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1.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 306-312, May.-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377317

ABSTRACT

Resume: Objetivo: Analizar la rectoría y los mecanismos de procuración de insumos en el contexto del Programa de Acción Específico de Prevención y Control de la Rabia Humana y la Semana Nacional de Vacunación Antirrábica canina y felina en México (SNVA-C). Material y métodos: La información se obtuvo mediante solicitudes al Instituto Nacional de Transparencia, Acceso a la Información y Protección de Datos Personales. Resultados: De 2009 a 2017 se aplicaron 158.9 millones de dosis de vacuna antirrábica canina y felina (VAR-CF) por un monto de compra aproximado de 1 915 MDP. Se documentó una débil rectoría que permite prácticas monopólicas y compras fragmentadas y directas. Las adquisiciones se han fincado con precios que varían entre entidades federativas y son significativamente más altos que los precios internacionales. Conclusión: Después de 30 años de operación de la SNVA-C en México, persisten pagos excesivos para la VAR-CF, los cuales son indicativos de una falla importante del mercado, caracterizada por nula competencia, información asimétrica y estructuras de incentivos desalineadas que impiden obtener un precio competitivo.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze decision-making concerning stewardship and procurement mechanisms in the context of the Program for Prevention and Control of Human Rabies and the National Canine and Feline Vaccination Week in Mexico. Materials and methods: The information was obtained through requests to the National Institute of Transparency, Access to Information and Protection of Personal Data. Results: From 2009 to 2017, 158.9 million doses of canine rabies vaccine (VAR-CF) were applied with an estimated budget of 1 915 million pesos. Our findings suggest weak stewardship and ineffective governance that allows monopolistic practices and fragmented and direct purchases. Prices for the same product vary discretionally between states and are significantly higher than those offered at international level. Conclusions: After 30 years of operation of the SNVA-C in Mexico, high prices of the VAR-CF persist, which are indicative of a significant market failure, characterized by zero competition, asymmetric information and misaligned incentive structures that precluded favorable price negotiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies Vaccines/economics , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Economic Competition , Mexico
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 814-822, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129484

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se conhecer o perfil epidemiológico do paciente que buscou atendimento antirrábico pós-exposição associado a acidentes com gatos domésticos, em Belo Horizonte/MG, no período de 2007 a 2016. Realizou-se uma análise exploratória das fichas de notificação do atendimento antirrábico humano do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificações (Sinan). Nos resultados, observou-se que 37,4% das pessoas eram adultas do gênero feminino, com idade entre 20 e 59 anos, 88,7% residentes em área urbana, 26,1% de etnia branca e apenas 31,7% dos pacientes buscaram atendimento antirrábico com até 24 horas da exposição ao vírus rábico. Lesões por mordedura ocorreram em 75,6% dos casos notificados. Quanto às características dos ferimentos, 59,6% foram superficiais, 62,2% ocorreram em mãos/pés e 50,1% foram lesões únicas. Na faixa etária de zero a 10 anos, as regiões anatômicas mãos/pés e cabeça/pescoço/face totalizaram 58,35%. Ressalta-se a necessidade de adoção de ações socioeducativas junto à população, devido ao risco de transmissão de raiva pelo gato, principalmente em áreas em que o vírus rábico circula em populações de morcegos. Sugerem-se melhorias no preenchimento das fichas de notificação do Sinan para melhor compreender o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes que buscam o atendimento antirrábico e, assim, tornar mais eficaz a gestão desse serviço público.(AU)


The objective of this study was to know the epidemiological profile of the patient who sought post-exposure anti-rabies treatment associated with accidents with domestic cats in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Brazil, from 2007 to 2016. An exploratory analysis of the reports on human rabies of the Notification of Injury Information System was performed. In the results, it was observed that 37.4% of the individuals were female adults aged 20-59 years, 88.7% were urban residents, 26.1% were white, and only 31.7% sought anti-rabies care within 24 hours of exposure to the rabies virus. Bite lesions occurred in 75.6%. Regarding the type of wound, 59.6% were superficial; as for the anatomical location, 62.2% occurred in hands / feet and 50.1% were single lesions. It is necessary to adopt socio-educational actions among the population, due to the risk of transmission of the rabies by the cat, especially in areas where the rabies virus circulates in bat populations. Improvements in the completion of the SINAN notification sheets are suggested to better understand the epidemiological profile of patients seeking anti-rabies treatment and thus improve the management of this public service.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies/epidemiology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Brazil/epidemiology
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 227-233, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135614

