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1.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(3): 181-184, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339752

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the amount of radiation received and accumulated in the bodies of two surgeons, one being the responsible surgeon and the other the assistant, performing spine surgery procedures over a period of 25 years. Methods Seventy-two spinal surgeries were performed during a seven-month period and the radiation loads were measured in both surgeons. The measurement of radiation was captured in fluoroscopy in anteroposterior and lateral incidences. The surgeon and the assistant used two dosimeters, one in the cervical region protecting the thyroid and the other on the lead apron in the genital region. The radioactive loads were measured in millisieverts and the accumulated charges were recorded monthly in both regions of the body in the two surgeons for seven months and the means for the work periods (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 years) were estimated. Results It was observed that in the surgeon the average accumulated radiation loads were 131.9% and 176.92% higher than those of the assistant in the cervical and genital regions, respectively. Conclusion While the use of X-rays is indispensable in routine orthopedic surgery, we have to consider the development of techniques of protection, rigor and discipline in the use of safety materials for surgeons. Preventive exposure reduction measures such as using thyroid protection equipment and turning the head away from the patient during fluoroscopy, among others, should be mandatory to promote less radiation exposure. Level of evidence II; Comparative prospective study.


RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a quantidade de radiação recebida e acumulada no corpo de dois cirurgiões, durante período de 25 anos de trabalho, sendo um o cirurgião responsável e outro, assistente, nos procedimentos de cirurgia da coluna vertebral. Métodos Foram realizadas 72 cirurgias de coluna vertebral em um período de sete meses, e as cargas de radiação foram medidas nos dois cirurgiões. A medição da radiação foi captada em fluoroscópio nas incidências anteroposterior e de perfil. O cirurgião e o auxiliar utilizaram dois dosímetros, sendo um na região cervical protegendo a tireoide e outro sobre o avental de chumbo, na região genital. As cargas radioativas foram medidas em milisievert e as cargas acumuladas foram registradas mensalmente em ambas as regiões do corpo nos dois cirurgiões, durante sete meses, foram estimadas as médias no período (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 anos) de trabalho. Resultados Observou-se que no cirurgião as médias das cargas de radiação acumulada foram 131,9% e 176,92% superiores às do assistente nas regiões cervical e genital, respectivamente. Conclusão Enquanto o uso dos raios X for indispensável na rotina da cirurgia ortopédica, há de se considerar o desenvolvimento de técnicas de proteção, rigor e disciplina no uso materiais de segurança para os cirurgiões. Medidas preventivas de redução da exposição, como uso de equipamento para proteção da tireoide e girar a cabeça para se afastar do paciente durante a fluoroscopia, entre outras, devem ser obrigatórias para promover menor exposição à radiação. Nível de evidência II; Estudo prospectivo comparativo.


RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar la cantidad de radiación recibida y acumulada en el cuerpo de dos cirujanos, durante 25 años de trabajo, siendo uno el cirujano responsable y el otro, asistente, en los procedimientos de cirugía de columna vertebral. Métodos Se realizaron 72 cirugías de columna vertebral en un período de siete meses, y las cargas de radiación fueron medidas en los dos cirujanos. La medición de la radiación fue captada en fluoroscopio en las incidencias anteroposterior y de perfil. El cirujano y el auxiliar usaron dos dosímetros, siendo uno en la región cervical protegiendo la tiroides y otro sobre el delantal de plomo, en la región genital. Las cargas radiactivas se midieron en milisievert, y las cargas acumuladas se registraron mensualmente en ambas regiones del cuerpo, en los dos cirujanos, durante siete meses, y se estimaron los promedios durante el período (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 años) de trabajo. Resultados Se observó que en el cirujano los promedios de las cargas de radiación acumulada fueron de 131,9% y 176,92% superiores a las del asistente en las regiones cervical y genital, respectivamente. Conclusión Mientras el uso de rayos X sea indispensable en la rutina de la cirugía ortopédica, hay que considerar el desarrollo de técnicas de protección, rigor y disciplina en el uso de materiales de seguridad para los cirujanos. Las medidas preventivas de reducción de la exposición, como uso de equipamiento para protección de la tiroides y girar la cabeza para alejarse del paciente durante la fluoroscopia, entre otras, deben ser obligatorias para promover menor exposición a la radiación. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio prospectivo comparativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Radiation Exposure , Personal Protective Equipment , Orthopedic Surgeons
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878360

