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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
2.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 34-43, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344612

ABSTRACT

Pain located in the lateral aspect of the elbow is a common cause of consultation in the trauma consultation. The most common cause is "lateral epicondylitis," however there are several differential diagnoses that may require different management. There is a case of radial tunnel syndrome secondary to extrinsic compression, with an emphasis on its diagnosis and surgical technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/diagnosis , Radial Neuropathy/surgery , Radial Neuropathy/diagnosis , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Radial Nerve , Synovial Cyst/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Combined Modality Therapy , Elbow , Elbow Joint , Pain Management , Injections, Intra-Articular , Neurologic Examination/methods
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 853-856, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124865

ABSTRACT

La arteria recurrente radial nace en el extremo proximal de la arteria radial y desde ahí asciende oblicuamente para anastomosarse con la arteria colateral radial, entregando en ese trayecto una serie de ramas para los músculos cercanos. Dicha arteria junto con sus ramas fueron descritas (por su importancia en abordajes quirúrgicos) por Arnold K. Henry como "the radial leash". Actualmente en clínica se utiliza el nombre "leash of Henry" para referirse a una o más ramas musculares de la arteria recurrente radial, sobretodo cuando cuando se encuentran en relación con el ramo profundo del nervio radial, pudiendo llegar a causar compresiones de dicho nervio en algunos casos. Se realizó una descripción de caso de una leash of Henry atípica, encontrada en una muestra cadavérica del laboratorio de anatomía de la Universidad Católica del Maule, de sexo masculino y nacionalidad chilena. La arteria encontrada corresponde a la rama de mayor calibre de la arteria recurrente radial, que se dirige directamente al músculo extensor de los dedos, dibujando un trayecto horizontal y cruzando por anterior al ramo profundo del nervio radial. Esta hallazgo difere a lo descrito por Henry y otros autores más recientes, y por lo tanto aporta información potencialmente útil a la hora de realizar procedimientos quirúrgicos que requieran un abordaje posterior o lateral de la cabeza del radio, como también descompresiones del nervio radial en esta zona.


The radial recurrent artery originates at the proximal end of the radial artery and from there ascends obliquely to anastomosing with the radial collateral artery. It gives off several branches for nearby muscles on its path. This artery along with its branches were described (due to its importance in surgical approaches) by Arnold K. Henry as "the radial leash". Currently, in clinical terms, the name "Leash of Henry" is used to refer to one or more muscular branches of the radial recurrent artery, especially when they are in relation to the deep branch of the radial nerve, and may cause compression of the nerve in some cases. A case description of an atypical Leash of Henry was found, found in a Chilean, male cadaveric sample of the anatomy laboratory, Universidad Católica del Maule. The artery corresponds to the branch of greater caliber of the recurrent radial artery, which goes directly to the extensor digitorum muscle. It draws a horizontal path and crosses the deep branch of the radial nerve anteriorly. This finding differs from what was described by Henry and other more recent authors. Therefore, this is potentially useful information when performing surgical procedures that require a posterior or lateral approach to the radius head, as well as radial nerve decompressions in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Radial Artery/anatomy & histology , Elbow/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Elbow/innervation , Elbow/blood supply , Anatomic Variation
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020153, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131804

ABSTRACT

Compressive syndromes of peripheral nerves both in the upper and lower limbs are part of daily clinical practice; however, the etiological diagnosis can be challenging and impact on the outcome of the patient. We report five cases with rare etiologies of nerve entrapments: one in the lower limb and four in the upper limbs with the final diagnosis made only during the operation. The patients evolved without post-operative complications and had good outcomes. This series includes the first report of sciatic compression by a lipoma in the popliteal fossa, two lipomas one with compression of infraclavicular brachial plexus and another with compressing the posterior interosseous nerve, and two reports of vascular lesions due to blunt traumas, which are also uncommon. This series adds to the literature more hypotheses of differential diagnoses in nerve entrapments, which is fundamental to surgical decisions and pre-operative planning—and perhaps most importantly prevents wrong diagnosis of idiopathic compressions, which would lead to a completely wrong approach and unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sciatic Neuropathy/diagnosis , Nerve Compression Syndromes/diagnosis , Radial Nerve , Ulnar Nerve , Aneurysm , Lipoma
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 513-517, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056470

