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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Numerous studies have concentrated on high-dose radiation exposed accidentally or through therapy, and few involve low-dose occupational exposure, to investigate the correlation between low-dose ionizing radiation and changing hematological parameters among medical workers.@*METHODS@#Using a prospective cohort study design, we collected health examination reports and personal dose monitoring data from medical workers and used Poisson regression and restricted cubic spline models to assess the correlation between changing hematological parameters and cumulative radiation dose and determine the dose-response relationship.@*RESULTS@#We observed that changing platelet of 1265 medical workers followed up was statistically different among the cumulative dose groups (P = 0.010). Although the linear trend tested was not statistically significant (P@*CONCLUSION@#We concluded that although the exposure dose was below the limit, medical workers exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation for a short period of time might have increased first and then decreased platelets, and there was a dose-response relationship between the cumulative radiation dose and platelets changing.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/radiation effects , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Young Adult
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878360

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the association between occupational radiation exposure and changes in thyroid hormone levels among medical radiation workers.@*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 2,946 radiation workers from 20 Guangzhou hospitals. Data on general characteristics, participant radiation dosimetry, and thyroid function test results [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid hormone (T4)] were extracted from dosimetry and medical records. The generalized estimating equation was used to evaluate the trend of changes in thyroid hormone levels over time and was adjusted for age, gender, and occupation.@*Results@#The average annual effective dose was very low and showed a general downward trend. During the follow-up period, changes in T3 and T4 levels among radiation workers were -0.015 [95% confidence interval ( @*Conclusion@#Thyroid hormone secretion might be affected even in low-dose radiation exposure environments.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormones/radiation effects , Young Adult
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1154-1161, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152938

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Nos últimos anos, o recente aumento no número de procedimentos intervencionistas tem resultado em crescente preocupação em relação à exposição radiológica por pacientes e equipe médica. A avaliação da exposição dos níveis de radiação em crianças é difícil devido à grande variabilidade no peso corporal. Portanto, os valores de referência de radiação não estão bem definidos para essa população. Objetivos Avaliar e validar a razão do produto dose-área (DAP) em relação ao peso corporal como uma medida de referência de radiação em cateterismos cardíacos em crianças. Métodos Estudo multicêntrico observacional com dados do Registro Brasileiro de Cateterismo Cardíaco em Cardiopatias Congênitas (CHAIN) de março de 2013 a junho de 2014. Os critérios de inclusão foram: pacientes <18 anos submetidos a procedimentos hemodinâmicos para cardiopatia congênita, com DAP devidamente registrado. Foram considerados diferenças estatísticas significativas os valores de p < 0,05. Resultados Este estudo avaliou 429 pacientes com idade e peso medianos de 50 (10, 103) meses e 15 (7, 28) kg, respectivamente. O DAP mediano foi de 742,2 (288,8, 1.791,5) μGy.m2. Houve uma boa correlação entre o DAP e o produto peso/tempo de fluoroscopia (rs=0,66). Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa na relação DAP/peso entre procedimentos terapêuticos e diagnósticos. Houve ampla variação da relação DAP/peso entre os procedimentos terapêuticos (p<0.001). Conclusões A proporção DAP/peso é a medida mais simples e aplicável para avaliar a exposição radiológica em uma população pediátrica. Apesar da escassa literatura disponível, as doses obtidas no presente estudo foram semelhantes àquelas encontradas anteriormente. Estudos de validação e comparação são importantes na avaliação do impacto de estratégias para redução da exposição radiológica nessa população. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background In recent years the increasing number of interventional procedures has resulted in growing concerns regarding radiation exposure for patients and staff. The evaluation of radiation exposure in children is difficult due to the great variability in body weight. Therefore, reference levels of radiation are not well defined for this population. Objectives To study and validate the ratio of dose-area product (DAP) to patient weight as a reference measurement of radiation for hemodynamic congenital heart disease procedures in children. Methods This observational multicenter study uses data obtained from a Brazilian registry of cardiac catheterization for congenital heart disease from March 2013 to June 2014. Inclusion criteria were all patients aged <18 years old undergoing hemodynamic procedures for congenital heart disease, with recorded DAP doses. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results This study evaluated 429 patients with median age and weight of 50 (10, 103) months and 15 (7, 28) kg, respectively. Median DAP was 742.2 (288.8, 1,791.5) μGy.m2. There was a good correlation between DAP and weight-fluoroscopic time product(rs=0.66). No statistically significant difference was observed in DAP/weight ratio between therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. There was a wide variation in the DAP/weight ratio among the therapeutic procedures (p<0.001). Conclusions The DAP/weight ratio is the simplest and most applicable measurement to evaluate radiation exposure in a pediatric population. Although there is limited literature available, the doses obtained in the present study were similar to those previously found. Ongoing research is important to evaluate the impact of strategies to reduce radiation exposure in this population (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Aged , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital , Radiation Dosage , Brazil , Fluoroscopy , Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects , Radiography, Interventional , Registries
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180687, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glucosamine is known as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and as neuroprotective as well as using to treat many of diseases. This work aimed to investigate the remedial effect of glucosamine (20mg/kg b.wt) against the damage induced by a single dose of γ-radiation (8Gy) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (100mg/kg b.wt) in the heart and brain tissues of female rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), LDH and creatine kinase (CPK) were measured. Moreover, gene expression of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and seladin-1 were estimated in the brain tissue. Also, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and p-tau protein expression were estimated in brain homogenate. Metallothioneine (MT) was estimated in the heart and brain tissues. Heart and brain histopathological examination was performed. Irradiation significantly decreased serum AST, CPK and LDH, as well as MT levels in heart and brain tissues. Also, gene expression of seladin-1 decreased. On the other hand, irradiation significantly increased serum TGs level and brain AchE activity, tau protein, and β-amyloid percursor (APP). AlCl3 administration (21 days) induced disturbance in most of the estimated parameters, especially AST, TGs, and MT. Glucosamine treatment with irradiation or AlCl3 improved most of the measured parameters. In addition, histopathological examination confirmed the biochemical results. In conclusion: Glucosamine could be used to improve the heart and brain damages induced by γ-radiation exposure or AlCl3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Glucosamine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
7.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(3): 208-216, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1020335

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El control radioscópico intraoperatorio es una práctica cada vez más frecuente, que no está libre de eventos adversos para el personal de la salud. Objetivos: Conocer la tasa de uso de radioscopia en la cirugía vertebral, reconocer las medidas de control, evaluar la asimilación del cirujano a los elementos de protección y analizar los eventos adversos en estos profesionales. Materiales y Métodos: Se envió, por correo electrónico, a cirujanos espinales, una encuesta de 17 preguntas de opciones múltiples. Resultados: Se recibieron 55 encuestas. El 87% se dedicaba a la columna, en más del 60% de sus prácticas. El arco en C es el método más utilizado para el control final, en forma pulsátil. Solo el 31% controla el tiempo real. El delantal plomado de una pieza es el método más utilizado, pero se desconoce cuándo se debe reemplazar. La mitad utiliza más de un elemento. Siete casos de trastornos visuales, 5 patologías tiroideas, 3 dermatitis y 2 casos de infertilidad. Tres cirujanos fueron operados por nódulos tiroideos, cataratas o neoplasia. Conclusiones: El control radioscópico intraoperatorio es una práctica frecuente en la cirugía espinal. El delantal plomado de una pieza es el método más utilizado y, muchas veces, se lo combina, pero se desconoce cuándo se deben renovar los plomados. Uno de cada tres cirujanos presentaron las patologías evaluadas y 3, cirugías relacionadas. Así queda en evidencia la protección y el control escasos que existen en los cirujanos especialistas, acompañados de una falta de protocolización que deja a la deriva este control. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Background: Intraoperative radiographic control (IRC) is an increasingly common practice, but it causes certain adverse events for healthcare providers. Objectives: To measure the use of fluoroscopy in spinal surgery, recognize control measures, evaluate assimilation of protection elements by surgeons, and analyze adverse events for spinal surgeons. Materials and Methods: A survey of 17 multiple-choice questions was e-mailed to spinal surgeons. Results: 55 surveys were answered. More than 60% of surgeons were spinal surgeons. The C-arm is the most widely used machine for final control by pulsating X-rays. Real-time controls are carried out in 31% of cases. One-piece leaded aprons are the most commonly used method, but it is unknown when they should be replaced. Half of the respondents uses more than one protection element. There were seven cases of vision changes, 5 of thyroid disorders, 3 of dermatitis, and 2 of infertility. Three surgeons required surgery for thyroid nodules, cataracts or neoplasm. Conclusions: IRC is a common practice in spinal surgery. One-piece leaded aprons are the most commonly used method and they are often combined with other elements, but it is not known when aprons must be replaced. One in 3 surgeons suffered from the studied conditions, and there were 3 related surgeries. Lack of adequate protection and control is a reality for specialist surgeons, together with a lack of protocols, making this an unregulated issue. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Argentina , Radiation Protection , Spine/surgery , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Orthopedic Surgeons , Occupational Diseases
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 392-399, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Posterior subcapsular cataract is a tissue reaction commonly found among professionals exposed to ionizing radiation. Objective: To assess the prevalence of cataract in professionals working in hemodynamics in Brazil. Methods: Professionals exposed to ionizing radiation (group 1, G1) underwent slit lamp examination with a biomicroscope for lens examination and compared with non-exposed subjects (group 2, G2). Ophthalmologic findings were described and classified by opacity degree and localization using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Both groups answered a questionnaire on work and health conditions to investigate the presence of risk factors for cataract. The level of significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 112 volunteers of G1, mean age of 44.95 (±10.23) years, and 88 volunteers of G2, mean age of 48.07 (±12.18) years were evaluated; 75.2% of G1 and 85.2% of G2 were physicians. Statistical analysis between G1 and G2 showed a prevalence of posterior subcapsular cataract of 13% and 2% in G1 and G2, respectively (0.0081). Considering physicians only, 38% of G1 and 15% of G2 had cataract, with the prevalence of posterior subcapsular cataract of 13% and 3%, respectively (p = 0.0176). Among non-physicians, no difference was found in the prevalence of cataract (by types). Conclusions: Cataract was more prevalent in professionals exposed to ionizing radiation, with posterior subcapsular cataract the most frequent finding.