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the association between occupational radiation exposure and changes in thyroid hormone levels among medical radiation workers.@*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 2,946 radiation workers from 20 Guangzhou hospitals. Data on general characteristics, participant radiation dosimetry, and thyroid function test results [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid hormone (T4)] were extracted from dosimetry and medical records. The generalized estimating equation was used to evaluate the trend of changes in thyroid hormone levels over time and was adjusted for age, gender, and occupation.@*Results@#The average annual effective dose was very low and showed a general downward trend. During the follow-up period, changes in T3 and T4 levels among radiation workers were -0.015 [95% confidence interval ( @*Conclusion@#Thyroid hormone secretion might be affected even in low-dose radiation exposure environments.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormones/radiation effects , Young Adult
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Numerous studies have concentrated on high-dose radiation exposed accidentally or through therapy, and few involve low-dose occupational exposure, to investigate the correlation between low-dose ionizing radiation and changing hematological parameters among medical workers.@*METHODS@#Using a prospective cohort study design, we collected health examination reports and personal dose monitoring data from medical workers and used Poisson regression and restricted cubic spline models to assess the correlation between changing hematological parameters and cumulative radiation dose and determine the dose-response relationship.@*RESULTS@#We observed that changing platelet of 1265 medical workers followed up was statistically different among the cumulative dose groups (P = 0.010). Although the linear trend tested was not statistically significant (P@*CONCLUSION@#We concluded that although the exposure dose was below the limit, medical workers exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation for a short period of time might have increased first and then decreased platelets, and there was a dose-response relationship between the cumulative radiation dose and platelets changing.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/radiation effects , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Young Adult
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 610-616, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134547

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las exposiciones médicas con radiación ionizante son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global, entre ellas, los exámenes dentales corresponden a uno de los más frecuentes. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas a los pacientes durante estas exposiciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes. Dado que la legislación de Chile aún no ha incorporado el uso de los DRLs, el presente trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo analizar la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP para generar un documento que sirva de guía para los odontólogos, explicando de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, pero técnico, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiología dental.


SUMMARY: Currently exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the main source of exposure to artificial radiation worldwide, with dental examinations being one of the most frequent events. In order to prevent exposure of unnecessarily high doses in patients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to help maximize protection from radiation during medical exposure of patients. Given that the Chilean legislation has not yet incorporated the use of DRLs, the purpose of this study was to analyze publication N° 135 of the ICRP to generate a document, to serve as a guide for dentists, didactically outlining in simple but technical language, the main aspects to consider when establishing DRLs in dental radiology procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography, Dental/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , International Agencies , Practice Guideline , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180687, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glucosamine is known as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and as neuroprotective as well as using to treat many of diseases. This work aimed to investigate the remedial effect of glucosamine (20mg/kg b.wt) against the damage induced by a single dose of γ-radiation (8Gy) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (100mg/kg b.wt) in the heart and brain tissues of female rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), LDH and creatine kinase (CPK) were measured. Moreover, gene expression of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and seladin-1 were estimated in the brain tissue. Also, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and p-tau protein expression were estimated in brain homogenate. Metallothioneine (MT) was estimated in the heart and brain tissues. Heart and brain histopathological examination was performed. Irradiation significantly decreased serum AST, CPK and LDH, as well as MT levels in heart and brain tissues. Also, gene expression of seladin-1 decreased. On the other hand, irradiation significantly increased serum TGs level and brain AchE activity, tau protein, and β-amyloid percursor (APP). AlCl3 administration (21 days) induced disturbance in most of the estimated parameters, especially AST, TGs, and MT. Glucosamine treatment with irradiation or AlCl3 improved most of the measured parameters. In addition, histopathological examination confirmed the biochemical results. In conclusion: Glucosamine could be used to improve the heart and brain damages induced by γ-radiation exposure or AlCl3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Glucosamine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1153-1160, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056326