ABSTRACT

El nervio para el músculo braquiorradial (BR) ha sido utilizado en transferencias nerviosas para recuperaciones en funciones de la mano como consecuencias de lesiones que afectan el plexo braquial. Con el propósito de investigar el número y localización biométrica de los ramos primarios provenientes del nervio radial y puntos motores respecto un punto de referencia ubicado en la región del codo, se estudiaron 30 miembros superiores de individuos adultos brasileños, de la Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. Las muestras se encontraban fijadas en solución de formaldehído al 10 %, de los cuales 15 miembros eran derechos y 15 izquierdos. Como punto de referencia se utilizó una línea que pasó a través de las partes más prominentes de los epicóndilos humerales, línea bi-epicondilea (LBE). Con respecto al origen nervioso para el músculo BR, todos los ramos se originaron a partir del nervio radial (NR). El promedio de la cantidad de Ramos Primarios (RP) fue de 1,53 (DS 0,73). En 18 muestras (60 %) se observó sólo un RP; en 8 casos (26,7 %) se encontraron 2 RP, mientras que en 4 casos (13,3 %) de la muestra se observaron 3 RP. Sobre la localización biométrica de los orígenes de los RP, es importante mencionar que todos se ubicaron proximal a la LBE. En promedio, estos se ubicaron a 38 mm (DS 0,9); 29 mm (DS 1,2) y 22 mm (DS 1,0) para el primer, segundo y tercer RP, respectivamente. En relación a los puntos motores (PM), en 4 casos (13 %) se observó 1 PM dado por la penetración directa de un ramo primario, en 13 casos (43 %) existieron 2 PM, en 8 casos (27 %) se encontraron 3 PM y en 5 casos (17 %) se observaron 4 PM. En tres casos (10 %) la inervación hacia el músculo BR emitió filetes nerviosos hacia el músculo extensor radial largo del carpo. Los resultados expuestos en esta investigación son un importante aporte para bloqueos nerviosos, estimulaciones eléctricas y transferencias nerviosas.


The nerve for the brachioradialis muscle (BR) has been used in nerve transfers for recoveries in functions of the hand as a consequence of lesions affecting the brachial plexus. With the purpose of investigating the number and biometric location of the primary branches coming from the radial nerve and motor points with respect to a reference point located in the elbow region, thirty upper limbs of Brazilian adult individuals from the State University of Sciences of Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil were used. The samples were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde solution, of which 15 were right and 15 left. As a reference point, a line was used that passed through the most prominent parts of the humeral epicondyls, bi-epicondilar line (BEL). With respect to the nervous origin for the BR muscle, all the branches originated from the radial nerve (RN). The average number of primary branches (PB) was 1.53 (SD 0.73). In 18 samples (60 %) only one PB was observed; in 8 cases (26.7 %) 2 PB were found, while in 4 cases (13.3 %) of the sample 3 PB were observed. Regarding the biometric location of the origins of PB, it is important to mention that all were located proximal to the BEL. On average, these were located at 38 mm (SD 0.9); 29 mm (DS 1.2) and 22 mm (DS 1.0) for the first, second and third PB, respectively. In relation to the motor points (MP), in 4 cases (13 %) 1 MP was observed as direct penetration of the PB, in 13 cases (43 %) there were 2 MP, in 8 cases (27 %) they found 3 MP and in 5 cases (17 %) 4 MP were observed. In three cases (10 %) the innervation towards the BR muscle emitted nerve fillets towards the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle. The results presented in this investigation are an important contribution to nerve blocks, electrical stimulations and nerve transfers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Elbow/innervation , Brazil , Cadaver
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092685

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The purpose of the present study was to analyze the structures in the radial tunnel that can cause posterior interosseous nerve entrapment. Methods A total of 30 members of 15 adult cadavers prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% solution of glycerol and formalin were dissected. All were male, belonging to the laboratory of anatomy of this institution. Results The branch for the supinator muscle originated from the posterior interosseous nerve in all limbs. We identified the Frohse arcade with a well-developed fibrous constitution in 22 of the 30 dissected limbs (73%) and of muscular constitution in 8 (27%). The distal margin of the supinator muscle presented fibrous consistency in 7 of the 30 limbs (23.5%) and muscular appearance in 23 (76.5%). In the proximal margin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, we identified the fibrous arch in 18 limbs (60%); in 9 (30%) we noticed the arcade of muscular constitution; in 3 (10%) there was only the radial insertion, so that it did not form the arcade. Conclusion The Frohse arcade and the arcade formed by the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis are normal anatomical structures in adult cadavers. However, from the clinical point of view, these structures have the potential to cause entrapment of the posterior interosseous nerve.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as estruturas contidas no túnel radial que podem causar neuropatia compressiva do nervo interósseo posterior. Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Todos do sexo masculino, pertencentes ao laboratório de anatomia desta instituição. Resultados O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do nervo interósseo posterior em todos os membros. Identificamos a arcada de Frohse com uma constituição fibrosa bem desenvolvida em 22 dos 30 membros dissecados (73%) e de constituição muscular em 8 (23%) A margem distal do músculo supinador apresentou consistência fibrosa em 7 dos 30 membros (23,5%) e uma aparência muscular em 23 (76,5%). Na margem proximal do músculo extensor radial curto do carpo, identificamos a arcada fibrosa em 18 membros (60%); em 9 (30%), notamos a arcada de constituição muscular; e em três (10%) havia apenas a inserção radial, de maneira que não formava a arcada. Conclusão A arcada de Frohse e a arcada formada pelas origens do músculo extensor radial curto do carpo são estruturas anatômicas normais em cadáveres adultos. No entanto, sob o ponto de vista clínico, essas estruturas têm potencial para causar a compressão do nervo interósseo posterior.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Cadaver , Radial Neuropathy , Anatomy , Nerve Compression Syndromes
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1280-1285, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040125

ABSTRACT

Knowing the anatomical, topographic and morphometric properties of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) in the forearm and the dorsum of the hand is important for minimizing nerve damage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical and morphometric properties of SBRN in foetuses. Forty forearms of twenty-one foetuses (n=21) were dissected. The anatomical variations of SBRN in the dorsal forearm were assessed in three types (Type-1, Type-2 and Type-3). The innervation areas in dorsum of hand were assessed in four types (Type-1, Type-2, Type-3 and Type-4). The forearm length was divided to three part and emerging point of SBRN was determined as topographically. The relation of the SBRN with lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN), anatomic snuffbox and cephalic vein was also evaluated. In forearm, Type-1 variation rate of SBRN was 87.5 %. In the dorsum of hand, Type-3 innervation pattern was 32.5 %. The emerging rate of SBRN in the middle third of the forearm was 74.4 %. There were nerve branches between LACN and SBRN or its terminal branches in 32.5 % of the forearms. The branches of SBRN passed within the margins of anatomic snuffbox in 50 % of the forearms. The most frequently branching type of SBRN was Type-1 in the forearm and Type-3 in the dorsum of hand in foetuses. These results may aid to minimize nerve injuries performed in clinical applications.


Conocer las propiedades anatómicas, topográficas y morfométricas del ramo superficial del nervio radial (RSNR) en el antebrazo y el dorso de la mano es importante para minimizar el daño a los nervios. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades anatómicas y morfométricas de RSNR en fetos. Fueron disecados 40 antebrazos de veintiún fetos. Las variaciones anatómicas de RSNR en el dorso del antebrazo se clasificaron en tres tipos (Tipo-1, Tipo-2 y Tipo-3). Las áreas de inervación en el dorso de la mano se evaluaron en cuatro tipos (Tipo 1, Tipo 2, Tipo 3 y Tipo 4). La longitud del antebrazo se dividió en tres partes y el punto emergente de RSNR se determinó topográficamente. Se evaluó la relación del RSRN con el nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral (NCAL), la tabaquera anatómica y la vena cefálica. En el antebrazo, la tasa de variación de Tipo 1 de RSNR fue de 87,5 %. En el dorso de la mano, el patrón de inervación tipo 3 fue del 32,5 %. La emergencia del RSNR en el tercio medio del antebrazo fue de 74,4 %. En el 32,5 % de los antebrazos se observaron ramos nerviosos entre NCAL y RSNR. Los ramos de RSNR pasaron dentro de los límites de la tabaquera anatómica en 50 % de los antebrazos. El tipo de RSNS con ramificación más frecuente fue el Tipo 1 en el antebrazo y el Tipo 3 en el dorso de la mano en los fetos. Conocer las variaciones anatómicas de RSNS puede ayudar a minimizar las lesiones nerviosas durante los procedimientos clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Fetus/innervation , Forearm/innervation , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 423-427, June 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002238

ABSTRACT

El músculo extensor radial largo del carpo (MERLC) es un músculo localizado en el compartimiento posterior (extensor-supinador) del antebrazo y tiene gran importancia en el cierre del puño. Hay pocos estudios biométricos con respecto al punto de origen de sus ramos de inervación, así como sobre la distribución de los mismos. Basado en lo anterior, se estudiaron 30 miembros superiores, formolizados, de individuos adultos Brasileños, de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. Luego de localizar el nervio, se midió la distancia entre el origen del ramo primario y el de los puntos motores respecto a la línea biepicondílea (LBE), los cuales fueron visualizados y disecados utilizando una lupa. El nervio en cuestión, se observó a nivel del brazo o proximal a LBE en 28 casos (93 %) y los 2 restantes a nivel de esta línea (7 %). Los ramos para el ERLC se originaron a partir del nervio radial, observando un ramo primario en 20 miembros (80 %), y en los restantes 10 (20 %) se observaron 2 ramos primarios, promediando 1,3 ramos (DS 0,5). El origen más proximal del primer ramo primario (RP) independiente de que si existían 1 o 2 fue en promedio 3 cm (DS 1,0) proximal a LBE. El PM más distal, se ubicó distal a LBE en 24 casos con un promedio de 1,9 cm (DS 1,0); localización a nivel de LBE en 3 casos. Sólo en 3 casos el PM más distal se encontró proximal a LBE, en un promedio de 0,8 cm (DS 0,5). La distribución de puntos motores fue variable, ya que muchas veces los RP se bifurcaban en ramos secundarios y éstos, a su vez se dividían hasta 6 veces en ramos terciarios que penetraban en el músculo. El conocimiento biométrico del origen del nervio del MERLC, así como su distribución, es un aporte importante al área anátomo-quirúrgica, así como, su utilización en bloqueos nerviosos, transferencias nerviosas y zonas de ubicación de electrodos con propósitos de estimulación eléctrica en pacientes que necesiten rehabilitar la acción de musculatura extensora radial lesionada.


The extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRLm) is located in the posterior compartment (extensorsupinator) of the forearm and has great importance in the closure of the hand. There are few biometric studies with respect to the point of origin of their branches of innervation, as well as on the distribution of them. For this study, 30 upper limbs, formalized, of Brazilian adult individuals were used, from the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil. After locating the nerve, we measured the distance between the origin of the primary branch and that of the motor points with respect to biepicondilar line (BEl), which were visualized and dissected using a magnifying glass. The nerve in question was observed at the level of the arm or proximal to BEl in 28 cases (93 %) and the remaining 2 at the level of this line (7 %). The branches for the ECRLm originated from the radial nerve, observing a primary branch in 20 limbs (80 %), and in the remaining 10 (20 %) two primary branches were observed, averaging 1.3 branches (SD 0.5). The most proximal origin of the first primary branch (PB) independent of whether there was 1 or 2 was on average 3 cm (SD 1.0) proximal to BEl. The most distal MP was distal to BEl in 24 cases with an average of 1.9 cm (SD 1.0); location at the BEl level in 3 cases. Only in 3 cases was the most distal MP found proximal to BEl, an average of 0.8 cm (SD 0.5). The distribution of motor points was variable, since many times the PB bifurcated into secondary branches and these, in turn, could divide up to 6 times in tertiary branches that penetrated in the muscle. The biometric knowledge of the origin of the nerve of the ECRLm, as well as its distribution, is an important contribution to the anatomo-surgical area, as well as its use in nerve blocks, nerve transfers and electrode placement areas for purposes of electrical stimulation in patients they need to rehabilitate the action of injured radial extensor musculature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Wrist/innervation , Brazil , Cadaver
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786660

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze an injury scene during fly fish boat riding (FBR).METHODS: We conducted survey on 12 patients who had humerus shaft fractures during FBR between 2011 and 2016 at three university-based emergency rooms. Individual information, injury mechanism, classification of humerus shaft fracture, and combined injury were recorded from medical document and telephone interview.RESULTS: The injury happened when the kite was turned over and fall into the water in 10 patients (82%); the kite was turned over in the air in one patient (9%), and a leash between kite and boat was broken in one patient (9%). All patients showed 12-B1 or 12-B3 type distal humerus shaft fracture. And there were combined contralateral distal humeral shaft fractures in two patients, vertebral compression fracture in one patient, and radial nerve injury in four patients.CONCLUSION: Riding position and injury mechanism such as turning over may affect distal humerus shaft fractures with butterfly fragment during FBR.


Subject(s)
Butterflies , Classification , Diptera , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Humeral Fractures , Humerus , Interviews as Topic , Radial Nerve , Ships , Water
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 379-384, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990055

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El músculo tríceps braquial, es el motor primario para el movimiento de extensión de codo, por lo que una lesión que afecte su función perjudicaría enormemente la calidad de vida de los afectados. El conocimiento de su inervación y la localización biométrica de sus puntos motores, es una herramienta útil en terapias de electro estimulación muscular. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el número y localización de los puntos motores de este músculo. Para ello, se utilizaron 30 miembros superiores de individuos brasileños, a los cuales se les realizó una disección detallada del compartimiento posterior del brazo. Se registró el número de ramos, puntos motores y localización biométrica de cada uno de los ramos destinados a las cabezas del músculo triceps braquial. Se utilizó como punto de referencia una Línea biepicondilar, trazada entre los epicóndilos humerales. En todos los casos este músculo estaba inervado por el nervio radial. El promedio de puntos motores (PM) para la cabeza larga del músculo (CL) fue de 3,9 ± 1,4; 4,8 ± 1,2 para la cabeza medial (CM) y 4,1 ± 1,4 para la cabeza lateral (CLat). Los puntos motores se concentraron preferentemente en el tercio medio del brazo, tanto a nivel general, como también por cada cabeza. Los datos biométricos aportados complementarán el conocimiento de la inervación de este músculo y favorecerá una mejor comprensión y elección de tratamientos frente a una patología.


SUMMARY: The triceps brachii muscle is the primary motor for elbow extension movement, so a lesion that affects its function would greatly harm the quality of life of those affected. The knowledge of its innervation and the biometric localization of its motor points is a useful tool in electro-stimulation muscular therapies. The objective of the study was to determine the number of branches and location of the motor points of this muscle. To this end, 30 superior members of Brazilian individuals were used, to whom a detailed dissection of the posterior compartment of the arm was performed. The number of branches, motor points and biometric location of each of the branches destined for the three heads of the brachial triceps muscle was recorded. A biepicondilar line, traced between the humeral epicondyles, was used as a reference point. In all cases, this muscle was innervated by the radial nerve. The average motor points for the long head of the muscle (LH) was 3.9 + 1.4; for the medial head (MH) was 4.8 + 1.2 and for the lateral head (LatH) was 4.1+1.4. The motor points were concentrated mainly in the middle third of the arm, both at a general level, and also for each head. The biometric data provided will complement the knowledge of the innervation of this muscle and will favor a better understanding and choice of treatments for a pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arm/innervation , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Cadaver
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 799-805, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954188

ABSTRACT

El ramo de inervación para el músculo extensor radial corto del carpo (MERCC) ha sido utilizado para restablecer funciones de la musculatura del miembro superior en pacientes con lesiones medulares, del plexo braquial o de sus ramos terminales. El origen del nervio para el MERCC es variable, pudiendo originarse desde el tronco del nervio radial (NR), del ramo profundo de este nervio (RPNR) o del ramo superficial del mismo (RSNR). Con el propósito de complementar la anatomía sobre el origen y distribución del ramo para el MERCC, se utilizaron 30 miembros superiores, formolizados, de cadáveres de individuos Brasileños, localizados en los laboratorios de Anatomía de la Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saude, Maceió, Brasil. A través de disección se localizó el músculo y su inervación, determinando su origen, así como su distribución. Para efectuar la biometría, se consideró como referencia una línea transversal que pasaba entre las partes más prominentes de los epicóndilos lateral y medial del húmero (LBE), registrando la distancia entre esta línea y el punto de origen de este ramo muscular, así como la distancia entre la LBE y los puntos motores. El nervio para el MERCC se originó del RPNR en 50 % de los casos; desde el tronco principal del NR en 26, 7 % y desde el RSNR en 23, 3 %. La distancia entre el origen del ramo en estudio y la LBE fue en promedio de 23 ± 12 mm; la distancia entre el 1º, 2º y 3º punto motor respecto a la LBE fue de 55 ± 17 mm, 66 ± 17 mm y 79 ± 11 mm, respectivamente. La distribución de la inervación fue clasificada en 4 tipos en relación a sus puntos motores. Los resultados obtenidos son un importante aporte al conocimiento anatómico, así como a la neurocirugía en las transferencias nerviosas con propósitos de restauración de las funciones de músculos lesionados en el miembro superior.


The branch of the innervation for the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRBm), has been used to reestablish muscle functions in the upper limbs of patients who have spinal cord injury, of the brachial plexus or its terminal branches. The origin of the ECRBm varies, and can originate from the trunk of the radial nerve (RN), from the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN), or from the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN). In order to further complement the anatomy related to the origin and distribution of the ECRBm branch, 30 formolized upper limbs from Brazilian individuals, from the Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saude, Maiceió, Brazil were used. Through dissection, the muscle and its innervations was located, determining the origin of the branch as well as distribution. To determine biometry, a transversal reference line, which passed through the most prominent areas of the epicondyles of the humerus (BEL) was considered. The nerve for ECRBm originated from DBRN in 50 % of cases; from the main trunk of RN in 26.7 % and from SBRN in 23.3 %. The distance from the origin of the branch studied and the BEL was an average of 23 ± 12 mm; the distance from the first, second and third motor point to the BEL was 55 ± 17 mm, 66 ± 17 mm and 79±11 mm, respectively. The distribution of the innervation was classified in four types in relation to the motor points. The results are an important contribution to anatomical knowledge, as well as neurosurgery during nerve transfers to restore functions of damaged muscles in the upper limb.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Upper Extremity/innervation , Cadaver
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 948-954, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954213