ABSTRACT

Our objective was the characterization and staging of histological lesions in different anatomical sites of the central nervous system (CNS) of rabid cattle. The severity of the lesions was compared with the clinical stages of the disease, the variants of viral isolates, and with the load of virus. Thirty-one spontaneously affected rabid cattle the state of Santa Catarina underwent clinical follow-up and were eventually necropsied. CNS tissues were sampled and submitted to direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT), immunohistochemistry (IHC), routine histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and polymerase chain reaction in quantitative reverse transcriptase in real time (qRT-PCR). Affected cattle were allotted in four groups according to their clinical stage when euthanized: G1, euthanized while standing; G2, euthanized when in sternal recumbence; G3, euthanized when in lateral recumbence; and G4, affected cattle with natural death. In order to evaluate the degree of severity of the lesions and the presence of Negri bodies (NBs), the brain was sectioned at 9 sites. Additionally, spinal cord and trigeminal ganglion sections were examined. The intensity of the lesions was graded as either absent, mild, moderate, or marked, and the presence or absence of the NBs was noted. Histological lesions were characterized by lymphocytic and monocytic meningoencephalitis with NBs in 28 cases. In all analyzed groups, intensities of histological lesions ranging from mild to severe were observed. Brain regions with the highest inflammatory lesion intensity were the medulla at the level of obex, followed by the colliculus and thalamus. NBs were observed in a higher percentage in the cerebellum, followed by medulla at the obex level, striatum complex, and frontal telencephalon. The duration of the clinical course of the disease did not influence the intensity of the inflammatory lesion, but it did influence the presence of NBs, with a higher percentage of these inclusions in cattle that died naturally than in euthanized cattle. All isolated rhabdovirus included in this study were genetically compatible with samples from hematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus. The evaluation by qRT-PCR did not demonstrate a correlation between lesion intensity and the amount of virus.(AU)


Nosso objetivo foi a caracterização e estadiamento de lesões histológicas em diferentes locais anatômicos do sistema nervoso central (SNC) de bovinos raivosos. A gravidade das lesões foi comparada com os estágios clínicos da doença, as variantes dos isolados virais e com a quantidade de vírus. Trinta e um bovinos do estado de Santa Catarina, afetados naturalmente por raiva, foram acompanhados clinicalmente e, ao final, necropsiados. Os tecidos do SNC foram amostrados e submetidos a imunofluorescência direta, imunohistoquímica, histopatologia de rotina, reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) e reação em cadeia da polimerase em transcriptase reversa quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR). Os bovinos afetados foram distribuídos em quatro grupos, de acordo com sua fase clínica: G1, eutanasiados quando ainda se mantinham em pé; G2, eutanasiados quando em decúbito esternal; G3, eutanasiados quando em decúbito lateral; e G4, bovinos afetados com morte natural. Para avaliar o grau de gravidade das lesões e a presença de corpúsculos de Negri (CNs), o cérebro foi seccionado em 9 locais. Além disso, seções da medula espinhal e do gânglio trigêmeo foram examinadas. A intensidade das lesões foi graduada como ausente, leve, moderada ou acentuada, e a presença ou ausência dos CNs foi anotada. Lesões histológicas foram caracterizadas por meningoencefalite linfocítica e monocítica com CNs em 28 casos. Em todos os grupos analisados foram observadas intensidades de lesões histológicas variando de leve a grave. As regiões cerebrais com maior intensidade de lesão inflamatória foram o bulbo no nível do obex, seguido do colículo e tálamo. CNs foram mais prevalentes no cerebelo, seguido pelo bulbo ao nível do óbex, corpo estriado e telencéfalo frontal. A duração do curso clínico da raiva não influenciou a intensidade da lesão inflamatória, mas influenciou a presença de CNs, com maior porcentagem dessas inclusões em bovinos que morreram naturalmente do que em bovinos sacrificados. Todos os isolados rabdovírus obtidos neste estudo eram geneticamente compatíveis com amostras provenientes de morcegos hematófagos Desmodus rotundus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rabies/genetics , Rabies/pathology , Rabies/veterinary , Cattle Diseases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Inclusion Bodies, Viral
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 460-468, July 2019. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040719

ABSTRACT

Rabies affects several domestic species, causing significant economic losses due to the death of animals in characteristic areas of the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. In this context, this work aimed to study the epidemiology of rabies outbreaks observed in cattle from January 2008 to December 2017, through its space and time distribution in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. We performed an observational and ecological retrospective through the analysis of data recorded in necropsy protocols performed in cattle at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (LRD-UFPel). A descriptive data analysis aimed at evaluating the distribution of cases over time. The statistical analysis was performed with Gretl statistical software 1.9.12 (GNU Regression, Econometric, and Time-series Library). To the existence of stationarity was verified with the Dickey-Fuller test, considering a value of p<0.05. From January 2008 to December 2017, 1418 bovine diagnostic materials were received at the LRD-UFPel, and 160 outbreaks of rabies were confirmed in 160 farms located in the 24 municipalities of the LRD-UFPel area of influence. We observed 591 cattle out of a total of 25,886 infected with the virus. We conclude that rabies does not exhibit seasonality in the study region, with a tendency to decrease in frequency in the next years. The disease has an epidemic characteristic in most of the analyzed months (2012-2014), remaining endemic in the remaining period (2011, 2015 and 2016) with sporadic episodes of epidemics in these years. We also observed that as the incidence of the disease increased in the animals and in the properties, there was a geographical spread of the virus for the majority (54.16%) of the municipalities in the area of influence of the LRD-UFPel.(AU)


