% (95% CI: 45,67-55,01) das amostras de soro analisadas estavam soropositivas. Artibeus planirostris foi a espécie mais comum, e seu percentual de indivíduos soropositivos foi bem elevado (52.46%, 95% CI: 52,31-52,60). Porções estatisticamente iguais de soropositivos foram registrados nas estações (c2 = 0,057, d.f. = 1, p = 0,88). Uma porção significativamente elevada de machos (55,96%, 95% CI: 48,96%-62,96%), e adultos (52,37%, 95% CI: 47,35%-57,39%) foram soropositivos. Apesar de nenhuma das amostras de encéfalo terem sido positivas para raiva, a alta proporção de espécimes soropositivos indica uma possível circulação do RABV nessa área urbana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Rabies/veterinary , Urban Health , Brazil , Brain/virology , Chi-Square Distribution , Chiroptera/blood , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Disease Vectors , Rabies/blood , Rabies/diagnosis , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 709-715, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732986

ABSTRACT

Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2%) of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7%) had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs) that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125) had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125) were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies/veterinary , Chiroptera/classification , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 255-256, abr. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670410

ABSTRACT

Rabies is a neurotropic disease that is often lethal. The early diagnosis of rabies infection is important and requires methods that allow for the isolation of the virus from animals and humans. The present study compared a modified shell vial (MSV) procedure using 24-well tissue culture plates with the mouse inoculation test (MIT), which is considered the gold standard for rabies virus isolation. Thirty brain samples (25 positive and 5 negative by the fluorescent antibody test) obtained from different animal species at the National Institute of Hygiene Rafael Rangel in Caracas, Venezuela, were studied by the MIT and MSV assays. Nine samples (36%) were positive at 24 h, 10 (40%) were positive at 48 h and six (24%) were positive at 72 h by the MSV assay. With the MIT assay, 76% were positive at six days post inoculation and 12% were positive at 12 and 18 days post inoculation. One sample that was negative according to the MSV assay was positive with MIT on the 12th day. The MSV procedure exhibited a sensitivity of 96.2%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value 80%. This procedure allowed for rapid rabies virus detection. MIT can be employed as an alternative method in laboratories without tissue culture facilities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Rabies/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral , Chiroptera , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Goats , Rabies virus/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors , Tissue Culture Techniques
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(1): 94-96, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665780

ABSTRACT

Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/virology , Paralysis/virology , Rabies/complications , Fatal Outcome , Rabies/diagnosis
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 10(4)jul.-ago. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-646057

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A raiva humana é extremamente relevante do ponto de vista clínico e de saúde pública, por se tratar de moléstia fatal em aproximadamente 100,0% dos casos, embora haja relatos de cura após a instalação dos sinais e sintomas, um dos quais no Brasil, em 2008. O objetivo do presente estudo foi apresentar uma atualização sobre a raiva humana em seus aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e terapêuticos, destacando o Protocolo Recife, a fim de subsidiar médicos generalistas com informações úteis ao atendimento clínico de qualidade. CONTEÚDO: Após um período variável de incubação, iniciam-se os pródromos da doença (manifestações inespecíficas). A progressão da enfermidade é acompanhada de grave ansiedade, excitação e agitação psicomotora, evoluindo para manifestações relacionadas à disfunção do tronco cerebral. O tratamento é usualmente baseado nas medidas de apoio das complicações da infecção. CONCLUSÃO: A raiva humana permanece como significativo problema de saúde no Brasil, principalmente por ser uma doença - do ponto de vista clínico, diagnóstico e profilático - ainda pouco conhecida pelos médicos generalistas. Dessa forma, ações de educação continuada constituem um importante elemento para abordagem correta dos pacientes sob o risco de desenvolver a enfermidade.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human rabies is extremely important for the internal medicine and public health, becauseis a fatal disease in nearly 100% of cases, although there are some reports of healing after the installation of signs and symptoms, one of which in Brazil in 2008, resulting Recife Protocol for treatmentof disease. The aim of this study is to present an update on the human rabies in their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects, highlighting the Recife Protocol, in order to subsidize generalpractitioners with useful information for clinical care quality. CONTENTS: After a variable period of incubation, begins the prodroms disease (nonspecific). The disease progression is accompanied by severe anxiety, arousal, and psychomotor agitation, progressing to complications due to dysfunction of the brainstem. The treatment is usually based on measures of support from complications of the infection. CONCLUSION: Human rabies remains a significant health problem in Brazil, mainly because it is a disease - the clinicalpoint of view, diagnosis and prophylaxis - that still not wellknown by general practitioners. Thus, actions of continuing education are an important element to appropriate approach for the individuals at risk of developing the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/etiology , Rabies/pathology , Rabies/prevention & control
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140329

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Traditionally, rabies diagnosis is made by demonstration of rabies viral antigen by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and mouse inoculation test (MIT). The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in comparison with these conventional techniques for the diagnosis of rabies. Methods: Skin biopsies, corneal impression smears and saliva sample were collected ante-mortem and brain tissue and CSF were collected post-mortem from ten clinically suspected rabies patients. DIF, Seller staining, MIT and RT-PCR were performed on the patients’ samples for the diagnosis of rabies. The ability of RT-PCR to detect rabies virus earlier as compared to other assays was tested both for reference virus as well as clinical isolates. Results: All samples taken ante-mortem were negative for DIF test. Six of 10 post-mortem brain tissues of the clinically suspected patients were positive both by RT-PCR and MIT, of these six, five were positive by DIF test and four were positive by Seller stain. RT-PCR could detect the rabies virus earlier as compared to DIF, both from clinical isolates and fixed rabies virus. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed 100 per cent sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR as compared to 83.3 per cent of DIF and 66.7 per cent of Sellers stain for diagnosis of rabies. RT-PCR also detected rabies viral infection earlier as compared to conventional tests and can also be used on ante-mortem samples. Thus, the present study shows the usefulness of RT-PCR as an alternative to MIT for the confirmation of rabies diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rabies/diagnosis , Adult , Biopsy , Skin/pathology , Saliva , Diagnosis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL