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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 653-658, July-Aug. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We aim to describe an experimental model for studying femoral fractures in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation, demonstrating a way to apply a substance for analysis, the method for patterning fracture and irradiation, and how to evaluate its effectiveness based on radiographic studies. Methods We used 24 rats divided into 2 groups of 12 animals each. The STUDY group was exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with saline solution, and the CONTROL group was not exposed to radiation and was treated with saline solution. All animals were subjected to standardized fracture of the right femur that was fixed with intramedullary wire. The efficiency of the bone union was assessed by radiographic exam. Results Fracture healing was more efficient in bones not exposed to ionizing radiation (p = 0.012). All fractures met the criteria of being simple, diaphyseal, transverse or short oblique. Conclusion The experimental model presented is an efficient alternative for the study of fractures in irradiated bones in rats.


Resumo Objetivo Nosso objetivo é descrever um modelo experimental para estudo de fraturas de fêmur em ratos após exposição a radiação ionizante, demonstrando uma forma de aplicação de uma substância para análise, o método de padronização de fratura e irradiação e a forma de avaliação de sua eficácia com base em estudos radiográficos. Métodos Utilizamos 24 ratos divididos em dois grupos de 12 animais cada. O grupo ESTUDO foi exposto à radiação ionizante e tratado com soro fisiológico, enquanto o grupo CONTROLE não foi exposto à radiação e foi tratado com soro fisiológico. Todos os animais foram submetidos à fratura padronizada do fêmur direito e sua fixação com fio intramedular. A eficácia da consolidação óssea foi determinada por exame radiográfico. Resultados A cicatrização de fraturas foi mais eficiente em ossos não expostos à radiação ionizante (p = 0,012). Todas as fraturas atenderam aos critérios de serem simples, diafisárias, transversas ou oblíquas curtas. Conclusão O modelo experimental apresentado é uma boa alternativa para o estudo de fraturas em ossos irradiados em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Radiation Effects , Fracture Healing , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Fractures, Spontaneous/therapy
2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1285-1296, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352111

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el daño actínico crónico es un grupo de alteraciones en la estructura, función y apariencia de la piel como resultado de la exposición no controlada a las radiaciones ultravioletas. Puede provocar el cáncer de piel. Objetivo: caracterizar a los pacientes con daño actínico crónico, atendidos en la consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Comunitario Valle Hermoso, en el departamento de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio clínico descriptivo, prospectivo, en un universo de 1 833 pacientes diagnosticados con daño actínico crónico, atendidos en la consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Comunitario Valle Hermoso, en Cochabamba, entre septiembre de 2017 y septiembre de 2018. Se evaluaron las variables edad, sexo, color y fototipo de piel, ocupación, uso de medios de protección solar, exposición a otro tipo de radiaciones, manifestaciones clínicas de fotodaño y altitud del lugar de residencia. Resultados: predominaron el grupo de edad de 25 a 59 años, el sexo femenino, el color de piel mestizo (77,08 %), el fototipo de piel IV (76,98 %) y la ocupación comerciante (72,56 %). La mayoría de los pacientes (82,7 %) no utilizaron medios de protección solar, y el 99,8 % no tuvieron exposición a otro tipo de radiaciones. Las lesiones por fotodaño que prevalecieron fueron melasma (83,03 %) y lentigos (12,22 %). El 99,29 % vivían en zonas de gran altitud. Conclusiones: se caracterizaron los pacientes con daño actínico crónico, obteniendo en algunas variables estudiadas resultados similares a los mencionados por otros investigadores (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: chronic actinic damage is a group of alterations in the structure, function, and appearance of the skin as a result of uncontrolled exposure to ultraviolet radiation. It can cause skin cancer. Objective: to characterize the patients with chronic actinic damage, treated at the Dermatology consultation of Valle Hermoso Community Hospital, in the department of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Materials and methods: a descriptive, prospective clinical study was conducted in a universe of 1,833 patients diagnosed with chronic actinic damage, treated at the Dermatology clinic of the Valle Hermoso Community Hospital, Cochabamba, between September 2017 and September 2018. The variables age, sex, skin color, skin phototype, occupation, use of sun protectors, exposure to other types of radiation, clinical manifestations of photodamage and altitude of the place of residence were evaluated. Results: the age group from 25 to 59 years, the female sex, mestizo skin color (77.08 %), the IV skin phototype (76.98 %) and merchant occupation (72.56 %) predominated. Most patients (82.7 %) did not use sun protection means, and 99.8 % had no other radiation exposure. The prevailing photodamage lesions were melasma (83.03 %) and lentigo (12.22 %). 99.29 % lived in high altitude areas. Conclusions: the patients with chronic actinic damage were characterized, obtaining in some variables studied results similar to those mentioned by other researchers (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Photosensitivity Disorders/epidemiology , Photosensitivity Disorders/diagnosis , Radiation Effects , Clinical Diagnosis , Lentigo/diagnosis , Melanosis/diagnosis
3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(3): 434-441, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357373

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad fotoprotectora de una crema con extracto acuoso liofilizado de maca (ELM) frente a la irradiación ultravioleta (UV) en la piel de ratones. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental en 35ratones BALB/c. Los tratamientos fueron aplicados por vía tópica en el dorso de los animales y posteriormente irradiados con rayos ultravioleta B, para luego medir el grosor en micras (µm) de muestras histológicas de la piel de los ratones. Se asignaron siete grupos divididos en no irradiado: blanco (G1) e irradiados con luz UV: sin tratamiento (G2); con protector solar comercial con factor de protección solar (FPS) 30 (G3); crema (placebo) (G4); ELM al 15% en agua (G5); ELM al 5% en crema (G6); y ELM al 15% en crema (G7). Se determinó el FPS in vitro, mediante el método de Mansur. Se realizaron las lecturas de las absorbancias en un espectrofotómetro ultravioleta-visible (UV-VIS) y se determinaron los FPS para las siguientes formulaciones: ELM al 5% en crema, benzofenona-4 (BZF-4) y bloqueador solar comercial FPS 30. Resultados: El grosor de piel de ratón en micras (µm) fue de 27,28 en G2; 18,31 en G3; 27,33 en G4; 19,51 en G5 y 18,04 en G6; no hubo diferencia significativa entre el grupo no expuesto a la radiación (G1) y el grupo ELM al 15% en crema (G7), ambos presentaron los menores grosores (12,76 y 14,20 µm, respectivamente). El FPS de ELM al 15% en crema fue 5,480 ± 0,020. Conclusiones: La formulación con ELM en crema presentó actividad fotoprotectora frente a la irradiación UV, los alcaloides fueron los componentes fitoquímicos mayormente encontrados y la formulación fue compatible con el activo (ELM).


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the photoprotective activity of a cream with lyophilized aqueous extract of maca (LEM) against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the skin of mice. Materials and methods: An experimental study was carried out on 35 BALB/c mice. Treatment was applied topically on the dorsum of the animals, which were subsequently irradiated with ultraviolet B rays, and then we measured the thickness in microns (μm) of histological samples of the skin of the mice. Seven groups were assigned, divided into non-irradiated: Blank (G1) and irradiated with UV light: no treatment (G2); with commercial sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) 30 (G3); cream (placebo) (G4); LEM at 15% in water (G5); LEM cream at 5% (G6); and LEM cream at 15% (G7). In vitro SPF was determined using the Mansur method. Absorbance readings were taken in an ultraviolet- visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and SPFs were determined for the following formulations: LEM cream at 5%, benzophenone-4 (BZF-4) and commercial sunscreen SPF 30. Results: Mouse skin thickness in microns (μm) was 27.28 in G2; 18.31 in G3; 27.33 in G4; 19.51 in G5 and 18.04 in G6. There was no significant difference between the group not exposed to radiation (G1) and the 15% LEM cream group (G7), both had the lowest thicknesses (12.76 and 14.20 μm, respectively). The SPF of LEM cream at 15% was 5.480 ± 0.020. Conclusions: The formulation with LEM cream showed photoprotective activity against UV irradiation, alkaloids were the phytochemical components mostly found and the formulation was compatible with the active principle (LEM).


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Skin , Ultraviolet Rays , Lepidium , Sun Protection Factor , Radiation , Radiation Effects , Sunscreening Agents , Phytotherapy
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 5-13, maio 5, 2021. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354757

ABSTRACT

Introduction: sunscreen is a cosmetic used to protect human skin from the deleterious effects of UV radiation and thus minimize the risks of developing skin cancer. Extracts produced from fruits, such as Abiu, Guava, Rambutan and Grape, have significant concentrations of chromophores and phenolic substances that have the ability to absorb UV light and neutralize free radicals. The production of cosmetics from naturally occurring substances with such activities will be of great importance for Brazilian industry and could reduce the cost of production, given the large existing biodiversity in the country. Objectives: carry out a patent search for formulations and cosmetic products that contains phenolic rich fruit extracts as photoprotective and antioxidant bioactives. Methodology: a survey of patents was carried out in the database of the National Institute of Intellectual Property (INPI) and the European Patent Office (EPO), covering a time period between 2008 and 2018, using a combination of keywords related to herbal cosmetics and sunscreens. Results: this research identifies a significant number of patents related to plant extract in association with sunscreen product, however, no patent filings were identified for cosmetic products containing extracts of the evaluated fruits, either alone or in combination, for photoprotective and antioxidant purposes. Conclusion: the Brazilian and international market for sun care products moves millions to billions of dollars annually and have a significant annual growth prospect. Considering the great biodiversity existing in the country, the production of cosmetics from naturally occurring substances with such activities will be of great importance for the Brazilian industrial sector.


Introdução: os filtros solares são cosméticos usados para proteger a pele humana dos efeitos deletérios da radiação UV e assim, minimizar os riscos de desenvolvimento de câncer de pele. Extratos produzidos a partir de frutos, como Abiu, Goiaba, Rambutan e Uva, têm concentrações significativas de cromóforos e substâncias fenólicas que têm a capacidade de absorver a radiação UV e neutralizar os radicais livres. A produção de cosméticos a partir de substâncias naturais com essas atividades será de grande importância para a indústria brasileira e poderá reduzir o custo de produção, dada a grande biodiversidade existente no país. Objetivos: realizar uma busca de registros de patentes de formulações e produtos cosméticos que contêm extratos de frutos ricos em fenólicos como bioativos fotoprotetores e antioxidantes. Metodologia: foi realizado um levantamento de patentes no banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Intelectual (INPI) e do Escritório Europeu de Patentes (EPO), abrangendo um período de tempo entre 2008 e 2018, utilizando uma combinação de palavras-chave relacionadas a cosméticos à base de plantas e protetores solares. Resultados: esta pesquisa identificou um número significativo de patentes relacionadas ao extrato de plantas em associação ao produto protetor solar, no entanto, não foram identificados pedidos de patente para produtos cosméticos que contenham extratos das frutas avaliadas, isoladamente ou em combinação, para fins fotoprotetores e antioxidantes. Conclusão: o mercado brasileiro e internacional de produtos de proteção solar movimenta milhões a bilhões de dólares anualmente e tem a perspectiva de crescimento anual significativa. Considerando a grande biodiversidade existente no país, a produção de cosméticos a partir de substâncias naturais com essas atividades será de grande importância para o setor industrial brasileiro.


Subject(s)
Plants , Radiation Effects , Sunscreening Agents , Cosmetics , Phenolic Compounds , Sun Protection Factor , Database
5.
J. nurs. health ; 10(2): 20102009, mai.2020.
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1104137

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar e categorizar o método de uso e benefícios e principais considerações sobre uso do laser em lesões induzidas por radiação. Método: revisão sistemática desenvolvidas em Public Medline, Literatura Latino-Americana do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS e Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde. Resultados: analisou-se sete estudos. Observou-se em 86% (6) desses estudos uma conclusão positiva à terapêutica de laser de baixa intensidade, relatando: 43% (3) diminuição significativa e regressão da dor; 29% (2) redução significativa na duração e gravidade da mucosite e 29% (2) redução da inflamação e cicatrização. Conclusão: evidenciou-se melhora da cicatrização, da dor local e da capacidade anti-inflamatória. É necessário realizar mais pesquisas com amostras robustas que comparem os tipos de lasers, o comprimento das ondas e sua intensidade, para o seu uso como terapêutica.(AU)