Resumo Fundamento: A catarata subcapsular posterior é uma reação tecidual encontrada com frequência nos profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante. Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata nos profissionais que atuam na área de hemodinâmica no Brasil. Métodos: Profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante (grupo 1, G1) foram submetidos ao exame biomicroscópico com lâmpada de fenda para avaliação do cristalino, e comparados aos não expostos (grupo 2, G2). Os achados foram descritos e classificados quanto ao grau de opacidade e localização por meio do Lens opacities classification system III. Ambos os grupos responderam questionário sobre condições de trabalho e de saúde para afastar fatores de risco para catarata, e foram comparados quanto aos achados. Foi utilizado um nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: Foram avaliados 112 voluntários (G1) com média de idade 44,95 (±10,23) anos e 88 voluntários (G2) com média de 48,07 (±12,18) anos. Desses, 75,2% (G1) e 85,2% (G2) eram médicos. A análise estatística entre os grupos G1 e G2 mostrou uma prevalência da catarata no grupo G1 de 33% comparada ao G2 de 16% (p = 0,0058), sendo a catarata subcapsular posterior presente em 13% no G1 e 2% no G2 (p = 0,0081). Considerando apenas os médicos, 38% no G1 e 15% no G2 (p = 0,0011) apresentaram catarata, sendo a subcapsular posterior 13% e 3% (p = 0,0176), respectivamente. No grupo dos profissionais não médicos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na prevalência dos achados oftalmológicos. Conclusões: A catarata esteve mais presente no grupo de profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante, sendo que a catarata subcapsular posterior foi o dano tecidual mais encontrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cataract/epidemiology , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Cardiologists/statistics & numerical data , Lens, Crystalline/radiation effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Radiation, Ionizing , Cataract/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Radiation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Eye Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Hemodynamics , Occupational Diseases/etiology
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 691-696, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of mobile phones has become widespread in recent years. Although beneficial from the communication viewpoint, the electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones may cause unwanted biological changes in the human body. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of 2100 MHz Global System for Mobile communication (GSM-like) electromagnetic field, generated by an electromagnetic fields generator, on the auditory system of rats by using electrophysiological, histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. Methods: Fourteen adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided randomly into two groups of seven rats each. The study group was exposed continuously for 30 days to a 2100 MHz electromagnetic fields with a signal level (power) of 5.4 dBm (3.47 mW) to simulate the talk mode on a mobile phone. The control group was not exposed to the aforementioned electromagnetic fields. After 30 days, the Auditory Brainstem Responses of both groups were recorded and the rats were sacrificed. The cochlear nuclei were evaluated by histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. Results: The Auditory Brainstem Responses records of the two groups did not differ significantly. The histopathologic analysis showed increased degeneration signs in the study group (p = 0.007). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased apoptotic index in the study group compared to that in the control group (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The results support that long-term exposure to a GSM-like 2100 MHz electromagnetic fields causes an increase in neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the auditory system.