ABSTRACT

Las características anatómicas del músculo tríceps braquial (MTB) determinan la velocidad de reparación y capacidad de generación de torque. El MTB es inervado típicamente por el nervio radial (NR), pero existen reportes de inervación por parte del nervio axilar. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los componentes musculotendinosos y nerviosos del MTB. Mediante disección directa en una muestra de 48 brazos de población mestiza colombiana, se evaluó morfometría musculotendinosa, ramos nerviosos, puntos motores (PM) y origen de la inervación del MTB. Las longitudes de las cabezas medial, lateral y larga del MTB correspondieron al 77,3 %, 86 % y 97 % respectivamente de la longitud del brazo. El MTB fue inervado en la totalidad de la muestra por el NR quien emitió entre dos y cinco ramos motores. El primer ramo inervó la cabeza larga en el 100 % de los casos y emergió lateral a la banda tendinosa de inserción del músculo latísimo del dorso. La cabeza larga recibió con mayor frecuencia tres PM (26,6 %), ubicados en el 85 % de los especímenes a 4-10 cm del origen muscular; mientras que la cabeza lateral recibió tres PM en el 44,4 % de la muestra. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el número de PM del MTB izquierdo con relación al derecho (p=0,578). El área de dispersión de PM, así como la morfometría del MTB, son de relevancia clínica, debido a su uso en la estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular y transferencias nerviosas. Los resultados presentados en el presente estudio se constituyen en guía que facilita realizar estas acciones terapéuticas.


The anatomical characteristics of the triceps brachii (TBM) muscle determine the repair speed and torque generation capacity. The TBM is typically innervated by the radial nerve (RN), but there are reports of innervation by the axillary nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate musculotendinous and nervous components of TBM. Through direct dissection in a sample of 48 arms of the Colombian mestizo population, we evaluated musculotendinous morphometry, nerve branches, motor points (MP) and origin of TBM innervation. The lengths of the medial, lateral and long heads of the TBM corresponded to 77.3 %, 86 % and 97 % of the arm length respectively. The TBM was innervated in the whole sample by the NR who issued between two and five motor branches. The first branch innervated the long head in 100 % of cases and emerged laterally to the tendinous band insertion of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The long head received three MP (26.6 %), located in 85 % of the specimens at 4 - 10 cm of muscular origin; while the lateral head received three MP in 44.4 % of the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between the number of MP of the left TBM in relation to the right (p = 0.578). The dispersion area of MP, as well as TBM morphometry are clinically relevant due to their use in neuromuscular electrical stimulation and nerve transfers. The findings presented in this study are a guide to facilitate results in this type of therapeutic action.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Cadaver , Colombia , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology
13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 66-69, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713347

ABSTRACT

A 68-year-old male cadaver showed bilateral variation in the sensory innervation of the dorsum of hand. On the dorsum of right hand, first digit and lateral half of second digit were supplied by lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN); medial side of second digit and lateral side of third digit were supplied by superficial branch of radial nerve (SBRN) and medial side of third digit, the fourth and fifth digits were supplied by dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve (DBUN). On the dorsum of the left hand, lateral side of first digit was supplied by LABCN, medial side of first digit, the second and third digits as well as the lateral side of fourth digit were supplied by SBRN; medial side of fourth digit and fifth digit were supplied by DBUN. These variations would be helpful in understanding peripheral neuropathy, in interpretation of conduction velocity studies and in reconstructive surgery of hand.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cadaver , Hand , Humans , Male , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Radial Nerve , Ulnar Nerve
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine a diagnostic cut-off value for the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the radial nerve using ultrasonography for radial neuropathy located at the spiral groove (SG). METHODS: Seventeen patients with electrodiagnostic evidence of radial neuropathy at the SG and 30 healthy controls underwent ultrasonography of the radial nerve at the SG . The CSAs at the SG were compared in the patient and control groups. The CSA at the SG between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides (ΔSx–Asx and Sx/Asx, respectively) were analyzed to obtain the optimal cut-off value. The relationship between the electrophysiological severity of radial neuropathy and CSA was also evaluated. RESULTS: Among the variables examined, there were statistically significant differences in the CSA between the patient and control groups, ΔSx–Asx, and Sx/Asx at the SG. In a receiver operating characteristics analysis, the cut-off CSA was 5.75 mm² at the SG (sensitivity 52.9%, specificity 90%), 1.75 mm² for ΔSx–Asx (sensitivity 58.8%, specificity 100%), and 1.22 mm² for Sx/Asx (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 93.3%) in diagnosing radial neuropathy at the SG. There was no significant correlation between CSA and electrophysiological severity score for either patient group. CONCLUSION: The reference value obtained for CSA of the radial nerve at the SG may facilitate investigation of radial nerve pathologies at the SG.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Pathology , Radial Nerve , Radial Neuropathy , Reference Values , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717577