Objective: to analyze and categorize the method of use and benefits and main considerations on the use of laser in radiation-induced injuries. Method: systematic review developed in the databases Public Medline, Latin American Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library. Results: seven studies were analyzed. A positive conclusion to low-level laser therapy was observed in 86% (6) of these studies, reporting: 43% (3) significant decrease and regression of pain; 29% (2) significant reduction in the duration and severity of mucositis and 29% (2) reduction in inflammation and healing. Conclusion: there was an improvement in healing, local pain and anti-inflammatory capacity. More research is needed with robust samples that compare the types of lasers, the length of the waves and their intensity, for their use as therapy.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar y clasificar el método de uso y los beneficios y las principales consideraciones sobre el uso del láser en lesiones inducidas por radiación. Método: revisión sistemática desarrollada en Public Medline, Literatura Latinoamericana del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, Índice acumulativo de literatura de enfermería y salud aliada, SCOPUS y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. Resultados: se analizaron siete estudios. Se observó una conclusión positiva de la terapia con láser de bajo nivel en el 86% (6) de estos estudios: 43% (3) disminución significativa y regresión del dolor; 29% (2) reducción significativa en la duración y gravedad de la mucositis y 29% (2) reducción en la inflamación y la curación. Conclusión: hubo una mejora en la curación, dolor local y capacidad antiinflamatoria. Se necesita investigación con muestras robustas que comparen los tipos de láser, la longitud de las ondas y su intensidad, para su uso como terapia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Radiation Effects , Radiodermatitis , Radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy
6.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 471-483, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828990

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Owing to antibiotic abuse and the subsequent development of antibiotic resistance, bacterial infection has become one of the most persistent unresolved problems. New antibacterial agents, especially those that are environmental-friendly, are urgently needed.@*Methods@#Melanin extracted by filtration centrifugation and acid and proteolytic hydrolysis was characterized using UV, FTIR, TEM, and XPS. Photothermal conversion was calculated, and the bacteriostatic effects, and , were assessed by plate counting and ratios (%) of wound areas.@*Results@#Natural melanin hydrolyzed by trypsin had good photothermal conversion effects, which resulted in superior bacteriostatic activities. The extracted melanin along with laser NIR irradiation at 808 nm promoted the healing of wounds infected by drug-resistant bacteria and was biocompatible according to toxicity tests and .@*Conclusion@#The present findings indicated a safe and efficient method of developing natural antibacterial agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animal Shells , Chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Radiation Effects , Escherichia coli Infections , Drug Therapy , Melanins , Pharmacology , Mytilus edulis , Chemistry , Photochemical Processes , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Staphylococcal Infections , Drug Therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Radiation Effects , Wound Healing
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 593-602, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828975

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on the cervical spinal cord (CSC) of rats and the possible protective effect of luteolin (LUT) against CSC tissue damage.@*Methods@#Quantitative data were obtained stereological, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histopathological techniques. We investigated morphometric value, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and the expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein molecules, as well as histological changes.@*Results@#The total number of motor neurons in the EMF group significantly decreased in comparison with that in the control group ( < 0.05). In the EMF + LUT group, we found a significant increase in the total number of motor neurons compared with that in the EMF group ( < 0.05). SOD enzyme activity in the EMF group significantly increased in comparison with that in the control group ( < 0.05). By contrast, the EMF+LUT group exhibited a decrease in SOD level compared with the EMF group ( < 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Our results suggested that exposure to EMF could be deleterious to CSC tissues. Furthermore, the protective efficacy of LUT against SC damage might have resulted from the alleviation of oxidative stress caused by EMF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Electromagnetic Fields , Luteolin , Pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord , Radiation Effects
8.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 603-613, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828974