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the factors increased fluoroscopy time during percutaneous nephrolithotomy and investigate the relationship between the 3D segmentation volume ratio of stone to renal collecting system and fluoroscopy time. Materials and Methods: Data from 102 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy were analyzed retrospectively. Volume segmentation of both the renal collecting system and stones were obtained from 3D segmentation software with the images on CT data. Analyzed stone volume (ASV), renal collecting system volume (RCSV) measured and the ASV-to-RCSV ratio was calculated. Several parameters were evaluated for their predictive ability with regard to fluoroscopy time. Results: The stone-free rate was 55.9% after the percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Complications occurred in 31(30.4%) patients. The mean fluoroscopy time was 199.4±151.1 seconds. The fluoroscopy time was significantly associated with the ASV-to-RCSV ratio (p<0.001, r=0.614). The single tract was used in 77 (75.5%) cases while multiple tracts were used in 25 (24.5%) cases. Fluoroscopy time was significantly associated with multiple access (p<0.001, r=0.689). On univariate linear regression analysis, longer fluoroscopy time was related with increased stone size, increased stone volume, increased number of access, increased calyx number with stone, increased ASV-to-RCSV, increased operative time and decreased stone essence. On multivariate linear regression analysis, the number of access and the ASV-to-RCSV were independent predictors of fluoroscopy time during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Conclusions: The distribution of the stone burden volume in the pelvicalyceal system is a significant predictor for prolonged fluoroscopy time during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Measures to decrease FT could be beneficial in patients with a high ASV-to-RCSV ratio for precise preoperative planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Fluoroscopy/methods , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Kidney Calculi/pathology , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/methods , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Linear Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease-Free Survival , Radiation Exposure , Middle Aged
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. Objectives To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. Methods The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. Results The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. Study limitations The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. Conclusion The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Radiation Protection/methods , Solar Energy , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , General Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 567-573, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054861

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background One of the main prevention methods against skin cancer is the use of sunscreen; however, incidence of this disease has not declined despite prevention campaigns. Objective Investigate the prevalence of non-use of sunscreen and its associated factors. Method A population-based cross-sectional study with individuals aged 18 years or over living in the urban area. Conducted between April and July of 2016. Participants were interviewed about socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral questions. Non-use of sunscreen was considered as the outcome. For multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust adjustment for variance was used. Results Among the 1300 participants, prevalence of non-use of sunscreen was 38.2% (95% CI: 34.6-41.8). The variables independently associated with the outcome were male sex, older age, brown or black skin color, lower income, fewer years of education, no physical activity in leisure time, no medical consultations in the last year, and self-perception of health as regular or poor. Study limitations The prevalence may be underestimated by reports of more use of sunscreen than actually used, which could increase the figure in the outcome. Conclusion It was estimated that about four out of ten adults and elderly do not use sunscreen in this sample. Prevention strategies are needed to advance health policy and ensure that sun protection options are easily accessible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Health Risk Behaviors
12.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(3): 208-216, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1020335