A raiva afeta várias espécies domésticas, causando perdas econômicas significativas pela morte de animais em áreas bem características da região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia dos surtos de raiva observados em bovinos de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2017, por meio de sua distribuição no espaço e no tempo na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi realizado um estudo observacional e ecológico retrospectivo, por meio da análise de dados registrados nos protocolos de necropsias realizadas em bovinos no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD-UFPel). Foi feita análise descritiva dos dados para avaliar a distribuição dos casos ao longo do tempo. Para a análise temporal foi utilizado o software estatístico Gretl 1.9.12 (GNU Regression, Econometricand Time-series Library). Para verificar a existência da estacionariedade utilizou-se o teste de Dickey-Fuller aumentado, considerando um valor de p<0,05. No período de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2017, foram recebidos no LRD-UFPel 1418 materiais de bovinos para diagnóstico, sendo confirmados 160 surtos de raiva em 160 propriedades situadas nos 24 municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. O número de animais infectados pelo vírus foi de 591 bovinos de um total de 25.886. O presente estudo permitiu concluir que a raiva não tem sazonalidade na região do estudo, tendo tendência de queda na frequência nos próximos anos. A doença tem característica epidêmica na maioria dos meses analisados (2012-2014), mantendo-se endêmica no período restante (2011, 2015 e 2016) com episódios esporádicos de epidemias nestes anos. Observou-se ainda, que na medida em que aumentou a incidência da doença nos animais e nas propriedades, houve disseminação geográfica do vírus para a maioria (54,16%) dos municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Time Series Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 179-185, Mar. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1002802

ABSTRACT

Rabies is among the most common neurological disease in cattle in Brazil, causing significant economic losses. Data on the economic impact of rabies in livestock are available in several countries. However, in Brazil, these data focus mainly on the public health point o view, emphasizing the costs related to the prevention of rabies in humans, in dogs, or wildlife. Specific studies carried out in different regions of Brazil indicate critical economic losses caused by rabies in cattle in this country. However, the studies on the losses caused by the disease in cattle lack a detailed analysis of the affected rural properties based on data from official disease control agencies. The objective of this work was to evaluate the economic impact of bovine rabies, and its mitigation through antirabies vaccination in rural properties in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwestern Brazil.(AU)


A raiva é uma das doenças neurológicas mais comuns em bovinos no Brasil, causando perdas econômicas significativas. Dados sobre o impacto econômico da raiva em bovinos de vários países estão disponíveis. No entanto, no Brasil, esses dados enfocam principalmente o ponto de vista de saúde pública, enfatizando os custos relacionados à prevenção da raiva em humanos, em cães ou animais silvestres. Estudos pontuais realizados em diferentes regiões do Brasil indicam perdas econômicas importantes causadas pela raiva em bovinos no país. No entanto, os estudos sobre as perdas causadas pela doença em bovinos carecem de uma análise detalhada das propriedades rurais afetadas com base em dados das agências oficiais de controle de doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto econômico da raiva bovina e sua mitigação através da vacinação antirrábica em propriedades rurais de Mato Grosso do Sul, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Meat Industry
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180199, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041581

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Jirau hydroelectric power plant built in Rondônia state has environmental impacts that could be relevant to rabies outbreaks. METHODS: Bat populations were monitored for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing and simplified fluorescent inhibition microtesting between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS: All 1,183 bats tested negative for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 17.5% in 1,049 bats. CONCLUSIONS: The rabies antibody dosage was not reactive in samples collected before the environmental changes, and there was a progressive increase in subsequent collections that could indicate an increase in rabies virus circulation among bats and risk of a rabies outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/virology , Rabies virus/immunology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 566-569, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889146

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1 log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24 h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies virus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA Interference , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Rabies/virology , Rabies virus/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism
8.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 497-503, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770116

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.


Os surtos de raiva em humanos transmitida por Desmodus rotundus em 2004 e 2005 no nordeste do estado do Pará, Brasil, Amazônia Oriental, fizeram desta uma área prioritária para estudos sobre essa zoonose. Diante disso, o presente estudo fornece dados sobre esse fenômeno em contexto urbano, afim de avaliar uma possível circulação do vírus clássico da raiva (RABV) entre espécies de morcegos em Capanema, cidade localizada na bacia Amazônica. Os morcegos foram coletados em 2011, com auxílio de redes de espera durante as estações seca e chuvosa. Amostras de encéfalo e de sangue foram coletadas para o diagnóstico virológico e sorológico, respectivamente. Das 153 amostras de encéfalo analisadas, nenhuma encontrou-se positiva para infecção pelo RABV, porém, 50,34% (95% CI: 45,67-55,01) das amostras de soro analisadas estavam soropositivas. Artibeus planirostris foi a espécie mais comum, e seu percentual de indivíduos soropositivos foi bem elevado (52.46%, 95% CI: 52,31-52,60). Porções estatisticamente iguais de soropositivos foram registrados nas estações (c2 = 0,057, d.f. = 1, p = 0,88). Uma porção significativamente elevada de machos (55,96%, 95% CI: 48,96%-62,96%), e adultos (52,37%, 95% CI: 47,35%-57,39%) foram soropositivos. Apesar de nenhuma das amostras de encéfalo terem sido positivas para raiva, a alta proporção de espécimes soropositivos indica uma possível circulação do RABV nessa área urbana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Rabies/veterinary , Urban Health , Brazil , Brain/virology , Chi-Square Distribution , Chiroptera/blood , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Disease Vectors , Rabies/blood , Rabies/diagnosis , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 577-586, fev. 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742213

ABSTRACT

A raiva é uma antropozoonose caracterizada por encefalite viral aguda, com letalidade próxima de 100%, e que vem passando por uma transição epidemiológica na qual o ciclo envolvendo quirópteros vem crescendo em importância. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi analisar as ações de vigilância e controle da raiva desenvolvidas em municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram aplicados questionários a uma amostra representativa de gestores dos serviços de controle de zoonoses, proporcionalmente calculada em função das Regiões de Saúde, de acordo com o Plano Diretor de Regionalização do Estado. Os dados foram tabulados e trabalhados com técnicas de estatística descritiva. Com base nos resultados encontrados pode-se concluir que as ações de vigilância e controle da raiva estavam sendo desenvolvidas de maneira insatisfatória, principalmente nos itens monitoramento das colônias de morcegos hematófagos, vigilância da circulação viral, notificação e acompanhamento de animais suspeitos ou agressores, quantificação da população canina e controle populacional de cães não domiciliados. A vigilância e o controle da raiva estavam sendo negligenciados e não eram uma prioridade dos serviços de saúde dos municípios avaliados.


Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Rabies/transmission , Rabies/veterinary , Brazil , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 709-715, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732986

ABSTRACT

Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2%) of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7%) had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs) that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125) had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125) were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies/veterinary , Chiroptera/classification , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology
11.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 31(1): 88-93, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-705970

ABSTRACT

El Potos flavus es un mamífero nocturno que habita en bosques neotropicales desde Centroamérica hasta Sudamérica. Se realizó un estudio de cuatro casos de rabia en Potos flavus ocurridos desde abril de 2012 en el departamento de Madre de Dios en Perú, captados como parte de la vigilancia epidemiológica. Los análisis realizados en el laboratorio de referencia regional de Madre de Dios determinaron presencia de antígeno del virus de la rabia en tres de las muestras de tejido encefálico, dichos resultados fueron corroborados en el Laboratorio de Zoonosis Virales del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, la tipificación no identificó ninguna de las variantes conocidas en murciélagos o en perros. La ocurrencia de cuatro casos de rabia en Potos flavus suma evidencias de la emergencia de un nuevo reservorio del virus de la rabia y que ha sido reportada previamente en el mismo departamento el año 2007.


The Potos flavus is a nocturnal mammal that lives in neotropical forests from Central America to South America. A study of four cases of rabies in Potos flavus was conducted; these occurred in April 2012 in the Madre de Dios region in Peru and were collected as part of epidemiological surveillance. The analysis performed in the regional reference laboratory of Madre de Dios determined the presence of the rabies virus antigen in three of the brain tissue samples. Results were verified in the Laboratory of Viral Zoonoses of the Peruvian National Institute of Health by direct immunofluorescence. The typification did not identify any of the known variants in bats or dogs. The occurrence of four cases of rabies in Potos flavus adds evidence of the emergence of a new reservoir of the rabies virus previously reported in the same region in 2007.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Bites and Stings/microbiology , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Procyonidae , Rabies/veterinary , Epidemiological Monitoring , Peru , Rabies/epidemiology
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 251-253, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673205