ABSTRACT

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is a useful treatment for chronic pain, but it can cause damage depending on its application site. Here, we describe the case of a 54-year-old man who underwent PNS for brachial plexopathy in 2015. One lead was implanted on the left medial cord to stimulate the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, and the other was implanted on the radial nerve to stimulate the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Both leads were inserted near the shoulder joint but did not cross it. Before PNS, the patient did not move his shoulder and elbow because of severe pain, but the treatment greatly alleviated this pain. Twenty months after the operation, both leads were fractured, and the severe pain returned. Repetitive motion near the joint was closely related to the lead fractures. In conclusion, large joints as the insertion sites of PNS leads should be avoided to prevent lead fractures.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Chronic Pain , Elbow , Humans , Joints , Middle Aged , Peripheral Nerves , Radial Nerve , Shoulder , Shoulder Joint
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728827

ABSTRACT

We report two pediatric cases with Hirayama disease—a 16-year-old boy with a left wrist drop and a 14-year-old-boy with weakness and muscle atrophy of right hand. Motor nerve conduction study revealed decreased motor nerve action potential amplitudes in the ulnar nerve and radial nerve of the affected hands. The former patient showed normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine, but the latter showed mild, asymmetric thinning of the anterior spinal cord at levels C5 to C7. Following active rehabilitation and avoidance of neck flexion, no further progression of neurological findings was noticed. These clinical findings were typical of Hirayama disease. We show that timely and accurate diagnosis for Hirayama disease is possible with awareness of disease history, careful physical examination, and the use of neurophysiological studies and MRI studies.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adolescent , Diagnosis , Hand , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Muscular Atrophy , Neck , Neural Conduction , Physical Examination , Radial Nerve , Rehabilitation , Spinal Cord , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood , Spine , Ulnar Nerve , Wrist
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739737

ABSTRACT

A 51-year-old male who is right-handed visited the outpatient for right fingers-drop. The patient's fingers, including thumb, were not extended on metacarpophalangeal joint. The active motion of the right wrist was available. The electromyography and nerve conduction velocity study were consistent with the posterior interosseous neuropathy. Further evaluation was done with the magnetic resonance imaging for finding the space-occupying lesion or any possible soft tissue lesion around the radial nerve pathway. On magnetic resonance imaging, the ganglion cyst, which was about 1.8 cm in diameter, was observed on the proximal part of the superficial layer of the supinator muscle (Arcade of Frohse). The surgical excision was done on the base of ganglion cyst at the base of stalk of cyst which looked to be connected with proximal radioulnar joint capsule. The palsy had completely resolved when the patient was observed on the outpatient department a month after the operation.


Subject(s)
Electromyography , Fingers , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Joint Capsule , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Metacarpophalangeal Joint , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction , Outpatients , Paralysis , Radial Nerve , Thumb , Wrist
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 16(3): f:248-l:251, jul.-set. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-877046

ABSTRACT

The subscapular, anterior circumflex, and posterior circumflex arteries arise from the third part of the axillary artery. During dissection of the right upper limb of the cadaver of a 70-year-old male, a common trunk was observed arising from the third part of the axillary artery which, after traveling for 0.5 cm, bifurcated into subscapular and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. The common trunk was crossed anteriorly by the radial nerve. The medial nerve was formed by medial and lateral roots on the medial side of the third part of the axillary artery, remaining medial to the brachial artery up to the cubital fossa and then following its usual course thereafter. Awareness of the vascular variations observed in the present case is important when conducting surgical procedures in the axilla, for radiologists interpreting angiographs, and for anatomy-pathologists studying rare findings


As artérias subescapular, circunflexa anterior e circunflexa posterior se originam da terceira parte da artéria axilar. Durante a dissecção de membro superior direito de um cadáver humano com 70 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, um tronco comum foi observado originando-se da terceira parte da artéria axilar, após um percurso de 0,5 cm, bifurcando-se em artéria subescapular e artéria circunflexa posterior do húmero. O tronco comum era cruzado anteriormente pelo nervo radial. O nervo medial era formado por raízes medial e lateral, no lado medial da terceira parte da artéria axilar, permanecendo em posição medial à artéria braquial até a fossa cubital e seguindo seu curso usual a partir de então. Conhecimento das variações vasculares observadas neste caso é importante ao executar procedimentos cirúrgicos na axila, para radiologistas que interpretam radiografias, e também para anatomo-patologistas que estudam achados raros