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El control radioscópico intraoperatorio es una práctica cada vez más frecuente, que no está libre de eventos adversos para el personal de la salud. Objetivos: Conocer la tasa de uso de radioscopia en la cirugía vertebral, reconocer las medidas de control, evaluar la asimilación del cirujano a los elementos de protección y analizar los eventos adversos en estos profesionales. Materiales y Métodos: Se envió, por correo electrónico, a cirujanos espinales, una encuesta de 17 preguntas de opciones múltiples. Resultados: Se recibieron 55 encuestas. El 87% se dedicaba a la columna, en más del 60% de sus prácticas. El arco en C es el método más utilizado para el control final, en forma pulsátil. Solo el 31% controla el tiempo real. El delantal plomado de una pieza es el método más utilizado, pero se desconoce cuándo se debe reemplazar. La mitad utiliza más de un elemento. Siete casos de trastornos visuales, 5 patologías tiroideas, 3 dermatitis y 2 casos de infertilidad. Tres cirujanos fueron operados por nódulos tiroideos, cataratas o neoplasia. Conclusiones: El control radioscópico intraoperatorio es una práctica frecuente en la cirugía espinal. El delantal plomado de una pieza es el método más utilizado y, muchas veces, se lo combina, pero se desconoce cuándo se deben renovar los plomados. Uno de cada tres cirujanos presentaron las patologías evaluadas y 3, cirugías relacionadas. Así queda en evidencia la protección y el control escasos que existen en los cirujanos especialistas, acompañados de una falta de protocolización que deja a la deriva este control. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Background: Intraoperative radiographic control (IRC) is an increasingly common practice, but it causes certain adverse events for healthcare providers. Objectives: To measure the use of fluoroscopy in spinal surgery, recognize control measures, evaluate assimilation of protection elements by surgeons, and analyze adverse events for spinal surgeons. Materials and Methods: A survey of 17 multiple-choice questions was e-mailed to spinal surgeons. Results: 55 surveys were answered. More than 60% of surgeons were spinal surgeons. The C-arm is the most widely used machine for final control by pulsating X-rays. Real-time controls are carried out in 31% of cases. One-piece leaded aprons are the most commonly used method, but it is unknown when they should be replaced. Half of the respondents uses more than one protection element. There were seven cases of vision changes, 5 of thyroid disorders, 3 of dermatitis, and 2 of infertility. Three surgeons required surgery for thyroid nodules, cataracts or neoplasm. Conclusions: IRC is a common practice in spinal surgery. One-piece leaded aprons are the most commonly used method and they are often combined with other elements, but it is not known when aprons must be replaced. One in 3 surgeons suffered from the studied conditions, and there were 3 related surgeries. Lack of adequate protection and control is a reality for specialist surgeons, together with a lack of protocols, making this an unregulated issue. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Argentina , Radiation Protection , Spine/surgery , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Orthopedic Surgeons , Occupational Diseases
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(3): 119-123, may 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025402

ABSTRACT

Background: The papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common cancer among well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Exposure to environmental radiation adn edical X-Ray can be considered as an iportant risk factor. The aim of the study to evaluate the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma among patients underwent thyroidetomy and the possible relation to X-Ray exposure. Patient and methods: A prospective clinically randomized trial was conducted in the department of surgery in Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital during the period from February 2016 to October 2018 on 432 patients with goiter from those 62 patients proved to be papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results: out of 432 patients with goiter underwent thyroidectomy 62 patients proved to be papillary carcinoma, female was 49 (79 %), and male was 13 (21%) with solitary thyroid nodule predominant (61.3%) the radiation exposure is higgly significant in patients proved to be papillary thyrid carcinoma about (85.48%), the FNAC sensitivity was low about 37%. There were 14 patients re-explored either for remnant thyroid tissue in 11 or neck disection in 3 patients. Only there patients presented with occult papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy with salient increased incidence and female predominant in this region. X-ray exposure carries a significant risk factor for thyroid malignancy. However, further national clinical studies recommended confirming the results