ABSTRACT

We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01), but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Rural Population
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(11): 1121-1126, Nov. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658080

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação de duas estratégias para erradicação de focos da doença de Aujeszky (DA) em suínos criados comercialmente no estado de São Paulo. Foram identificados dois focos da enfermidade, no município de Cerqueira César, um apresentando somente animais sororreagentes (Foco 1) e outro, casos clínicos da doença (Foco 2). Foram avaliadas duas estratégias de erradicação, uma por eliminação dos sororreagentes e outra por despovoamento gradual, com acompanhamento durante 12 meses. A erradicação por eliminação dos sororreagentes foi aplicada no Foco 1 e compreendeu na identificação por exame sorológico, isolamento e abate dos positivos; vacinação dos negativos e reposição no plantel com animais provenientes de propriedade livre. No início dos trabalhos, 68% do plantel era positivo e ao final 51%. No Foco 2 utilizou-se o despovoamento gradual, onde todos os animais foram enviados ao abate sanitário, realizado vazio sanitário nas instalações, seguido pelo repovoamento com animais livres. Esta última estratégia, nas condições desse trabalho, mostrou-se a mais eficaz, pois erradicou a DA.


This study aimed to evaluate strategies for eradication of Aujeszky Disease (AD) virus infection after outbreaks in swine production systems in Sao Paulo state. Two outbreaks were identified in Cerqueira César county. The first outbreak coursed with seropositive pigs (outbreak 1), and the other with pigs presenting clinical signs (outbreak 2). In order to eradicate the infection, two sanitary strategies were tested: (1) eradication of animals with positive serology and (2) by gradual depopulation, with a follow up of 12 months. The serology eradication was used in outbreak 1, and included the identification, isolation and slaughter of positive animals; followed by vaccination of negative animals and replacement with pigs from farms free of the disease. At the beginning, 68% of pigs were positive, and at the end it declined to 51%. In outbreak 2, gradual depopulation was used, and all animals were sent to sanitary slaughter, until facilities were completely empty. Afterwards, animals free of the disease were used for repopulation. It was seen that the last strategy was more effective because eradicated the infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Eradication/methods , Rabies/veterinary , Serology , Swine , Sanitary Profiles , Vaccination/veterinary
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(4): 891-898, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-647690

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever e avaliar a mordedura canina e o atendimento antirrábico humano em Minas Gerais, de 1999 a 2004, correlacionando fontes de informação e áreas de risco predeterminadas para raiva humana transmitida por cão. Realizou-se um estudo observacional descritivo retrospectivo, utilizando-se, de forma adaptada, a análise exploratória de prontuários dos atendimentos da Superintendência de Epidemiologia da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de Minas Gerais (339.012 de atendimentos), do Sistema de Informação de Notificação de Agravos, do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares e do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (132.452 fichas). Para a classificação dos agravos, usou-se o Código Internacional de Doenças (10ª revisão). Os dados foram armazenados e analisados com auxílio dos softwares Epi-Info, Tab-Win e Office®. Verificou-se que o tratamento antirrábico humano é excessivo nas áreas de baixo e médio risco para raiva e, ao contrário, reduzido nas áreas de alto risco. O perfil do paciente é estudante masculino, menor de 14 anos, residente em área urbana de baixo risco para raiva humana transmitida por cão, com mordedura única nos membros, provocada por cão sadio e observável. Os sistemas de informação não oferecem a confiabilidade necessária ao médico responsável para a prescrição do tratamento antirrábico adequado. A profilaxia da raiva deve ter um aspecto multicêntrico, com interfaces na atenção tanto à saúde humana quanto à animal, o que não tem ocorrido, propiciando falhas na vigilância e no atendimento do agravo.


The objective of the present paper is describe and evaluate dog bite and some aspects of anti-rabid human care in Minas Gerais during five years, correlating the sources of information and epidemiological risk areas defined for human rabies transmitted by dogs in the State. We performed an observational retrospective study by adapted exploration form analysis, from 1999 to 2004, using databases of Epidemiology of Minas Gerais and National Information Systems of reportable disease, Immunization, Mortality, Hospitalization, International Code of Diseases (10th revision). The areas of risk for human rabies transmitted by dogs were pre determined. The dog bite is still the main complaint that leads to care. The profile of the patient is a male student, under 14 years of age, with a single wound in members, resident in an urban low risk area for human rabies transmitted by dogs, and is healthy and observable. The treatment is excessive in areas of low and medium risk. In high-risk areas, there is a low indication of treatment. Information systems do not offer the reliability required by the doctor responsible for prescribing the appropriate anti-rabies treatment. Rabies prophylaxis should have a multi-centre aspect, with interfaces in attention to health and veterinary, which has not occurred, providing surveillance failures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rabies/immunology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 31(4): 474-484, dic. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-635468