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To detect the effects of shortwave radiation on dose-dependent cardiac structure and function in rats after radiation and to elucidate the mechanism of shortwave radiation induced cardiac injury to identify sensitive indicators and prophylactic treatment.@*Methods@#One hundred Wistar rats were either exposed to 27 MHz continuous shortwave at a power density of 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm for 6 min or undergone sham exposure for the control (the rats had to be placed in the exposure system with the same schedules as the exposed animals, but with an inactive antenna). The Ca , glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in the peripheral serum of the rats were detected by an automatic blood biochemical analyser. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of standard lead II was recorded by a multi-channel physiological recording and analysis system. The cardiac structure of rats was observed by light and electron microscopy.@*Results@#The results showed that the 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm shortwave radiation caused a significant increased in the levels of Ca , AST, CK, and LDH in the peripheral serum of rats. The cardiac structure was damaged by radiation and showed a disordered arrangement of myocardial fibres, the cavitation and swelling of myocardial mitochondria. These injuries were most significant 7 d after radiation and were not restored until 28 d after radiation.@*Conclusion@#Shortwave radiation of 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm can damage rat cardiac function, including damage to the tissue structure and ultrastructure, especially at the level of the myocardial fibres and mitochondria. Shortwave radiation at 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm induced damage to rat heart function and structure with a dose-effect relationship, i.e., the greater the radiation dose was, the more significant the damage was.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Heart , Radiation Effects , Heart Diseases , Ethnology , Pathology , Myocardium , Pathology , Radio Waves , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
9.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 19-19, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828959

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for oral cancer. However, in the clinic, recurrence and metastasis of oral cancer occur after radiotherapy, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), considered the "seeds" of cancer, have been confirmed to be in a quiescent state in most established tumours, with their innate radioresistance helping them survive more easily when exposed to radiation than differentiated cancer cells. There is increasing evidence that CSCs play an important role in recurrence and metastasis post-radiotherapy in many cancers. However, little is known about how oral CSCs cause tumour recurrence and metastasis post-radiotherapy. In this review article, we will first summarise methods for the identification of oral CSCs and then focus on the characteristics of a CSC subpopulation induced by radiation, hereafter referred to as "awakened" CSCs, to highlight their response to radiotherapy and potential role in tumour recurrence and metastasis post-radiotherapy as well as potential therapeutics targeting CSCs. In addition, we explore potential therapeutic strategies targeting these "awakened" CSCs to solve the serious clinical challenges of recurrence and metastasis in oral cancer after radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Pathology , Radiotherapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiotherapy , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Pathology , Radiation Effects , Radiotherapy , Methods , Recurrence
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 342-347, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of a modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill (, WZYZP) on the male rats' testis after microwave radiation, as well as its potential mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty-five male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, the radiation group, and the WZYZP group. The rats in the radiation group and WZYZP group were exposed to microwave radiation for 15 min once, while the rats in the control group were not exposed to any radiation. The rats in the WZYZP group were given a modified of WZYZP by gavage daily for 7 days. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated using terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Histopathological alterations of the testis were observed by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Tat-interactive protein, 60kD (Tip60) and p53 expressions were determined by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The apoptosis index (AI) in the radiation group was higher than that of the WZYZP group and control group on day 1 (D1), day 7 (D7) day 14 (D14) after radiation (P<0.05). The seminiferous tubules were of normal morphology in the control group. In the radiation group, the partial seminiferous tubules were collapsed, basement membranes of the seminiferous epithelia became detached. WZYZP could restore the morphological changes. There was no expression of Tip60 among the three groups on D7 and D14. The expression of p53 was higher in the radiation group than in the control group (P<0.05). WZYZP could down-regulate the rising p53 induced by radiation on D7 and D14 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#A modified WZYZP may affect germ cells, and its protective effects may partly result from its ability to intervene in Tip60 mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Microwaves , Rats, Wistar , Testis , Metabolism , Pathology , Radiation Effects , Trans-Activators , Metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Metabolism
12.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 633-642, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774161