Subject(s)
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , /surgery , /epidemiology
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 392-399, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Posterior subcapsular cataract is a tissue reaction commonly found among professionals exposed to ionizing radiation. Objective: To assess the prevalence of cataract in professionals working in hemodynamics in Brazil. Methods: Professionals exposed to ionizing radiation (group 1, G1) underwent slit lamp examination with a biomicroscope for lens examination and compared with non-exposed subjects (group 2, G2). Ophthalmologic findings were described and classified by opacity degree and localization using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Both groups answered a questionnaire on work and health conditions to investigate the presence of risk factors for cataract. The level of significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 112 volunteers of G1, mean age of 44.95 (±10.23) years, and 88 volunteers of G2, mean age of 48.07 (±12.18) years were evaluated; 75.2% of G1 and 85.2% of G2 were physicians. Statistical analysis between G1 and G2 showed a prevalence of posterior subcapsular cataract of 13% and 2% in G1 and G2, respectively (0.0081). Considering physicians only, 38% of G1 and 15% of G2 had cataract, with the prevalence of posterior subcapsular cataract of 13% and 3%, respectively (p = 0.0176). Among non-physicians, no difference was found in the prevalence of cataract (by types). Conclusions: Cataract was more prevalent in professionals exposed to ionizing radiation, with posterior subcapsular cataract the most frequent finding.


Resumo Fundamento: A catarata subcapsular posterior é uma reação tecidual encontrada com frequência nos profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante. Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata nos profissionais que atuam na área de hemodinâmica no Brasil. Métodos: Profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante (grupo 1, G1) foram submetidos ao exame biomicroscópico com lâmpada de fenda para avaliação do cristalino, e comparados aos não expostos (grupo 2, G2). Os achados foram descritos e classificados quanto ao grau de opacidade e localização por meio do Lens opacities classification system III. Ambos os grupos responderam questionário sobre condições de trabalho e de saúde para afastar fatores de risco para catarata, e foram comparados quanto aos achados. Foi utilizado um nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: Foram avaliados 112 voluntários (G1) com média de idade 44,95 (±10,23) anos e 88 voluntários (G2) com média de 48,07 (±12,18) anos. Desses, 75,2% (G1) e 85,2% (G2) eram médicos. A análise estatística entre os grupos G1 e G2 mostrou uma prevalência da catarata no grupo G1 de 33% comparada ao G2 de 16% (p = 0,0058), sendo a catarata subcapsular posterior presente em 13% no G1 e 2% no G2 (p = 0,0081). Considerando apenas os médicos, 38% no G1 e 15% no G2 (p = 0,0011) apresentaram catarata, sendo a subcapsular posterior 13% e 3% (p = 0,0176), respectivamente. No grupo dos profissionais não médicos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na prevalência dos achados oftalmológicos. Conclusões: A catarata esteve mais presente no grupo de profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante, sendo que a catarata subcapsular posterior foi o dano tecidual mais encontrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cataract/epidemiology , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Cardiologists/statistics & numerical data , Lens, Crystalline/radiation effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Radiation, Ionizing , Cataract/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Radiation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Eye Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Hemodynamics , Occupational Diseases/etiology
15.
SA j. radiol ; 23(1): 1-7, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271356

ABSTRACT

Background: Diagnostic investigations using radiation have become a critical feature of medical practice in recent times. However, the possibility of doctors' underestimation of risks of over-exposure of patients to diagnostic radiation still warrants further evaluation. Objectives: To investigate doctors' awareness of diagnostic radiation exposure at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, South Africa. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, analytical investigation of the awareness of doctors about radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology investigations. A cluster sampling technique was employed to recruit 217 participants. Consent and approval of the participants were sought and obtained before questionnaire administration during departmental meetings between October 2017 and March 2018. Results: Of the participants, 80% had no formal training on radiation exposure and 33.8% of them correctly estimated natural background radiation. Correct estimates of the effective dose from a single-view abdominal X-ray (AXR) were expressed by 7.5%, quantity of radiation of a single-phase computed tomography (CT) abdomen by 30.3% and dosage from a two-view unilateral mammogram by 29.1% of the participants. More than 75% of participants agreed that children are more sensitive to radiation, but only 10.5% suggested medical termination of pregnancy for a woman who had CT abdomen and pelvis with contrast. Dosage and risk of inducing fatal cancer from common but more complex imaging procedures were poorly understood. Only the doctors of the radiology department showed a statistically significant (p< 0.0001) association with regards to their radiation awareness. Conclusion: Because of the high rate of poor awareness of radiation risks observed in this study, it is important to initiate, early in the medical curriculum for medical students, the need for a rotation in the Department of Radiology, similar to such rotations in other medical specialties