Resumo Introdução: O uso de telefones celulares tornou-se generalizado nos últimos anos. Embora benéfico do ponto de vista da comunicação, os campos eletromagnéticos gerados por celulares pode causar alterações biológicas indesejáveis no corpo humano. Objetivo: Nesse estudo, o objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos do campo eletromagnético na frequência de 2.100 MHz, similar à modulação do Sistema Global para Comunicações Móveis, produzido por um gerador de campo eletromagnético, sobre o sistema auditivo de ratos usando os métodos eletrofisiológico, histopatológico e imunohistoquímico. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo catorze adultos ratos albinos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo de estudo foi exposto continuamente por 30 dias a um campo eletromagnético em 2100 MHz com um nível de sinal (potência) de 5,4 dBm (3,47 miliwatts) para simular o modo de conversação em um celular. O grupo controle não foi exposto ao campo eletromagnético acima mencionado. Após 30 dias, o potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico de ambos os grupos foi gravado e os ratos foram sacrificados. Os núcleos cocleares foram avaliados pelos métodos histopatológico e imunohistoquímico. Resultados: Os registros do potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico dos dois grupos não diferiram significativamente. A análise histopatológica mostrou aumento dos sinais de degeneração no grupo de estudo (p = 0,007). Além disso, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou aumento do índice de apoptose no grupo de estudo em comparação com o grupo controle (p = 0,002). Conclusão: Os resultados confirmam que a exposição a longo prazo a um campo eletromagnético em 2100 MHz similar à modulação do sistema global para comunicações móveis causa um aumento na degeneração neuronal e apoptose no sistema auditivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Radio Waves/adverse effects , Cochlear Nucleus/radiation effects , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Cell Phone , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Hearing/radiation effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Risk Factors , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/radiation effects , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Cochlear Nucleus/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/etiology
10.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(4): 274-277, out.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-879436

ABSTRACT

Os avanços da radioterapia aumentaram a taxa de sobrevida dos pacientes em tratamento oncológico em até 90% em alguns casos. A prevalência acumulada de doença cardíaca relacionada com a radioterapia é estimada em 10% a 30% de 5 a 10 anos após o tratamento e é dose-dependente. A dose acumulada e seu fracionamento podem determinar os efeitos cardíacos agudos e crônicos da radioterapia. Além disso, a progressão da doença cardíaca induzida pela radiação a curto e longo prazo em cada paciente ainda não é completamente compreendida. Sabe-se que o dano cardíaco está relacionado com o dano endotelial que acomete a micro e a macrovasculatura, e o acompanhamento dos pacientes expostos deve seguir recomendações.


Advances in radiotherapy have increased the survival rate of cancer patients by up to 90% in some cases. The cumulative prevalence of radiotherapy-related heart disease is estimated at 10% to 30% five to ten years after treatment, and is dose-dependent. The accumulated dose and its fractionation may result in acute and chronic cardiac effects of radiotherapy. In addition, the progression of short- and long-term radiation-induced heart disease in each patient is still not fully understood. It is known that heart damage is related to endothelial damage, which affects the micro and macro vasculature, and the follow-up to these exposed patients should follow the recommendations


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiotherapy , Cardiotoxicity/complications , Aortic Valve , Pericardium/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Coronary Disease/complications , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Vessels , Mitral Valve , Cardiomyopathies , Neoplasms/therapy
11.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(4): 266-273, out.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-879434