ABSTRACT

The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule damage simulations with an atom level geometric model use the traversal algorithm that has the disadvantages of quite time-consuming, slow convergence and high-performance computer requirement. Therefore, this work presents a density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) clustering algorithm based on the spatial distributions of energy depositions and hydroxyl radicals (·OH). The algorithm with probability and statistics can quickly get the DNA strand break yields and help to study the variation pattern of the clustered DNA damage. Firstly, we simulated the transportation of protons and secondary particles through the nucleus, as well as the ionization and excitation of water molecules by using Geant4-DNA that is the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for radiobiology, and got the distributions of energy depositions and hydroxyl radicals. Then we used the damage probability functions to get the spatial distribution dataset of DNA damage points in a simplified geometric model. The DBSCAN clustering algorithm based on damage points density was used to determine the single-strand break (SSB) yield and double-strand break (DSB) yield. Finally, we analyzed the DNA strand break yield variation trend with particle linear energy transfer (LET) and summarized the variation pattern of damage clusters. The simulation results show that the new algorithm has a faster simulation speed than the traversal algorithm and a good precision result. The simulation results have consistency when compared to other experiments and simulations. This work achieves more precise information on clustered DNA damage induced by proton radiation at the molecular level with high speed, so that it provides an essential and powerful research method for the study of radiation biological damage mechanism.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Simulation , DNA , Radiation Effects , DNA Damage , Linear Energy Transfer , Monte Carlo Method , Protons
13.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 177-188, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. This phenomenon has been recently reported to play an important role in radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein that regulates cell growth and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cx43 on X-ray-induced pyroptosis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).@*METHODS@#HUVECs, Cx43 overexpression, and Cx43 knockdown strains were irradiated with 10 Gy. Proteins were detected using western blot analysis. Cell pyroptosis was evaluated using the fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of caspase assay (FLICA) and propidium iodide staining through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cell morphology and cytotoxicity were detected by scanning electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase release assay, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Irradiation with 10 Gy X-ray induced pyroptosis in the HUVECs and reduced Cx43 expression. The pyroptosis in the HUVECs was significantly attenuated by overexpression of Cx43 as it decreased the level of active caspase-1. However, interference of Cx43 expression with siRNA significantly promoted pyroptosis by increasing the active caspase-1 level. Pannexin1 (Panx1), a gap junction protein regulates pyroptosis, and its cleaved form is used to evaluate channel opening and active state. The level of cleaved Panx1 in the HUVECs and Cx43 knockdown strains increased in the presence of X-ray, but decreased in the Cx43 overexpression strains. Furthermore, interference of Panx1 with siRNA alleviated the upregulation of pyroptosis caused by Cx43 knockdown.@*CONCLUSION@#Results suggest that single high-dose X-ray irradiation induces pyroptosis in the HUVECs. In addition, Cx43 regulates pyroptosis directly by activating caspase-1 or indirectly by cleaving Panx1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Genetics , Metabolism , Connexins , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Radiation Effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Pyroptosis , X-Rays
14.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 189-198, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To estimate the detrimental effects of shortwave exposure on rat hippocampal structure and function and explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (25 rats per group) and exposed to 27 MHz continuous shortwave at a power density of 5, 10, or 30 mW/cm2 for 6 min once only or underwent sham exposure for the control. The spatial learning and memory, electroencephalogram (EEG), hippocampal structure and Nissl bodies were analysed. Furthermore, the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B), cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in hippocampal tissue were analysed on 1, 7, and 14 days after exposure.@*RESULTS@#The rats in the 10 and 30 mW/cm2 groups had poor learning and memory, disrupted EEG oscillations, and injured hippocampal structures, including hippocampal neurons degeneration, mitochondria cavitation and blood capillaries swelling. The Nissl body content was also reduced in the exposure groups. Moreover, the hippocampal tissue in the 30 mW/cm2 group had increased expressions of NR2A and NR2B and decreased levels of CREB and p-CREB.@*CONCLUSION@#Shortwave exposure (27 MHz, with an average power density of 10 and 30 mW/cm2) impaired rats' spatial learning and memory and caused a series of dose-dependent pathophysiological changes. Moreover, NMDAR-related CREB pathway suppression might be involved in shortwave-induced structural and functional impairments in the rat hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Electroencephalography , Radiation Effects , Hippocampus , Radiation Effects , Memory , Radiation Effects , Nissl Bodies , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Radio Waves , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Genetics , Metabolism , Spatial Learning , Radiation Effects
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2753-2761, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773263