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El departamento del Valle del Cauca ha estado libre de rabia canina por más de 20 años, aunque persisten focos de rabia silvestre que amenazan a humanos y sus mascotas; por ello, como medida preventiva. se realizan anualmente campañas de vacunación antirrábica canina. Objetivos. Medir el impacto de la vacunación en términos de seroconversión de anticuerpos neutralizadores y de porcentaje de perros con respuesta inmunitaria humoral adecuada, relacionando variables propias de estos animales y de las condiciones de vacunación. Discutir el significado epidemiológico de los resultados y sus implicaciones en salud pública. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvo suero e información de 569 perros vacunados en los 42 municipios de Valle del Cauca. La inmunidad humoral se investigó por ELISA cuantitativa. La información se analizó con el programa Epi-Info 6.0. Resultados. El 9,1 % de los perros de la muestra fueron seronegativos y el 25,1 % no evidenciaron respuesta inmunitaria humoral adecuada a la vacunación. La concentración de anticuerpos disminuyó gradualmente desde la aplicación de la vacuna, y estuvo asociada a edad y calidad de las vacunas, aunque no estuvo asociada a sexo ni a raza. Conclusiones. Con el fin de aumentar los porcentajes de perros seropositivos y con respuesta inmunitaria humoral adecuada, se hacen las siguientes recomendaciones: 1) utilizar vacunas antirrábicas viables;2) aplicar dos dosis de vacuna durante los primeros seis meses de vida de los cachorros; 3) aplicar refuerzos de vacuna, por lo menos, una vez al año; 4) que las autoridades vigilen las actividades y los procesos programáticos relacionados con la vacunación antirrábica por particulares.


Introduction. The province of Valle del Cauca has been free of dog rabies for more than 20 years. However, sylvatic rabies foci remain which are threats to the health of the populace and its pets. Rabies vaccination campaigns are carried out annually in all 42 counties of the province. Objectives. The impact of dog vaccination was evaluated on the basis of humoral immunoresponse, population parameters and correlation with variables inherent to the vaccination process and logistics. Materials and methods. Sera and associated data were obtained from each of the 42 counties for a total sample of 569 rabies-vaccinated dogs. Rabies neutralizing antibodies were measured by quantitative ELISA. The data were analyzed with the statistical programs in Epi-Info 6.0. Results. Nearly 10% of dogs were seronegative (9.1%) and an additional 25.1% did not elicit an adequate humoral immune response to vaccination. Concentration of rabies neutralizing antibodies diminished gradually with the time after vaccination and was correlated with dog age and vaccine quality. No associations were noted between dog gender or breed. Conclusions. These data permit the following recommendations: (1) only viable, non expired rabies vaccines must be used to immunize animals, (2) two doses of rabies vaccine must be applied during the first six months of dog life, (3) booster immunizations must be administered every year, (4) practices and processes related to rabies vaccination in private institutions must inspected regularly by health authorities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , Rabies/veterinary , Antibodies/blood , Colombia , Dog Diseases/blood , Rabies/immunology , Rabies/prevention & control
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(4): 805-813, ago. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-599597

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de uma combinação homeopática sobre a contagem de células somáticas do leite (CCS), o teor sanguíneo de cortisol e a resposta de anticorpos neutralizantes antivírus da raiva de vacas leiteiras. Trinta e duas vacas Holandesas em lactação foram blocadas em pares e aleatoriamente alocadas a um de dois tratamentos por 63 dias, posterior a um período de padronização de 14 dias. A CCS mensurada no final da padronização ajustou os valores semanais de CCS no modelo de análise estatística. Os tratamentos foram: 150 gramas de uma combinação homeopática (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60; Streptococus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30; Silicea Terra, 10-400) em veículo mineral, ou 150 gramas do mesmo veículo mineral (controle). A homeopatia tendeu a aumentar a CCS de 124 para 222 x1.000 células mL-1 (P=0,09) e a CCS linearizada (P=0,08). Não foram detectados efeitos de tratamento sobre a concentração sérica de cortisol após estresse induzido por aspiração percutânea do saco ventral do rúmen (P=0,59) ou sobre o título de anticorpos neutralizantes em resposta à vacinação antivírus da raiva (P=0,40). A suplementação com homeopatia tendeu a aumentar a CCS de vacas com baixa CCS.