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Axillary Artery/physiology , Humerus/physiology , Rotator Cuff , Arteries/physiology , Dissection/methods , Pectoralis Muscles/physiology , Radial Nerve
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 92-98, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840938

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the anatomical factors affecting iatrogenic injury of the deep branch of radial nerve during the Thompson approach and to propose corresponding countermeasures. Thompson approach was used to measure the horizontal/longitudinal distance from the position where the deep branch of radial nerve leaves the supinator to the ulnar margin of extensor carpi radialis brevis/humeroradial joint line. Measurements were obtained by using 48 adult cadaver specimens, which were used in teaching. We observed the lentor situation of the extensor digitorum and extensor carpi radialis brevis in proximal forearm segments and measured the distance from the deep branch of radial nerve to the humeroradial joint line at the lateral side of the radius in the neutral position of forearm rotation. The horizontal distance from the point where the deep branch of radial nerve leaves the inferior margin of supinator to the ulnar margin of extensor carpi radialis brevis was 1.3 ± 0.3 cm. The distance to the humeroradial joint line was 61.3 ± 17.6 mm. The distance to the lentor extent of extensor digitorum and extensor carpi radialis brevis at the distal part of humeroradial joint was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm. The distance from the deep branch of radial nerve to the humeroradial joint line at the lateral side of the radius is 3.2 ± 0.6 mm. Anatomical factors are observed in iatrogenic injury of the deep branch of radial nerve during the Thompson approach. Stretching the extensor digitorum before the dissection of the supinator is hazardous.


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los factores anatómicos que provocan la lesión iatrogénica del ramo profundo del nervio radial durante el abordaje de Thompson y proponer las contramedidas correspondientes. El abordaje de Thompson se utilizó para medir la distancia horizontal / longitudinal desde la posición en que el ramo profundo del nervio radial sale del músculo supinador hasta el margen ulnar del músculo extensor radial corto del carpo a nivel de la línea articular humeroradial. Las mediciones se obtuvieron utilizando 48 especímenes de cadáveres adultos, que se usaron en la enseñanza. Se observó la situación de los músculos extensor de los dedos y del extensor radial corto del carpo en los segmentos proximales del antebrazo y se midió la distancia desde el ramo profundo del nervio radial hasta la línea articular humeroradial en el margen lateral del radio en posición neutra de rotación del antebrazo. La distancia horizontal desde el punto en que el ramo profundo del nervio radial sale del margen inferior del músculo supinador hasta el margen ulnar del músculo extensor radial corto del carpo fue 1,3 ± 0,3 cm. La distancia a la línea articular humeroradial fue de 61,3 ± 17,6 mm. La distancia entre el músculo extensor de los dedos y el músculo extensor radial corto del carpo en la parte distal de la articulación humeroradial fue de 7,1 ± 2,1 cm. La distancia desde el ramo profundo del nervio radial a la línea articular humeroradial en el lado lateral del radio fue de 3,2 ± 0,6 mm. Se observan factores anatómicos en la lesión iatrogénica del ramo profundo del nervio radial durante el abordaje de Thompson. El estiramiento del extensor de los dedos antes de la disección del músculo supinador es peligroso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Forearm/innervation , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Iatrogenic Disease/prevention & control
20.
Ultrasonography ; : 363-369, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings associated with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) syndrome. METHODS: Approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained. A retrospective review of 908 patients' sonographic images of the upper extremity from January 2001 to October 2010 revealed 10 patients suspicious for a PIN abnormality (7 male and 3 female patients; mean age of 51.8±13.1 years; age range, 32 to 79 years). The ultrasonographic findings of PIN syndrome, including changes in the PIN and adjacent secondary changes, were evaluated. The anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic PIN was measured in eight patients and the anteroposterior diameter of the contralateral asymptomatic PIN was measured in six patients, all at the level immediately proximal to the proximal supinator border. The size of the pathologic nerves and contralateral asymptomatic nerves was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Swelling of the PIN proximal to the supinator canal by compression at the arcade of Fröhse was observed in four cases. Swelling of the PIN distal to the supinator canal was observed in one case. Loss of the perineural fat plane in the supinator canal was observed in one case. Four soft tissue masses were noted. Secondary denervation atrophy of the supinator and extensor muscles was observed in two cases. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic nerves (n=8, 1.79±0.43 mm) was significantly larger than that of the contralateral asymptomatic nerves (n=6, 1.02±0.22 mm) (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images of the PIN and helps to diagnose PIN syndrome through visualization of its various causes and adjacent secondary changes.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Denervation , Ethics Committees, Research , Female , Humans , Male , Muscles , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Radial Nerve , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Upper Extremity
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