ABSTRACT

Chlorophyll content,leaf mass to per area,net photosynthetic rate and bioactive ingredients of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum,a skiophyte grown in four levels of solar irradiance were measured and analyzed in order to investigate the response of photosynthetic capability to light irradiance and other environmental factors. It suggested that the leaf mass to per area of plant was greatest value of four kinds of light irradiance and decreasing intensity of solar irradiance resulted in the decrease of leaf mass to per area at every phenological stage. At expanding leaf stage,the rate of Chla and Chlb was 3. 11 when A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum grew in full light irradiance which is similar to the rate of heliophytes,however,the rate of Chla and Chlb was below to 3. 0 when they grew in shading environment. The content of Chla,Chlb and Chl( a+b) was the greatest value of four kinds of light irradiance and decreasing intensity of solar irradiance resulted in its decreasing remarkably( P<0. 05). The rate of Chla and Chlb decreased but the content of Chla,Chlb and Chl( a+b) increased gradually with continued shading. The maximum value of photosynthetically active radiation appeared at 10: 00-12: 00 am in a day. The maximum value of net photosynthetic rate appeared at 8: 30-9: 00 am and the minimum value appeared at 14: 00-14: 30 pm at each phenological stage if plants grew in full sunlight. However,when plants grew in shading,the maximum value of net photosynthetic rate appeared at about 10: 30 am and the minimum value appeared at 12: 20-12: 50 pm at each phenological stage. At expanding leaf stage and flowering stage,the average of net photosynthetic rate of leaves in full sunlight was remarkably higher than those in shading and it decreased greatly with decreasing of irradiance gradually( P < 0. 05). However,at fruiting stage,the average of net photosynthetic rate of leaves in full sunlight was lower than those in 50% and 28% full sunlight but higher than those in 12% full sunlight. All photosynthetic diurnal variation parameters of plants measured in four kinds of different irradiance at three stages were used in correlation analysis. The results suggested that no significant correlation was observed between net photosynthetic rate and photosynthetically active radiation,and significant negative correlation was observed between net photosynthetic rate and environmental temperature as well as vapor pressure deficit expect for 12% full sunlight. Positive correlation was observed between net photosynthestic rate and relative humidity expect for 12% full sunlight. Significant positive correlation was observed between net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in the four light treatments. Only,in 12% full sunlight,the net photosynthetic rate was significantly related to photosynthetically active radiation rather than related to environmental temperature,vapor pressure deficit and relative humidity. In each light treatment,a significant positive correlation was observed between environmental temperature and vapor pressure deficit,relative humidity as well as stomatal conductance. Volatile oil content was 1. 46%,2. 16%,1. 56%,1. 30% respectively. ethanol extracts was 23. 44%,22. 45%,22. 18%,21. 12% respectively. Asarinin content was 0. 281%,0. 291%,0. 279% and 0. 252% respectively. The characteristic components of Asarum volatile oil of plant in different light treatments did not change significantly among different groups.


Subject(s)
Asarum , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Chlorophyll , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Radiation Effects , Sunlight
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2444-2451, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773241

ABSTRACT

We studied the seed germination of Astragalus membranaceus under PEG and Na Cl osmotic stress gradients( 0,-0. 1,-0. 3,-0. 5,-0. 7 MPa) respectively applied with light( continuous light,light 12 h/dark 12 h circulation and continuous dark) and temperature( constant 15 ℃,15 ℃ 12 h/30 ℃ 12 h circulation and constant 30 ℃) treatments. The results showed as following: ① Under the light and temperature interactive treatments,total germination percentage( TGP) was restrained by high temperature and continuous light also decreased TGP under high temperature. Mean germination time( MGT) was not changed by light mode. Root development was enhanced by dark and low temperature. Shoot development was enhanced by light and high temperature. Hypocotyl length was enhanced by dark and high temperature. ② Under the light and temperature interactive treatments combined respectively with PEG and NaCl stress conditions,although the inhibitions of seed germination and growth were gradually strengthened with the increases of osmotic stresses,slight osmotic stress can promote seed germination. Under the same osmotic potential,the effects of PEG on TGPs and MGTs were stronger than that of NaCl. As the temperature increase,the seeds may change from photo-neutrality to photo-phobia. Decreased TGP under drought and continuous light interactive treatment is an adaptation strategy to avoiding drought. Hypocotyl growth accelerated under continuous dark treatment is an ecological trait which could increase dry matter input in stem and height for more light. Seed development under high concentration of NaCl treatment is better than that of PEG treatment due to low water potential caused by Na~+,which can enter into seed coat and promote water absorption.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Droughts , Germination , Light , Salt Stress , Seeds , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Temperature
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 34-39, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772334