The effect of supplementing a homeopathic combination on milk somatic cell count (SCC), blood cortisol content and the antibody response to rabies vaccination of dairy cows was evaluated. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were paired blocked and randomly assigned to one of two treatments for 63 days, following a 14-day standardization period. The SCC measured at the end of standardization period adjusted weekly SCC values in the statistical analysis model. Treatments were: 150 grams of a homeopathic combination (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococcus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60, Streptococcus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30, Silicea Terra, 10-400) in mineral vehicle, or 150 grams of the same mineral vehicle (Control). Homeopathy tended to increase SCC from 124 to 222 x1,000 cells mL-1 (P=0.09) and linear SCC (P=0.08). There were no detectable treatment effects upon serum cortisol concentration following stress induced by percutaneous aspiration of the ventral rumen (P=0.59) and upon serum antibody title in response to rabies vaccination (P=0.40). The supplementation with homeopathy tented to increase the SCC of low SCC cows.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Cattle/growth & development , Cell Count , Hybrid Cells/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/blood , Homeopathy/veterinary , Rabies/veterinary , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Mastitis, Bovine
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(3): 223-228, jun. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597591

ABSTRACT

In Chile, in 1985 rabies was detected in insectivorous bats. Since then the epidemiological surveillance activities was extended to these species and the epidemiological pattern was characterized as endemic in bats. In this study we analyzed positive rabies cases in the Metropolitan Region between 2000 and 2009. We identified 325 cases of rabies in 11.472 analyzed samples. We determined an increase of positivity cases in bats between the years of the study. Places with the highest number of positives cases were Las Condes, Santiago, Providencia, Puente Alto and Ñuñoa. In 147 cases we identify the circumstances in which the bat was found: 89 inside, 45 outside the building and 13 in public spaces. In 39 cases there was contact with humans or animals. These results reinforce the relevance of educating the population against the contact with bats and allow health authorities to take early surveillance and control measures.


En Chile, en 1985, se detectó por primera vez rabia en murciélagos insectívoros. Desde entonces, las acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica se ampliaron hacia estas especies, caracterizándose el patrón epidemiológico como una endemia en quirópteros. En este estudio se analizaron epidemiológicamente los casos positivos a rabia en la Región Metropolitana, entre los años 2000 y 2009. Se identificaron 325 casos de rabia en murciélagos de un total de 11.472 analizados. Se determinó un aumento de positividad en los murciélagos entre los años analizados. Las comunas con mayor número de positivos fueron Las Condes, Santiago, Providencia, Puente Alto y Ñuñoa. En 147 casos se señalan las circunstancias en que se encontró el murciélago: 89 al interior, 45 al exterior del inmueble y 13 en la vía pública. En 39 casos hubo contacto con personas o animales. Estos resultados reafirman la importancia de la educación de la población frente al contacto con murciélagos y permiten a las autoridades sanitarias tomar las medidas de vigilancia y control en forma oportuna.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Rabies/veterinary , Chile/epidemiology , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/transmission , Urban Population
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(2): 140-145, Mar.-Apr. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586113

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world. METHODS: From 1988 to 2003, the Zoonosis Control Center in São Paulo City performed rabies diagnosis on 5,670 bats by direct immunofluorescent test and mouse inoculation test. Blood samples were collected from 1,618 bats and the sera were analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to confirm rabies antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-four (0.8 percent) bats were positive for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 5.9 percent using 0.5IU/ml as a cutoff. Insectivorous bats (69.8 percent) and bats of the species Molossus molossus (51.8 percent) constituted the majority of the sample; however, the highest prevalence of antibodies were observed in Glossophaga soricina (14/133), Histiotus velatus (16/60), Desmodus rotundus (8/66), Artibeus lituratus (5/54), Nyctinomops macrotis (3/23), Tadarida brasiliensis (3/48), Carollia perspicillata (3/9), Eumops auripendulus (2/30), Nyctinomops laticaudatus (2/16), Sturnira lilium (2/17) and Eumops perotis (1/13). The prevalence of rabies antibodies was analyzed by species, food preference and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive levels of antibodies associated with the low virus positivity verified in these bats indicate that rabies virus circulates actively among them.


INTRODUÇÃO: Morcegos são um dos mais importantes reservatórios e vetores do vírus da raiva no mundo. MÉTODOS: No período entre 1998 e 2003, o Centro de Controle de Zoonoses da Cidade de São Paulo realizou o diagnóstico de raiva em 5.670 morcegos utilizando as técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. Sangue foi coletado de 1.618 espécimes para pesquisa de anticorpos pela técnica de inibição de foco de fluorescência rápida. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e quatro (0,8 por cento) morcegos foram positivos para raiva. A prevalência de anticorpos foi de 5,9 por cento usando 0,5UI/ml como ponto de corte. Os morcegos de hábito alimentar insetívoro (69,8 por cento) e os morcegos da espécie Molossus molossus (51,8 por cento) representaram a maioria da amostra. Entretanto, as mais altas prevalências de anticorpos foram observadas nos morcegos Glossophaga soricina (14/133), Histiotus velatus (16/60), Desmodus rotundus (8/66), Artibeus lituratus (5/54), Nyctinomops macrotis (3/23), Tadarida brasiliensis (3/48), Carollia perspicillata (3/9), Eumops auripendulus (2/30), Nyctinomops laticaudatus (2/16), Sturnira lilium (2/17) e Eumops perotis (1/13). A prevalência de anticorpos foi analisada por espécie, hábito alimentar e sexo. CONCLUSÕES: O expressivo nível de anticorpos associado à baixa positividade para o vírus da raiva entre os morcegos estudados indica que o vírus circula ativamente entre morcegos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Disease Reservoirs , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Prevalence , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(2): 146-149, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586115