Subject(s)
Awareness , Physicians , Radiation Exposure , Radiation Protection , South Africa
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The use of computed tomography (CT) in pediatric patients has decreased since the association between radiation and cancer risk has been reported. However, in adolescent patients being treated as adult patients, there has been a high incidence of CT use in emergency departments (EDs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the CT use in adolescent patients with complaints of headache or abdominal pain in the general and pediatric EDs of the same hospital.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients aged 15 to 18 years, who presented with headache or abdominal pain at the general and pediatric EDs of Seoul National University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014, was conducted.RESULTS: A total of 407 adolescent patients with complaints of headache and 980 with abdominal pain were included in this study. The adolescent patients in the general ED were more likely to undergo CT scans than those in the pediatric ED, with both patients having headache (42.4% vs. 20.5%, respectively, P<0.001) and abdominal pain (29.0% vs. 18.4%, respectively, P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the rates of positive CT findings between the general and pediatric EDs. The frequency of visits to the general ED was associated with high rates of CT use in adolescent patients with complaints of headache (odds ratio, 3.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.01 to 7.77) and those with abdominal pain (odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 2.64).CONCLUSION: The ED setting influences the use of CT on adolescent patients, and a child-friendly environment could reduce the radiation risks.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adolescent , Adult , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Radiation Exposure , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763758

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A prospective study was conducted to compare radiation exposure to different parts of an endovascular surgeon's body when using a mobile C-arm with that in a hybrid room. METHODS: Exposure during individual procedures performed on 39 patients with a mobile C-arm and 42 patients in a hybrid room, from July 2016 to December 2016, was evaluated. RESULTS: The procedures performed, fluoroscopy time, and dose-area product were not significantly different between groups. The dose-area product per second in the hybrid room group appeared greater than in the C-arm group (4.5 µGym2/sec vs. 3.1 µGym2/sec). In the C-arm group, the peak skin dose on the right neck (1.77 mSv) and shoulder (1.48 mSv) appeared higher than those on their left side (0.32 mSv, 0.53 mSv, respectively) and the counterparts of the hybrid room group (0.88 mSv, 0.20 mSv, respectively). CONCLUSION: The peak skin dose in the hybrid room appeared highest for the lower part of the protective apron. The dose-area product per second seemed to be greater in the hybrid room than when using the C-arm. Thus, attention should be focused on protecting the surgeon's upper body when using the C-arm and the lower body when using the hybrid room.


Subject(s)
Endovascular Procedures , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Neck , Operating Rooms , Prospective Studies , Radiation Exposure , Shoulder , Skin , Surgeons
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762017

ABSTRACT

Mobile C-arm fluoroscopic X-ray systems are used for various diagnostic imaging and minimally invasive endovascular procedures. One of the greatest advantages of a mobile C-arm is its ability to move around the patient. The purpose of this study was to address the optimal setting of the mobile C-arm and the operating table, as well as the proper position of the operator and assistants for each procedure. In addition, methods to minimize radiation exposure to the operator and medical staff are described. Both the optimal setting and the proper position were classified by 5 types. These include the setting for aortic and inferior vena caval procedures (type I); left lower extremity (LE) intervention with an up-and-over technique (type II); right LE intervention with up-and-over technique, or bilateral LE vascular intervention with antegrade access (type III); arteriovenous fistula/graft intervention (type IV); and central vein catheterization (type V).


Subject(s)
Aorta , Catheterization , Catheters , Diagnostic Imaging , Endovascular Procedures , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Lower Extremity , Medical Staff , Operating Rooms , Operating Tables , Radiation Exposure , Veins
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