ABSTRACT

The lung is the second most common site of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Typical and atypical carcinoids are low-grade NETs of the lung. These rare tumors have received little attention and education is needed for treating physicians. The article describes the classifcation of lung NETs, the epidemiology and pathological characteristics. When lung NETs are diagnosed at an early stage, surgical intervention is often curative. For advanced lung NETs patients, different treatment methods including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, m-TOR inhibition, peptide receptor radioligand therapy, and biologic systemic therapy are discussed. The conclusions are generally extrapolated from the outcome of extra-pulmonary carcinoids. Prospective randomized well-designed trials are urgently needed to inform current recommendations on systemic treatment.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Methods , Lung , Radiation Effects , General Surgery , Lung Neoplasms , Pathology , General Surgery , Therapeutics , Neoplasm Grading , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pathology , General Surgery , Therapeutics , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Radiotherapy , Methods
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 388-394, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777175

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on energy metabolism and oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Worms in three adult stages (young adult stage, egg-laying stage and peak egg-laying stage) were investigated under 50 Hz, 3 mT ELF-EMF exposure. ATP levels, ATP synthase activity in vivo, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were detected, and worms' oxidative stress responses were also evaluated under ELF-EMF exposure. The results showed that ATP levels were significantly increased under this ELF-EMF exposure, and mitochondrial ATP synthase activity was upregulated simultaneously. In young adult stage, worms' ROS level was significantly elevated, together with upregulated TAC but with a decreased ROS-TAC score indicated by principal component analysis. ROS level and TAC of worms had no significant changes in egg-laying and peak egg-laying stages. Based on these results, we concluded that ELF-EMF can enhance worm energy metabolism and elicit oxidative stress, mainly manifesting as ATP and ROS level elevation together with ATP synthase upregulation and ROS-TAC score decrease in young adult C. elegans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans , Radiation Effects , Electromagnetic Radiation , Energy Metabolism , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 431-438, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777170

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of electro-acupuncture (EA) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of C57 mice exposed to different doses of X-ray radiation. Thirty-day-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control, irradiation, and EA groups. The control group was not treated with irradiation. The irradiation groups were exposed to different doses of X-ray (4, 8 or 16 Gy) for 10 min. The EA groups were electro-acupunctured at Baihui, Fengfu and bilateral Shenyu for 3 courses of treatment after X-ray radiation. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate proliferation and differentiation of the hippocampal neural stem cell. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein expressions of Notch1 and Mash1 in the hippocampus, respectively. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the numbers of BrdU positive cells (4, 8 Gy subgroup) and BrdU/NeuN double-labeling positive cells (3 dose subgroups) were decreased significantly in the irradiation group, but the above changes could be reversed by EA. Compared with the control group, the number of BrdU/GFAP double-labeling positive cells in each dose subgroup of irradiation group was decreased significantly, while EA could reverse the change of 4 and 8 Gy dose subgroups. In addition, compared with the control group, the expression levels of Notch1 mRNA and protein in hippocampus were up-regulated, and the expression levels of Mash1 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in each dose subgroup of irradiation group. Compared with irradiation group, the expression levels of Notch1 mRNA and protein in hippocampus of EA group were decreased significantly in each dose subgroup, and the expression levels of Mash1 mRNA and protein were increased significantly in 4 and 8 Gy subgroups. These results suggest that irradiation affects the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in hippocampus of mice, whereas EA may significantly increase the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells via the regulation of Notch signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Radiation Effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Radiation Effects , Random Allocation , Receptor, Notch1 , Metabolism , X-Rays
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 698-704, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777141

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the effects of different doses of X-rays on DNA damage and JAK/STAT signaling pathway activation in A549 cells. The A549 cells were radiated with X-rays at doses of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. The proliferation of A549 cells was detected by CCK8 method. The content of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in culture medium at different time points after irradiation was detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and the expression levels of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) were detected by immunofluorescent staining. The expression levels of JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3 and p-STAT3 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that, compared with the control group, X-ray irradiation reduced the cellular proliferation, up-regulated the expression of 53BP1, increased the IL-6 content in the medium supernatant, and up-regulated the protein expression levels of IL-6R, JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3, and p-STAT3. The above effects of X-ray irradiation were dose-dependent. These results suggest that the mechanism by which X-rays cause DNA damage in A549 cells may involve activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , A549 Cells , DNA Damage , Radiation Effects , Janus Kinase 2 , Metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor p53-Binding Protein 1 , Metabolism , X-Rays
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