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the first report of rabies in three bat species, Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus and Myotis riparius in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Bats were diagnosed as positive for rabies using the fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. The isolates were characterized antigenically using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies. The samples were also genetically analyzed by partial sequencing of the portion of nucleoprotein gene between positions 1157 and 1445nt. RESULTS: Analysis of the results verified that the sample isolated from the species M. molossus presented antigenic variant 6, while the other two samples showed a different profile from that established in the panel, one not previously reported in the literature. The results of genetic analysis revealed that the M. molossus sample segregated with Lasiurus sp. isolates, M. neglectus segregated with a subgroup of Eptesicus furinalis isolates and the Myotis riparius sample segregated with Myotis sp. isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The cases reported in this paper emphasize the need for clarification of the circumstances in which cases of rabies in wildlife occur, principally in urban areas.


INTRODUÇÃO: Esse trabalho apresenta o primeiro registro de raiva em três espécies de morcegos: Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus e Myotis riparius na Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os morcegos foram diagnosticados como positivos para raiva usando as técnicas padrão de imunofluorescência direta e o teste de inoculação em camundongo. Os isolados foram caracterizados antigenicamente usando um painel de oito anticorpos monoclonais (CDC/Atlanta/USA). As amostras também foram analisadas geneticamente por sequenciamento parcial do gene da nucleoproteína entre as posições 1157 e 1445nt. RESULTADOS: O resultado das análises mostrou que as amostras isoladas da espécie M. molossus apresentou variante antigênica 6, enquanto as outras duas amostras mostraram um perfil diferente daquele estabelecido no painel e ainda não registrado em literatura. Os resultados da analise genética revelaram que a amostra de M. molossus segrega com isolados de Lasiurus sp., M. neglectus segrega com o isolado do subgrupo de Eptesicus furinalis e uma amostra de M. riparius segrega com isolados de Myotis sp. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos relatados neste estudo enfatizam a necessidade do esclarecimento da ocorrência de casos de raiva em morcegos, principalmente em áreas urbanas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Chiroptera/virology , Rabies virus/genetics , Rabies/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/epidemiology , Urban Population
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(2): 279-286, abr. 2011. ilus, graf, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-591116

ABSTRACT

Descreveu-se a influência do relevo, da precipitação, da temperatura e da sazonalidade na distribuição espacial da raiva bovina. Para a realização dessa análise, foi construído um banco geográfico de dados que possibilitou a geração de uma função kernel, com base no somatório anual dos diagnósticos de raiva laboratorialmente positivos entre 1992 e 2003, bem como a verificação da sua relação com as demais variáveis. Constatou-se que a região com relevo montanhoso, maiores índices pluviométricos e temperatura mais amena do planalto atlântico e da província costeira correspondeu às áreas com maior densidade da função, contrapondo-se à região do planalto ocidental com menores índices pluviométricos e áreas mais quentes. Não se observou, no estado, relação entre sazonalidade e raiva bovina no período estudado. A região plana da depressão periférica e o eixo de conurbação São Paulo-Campinas são óbices que dividem, respectivamente, a enfermidade entre as regiões leste-oeste e leste-sul do estado.


The influences of relief, precipitation, temperature, and seasonally was evaluated on the cattle rabies spatial distribution in the State of São Paulo. In that way, a Geographic Data Bank was developed in order to create a kernel function with the cases of cattle rabies from 1992 to 2003 and its relation with other variables. Results showed that the rainy hilly areas with low temperature in the "Planalto Atlântico" and "Província Costeira" were linked to areas with the higher density of the function in opposite to the plane areas of the "Planalto Ocidental" with low rainy index and high temperatures. There were no relations between seasonality and cattle rabies in the State of São Paulo. The flat region of the "Depressão Periférica" and urban area between São Paulo and Campinas are barriers that determine the disease occurrence in East-West and East-South regions of the State.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle/virology , Rabies/veterinary , Climate , Epidemiology
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