ABSTRACT

A evolução do tratamento oncológico resultou no desenvolvimento de fármacos altamente eficazes. No entanto, os efeitos colaterais da terapia antitumoral ainda são frequentes e, muitas vezes, limitantes. Entre os efeitos adversos possíveis, a cardiotoxicidade representa um grupo importante de manifestações, com impacto negativo a curto e longo prazo na evolução desses pacientes. Esses eventos podem ocorrer na ausência de fatores de risco de doença cardiovascular e sua evolução ainda não está totalmente esclarecida. Curiosamente, podem ser desencadeadas tanto por terapias sistêmicas convencionais quanto por novas terapias relacionadas com alvos moleculares específicos. As definições de cardiotoxicidade ainda são diversas e não há um consenso universal. Em linhas gerais, pode ser entendida como qualquer alteração da homeostase do sistema cardiovascular induzida pelo tratamento do câncer. O dano cardíaco pode apresentar-se por vasta gama de condições clínicas, como por exemplo, alterações metabólicas, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, síndromes coronarianas agudas, tromboembolismo arterial e venoso, arritmias, entre outros. Muitos destes eventos têm prognóstico pior que muitas neoplasias. Assim, o conhecimento dos efeitos adversos cardíacos do tratamento antineoplásico é de suma importância, e a avaliação cardiovascular do paciente com câncer é fundamental. O intuito desta revisão é apresentar de forma prática as drogas oncológicas com maior potencial cardiotóxico e discutir de forma resumida seus principais efeitos cardiovasculares. Serão discutidas brevemente as definições, os mecanismos de agressão cardíaca e as manifestações clínicas principais, além da evolução e manejo inicial


The evolution of oncological treatment has resulted in the development of highly effective drugs. However, the side effects of antineoplastic therapy are still frequent, and often limiting. Among the possible adverse effects, cardiotoxicity represents an important group of manifestations, with negative impact on the clinical development of these patients in the short and long terms. These events can occur in the absence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and their clinical course is still not fully clarified. Interestingly, they can be triggered by both conventional systemic therapies and by new therapies with specific molecular targets. There are several definitions of cardiotoxicity, and there is no universal consensus. In general terms, it can be understood as any modification of cardiovascular system homeostasis induced by cancer treatment. Cardiac damage can present as a wide range of clinical conditions, such as metabolic changes, systemic arterial hypertension, acute coronary syndromes, arterial and venous thromboembolism, and arrhythmias, among others. Many of these events have a worse prognosis than many neoplasms. Thus, the knowledge of the adverse cardiac effects of antineoplastic treatment is of paramount importance, and the cardiovascular evaluation of the cancer patient is essential. The purpose of this review is to offer a practical presentation of oncological drugs with greater cardiotoxic potential, and to summarize its main cardiovascular effects. The definitions, mechanisms of cardiac aggression, and main clinical manifestations will be briefly discussed, as well as the clinical course and initial management


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Therapy/methods , Cardiotoxicity/complications , Stroke Volume , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Risk Factors , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Ventricular Dysfunction , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/therapy
12.
Coluna/Columna ; 16(2): 141-144, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare radiation exposure to the surgeon, patient and radiation technician during percutaneous access of the vertebral pedicle, using three different fluoroscopic imaging set up. Methods: Percutaneous access in pedicle T9-L5 of nine adult male cadavers using three different fluoroscopic set ups: standard C-arm, C-arm with L-arm, and the biplanar technique. The radiation dose exposure of the surgeon, radiation technician, and cadaver were measured using dosimeter in each procedure and in real time. Results: The radiation dose absorbed by the surgeon was higher when using the standard C-arm fluoroscopic technique than when using the C-arm with L-arm or the biplanar technique. Conclusions: The use of the C-arm with L-arm, or the biplanar fluoroscopic technique, for percutaneous access to the vertebral pedicle, reduces the radiation exposure of the surgeon compared to the standard C-arm fluoroscopic technique.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a exposição à radiação do cirurgião, paciente e técnico de radiologia durante acesso percutâneo do pedículo vertebral, usando três diferentes técnicas fluoroscópicas. Métodos: Acesso percutâneo do pedículo vertebral de T9-L5 de nove cadáveres de adultos do sexo masculino usando três diferentes técnicas de fluoroscopia: arco cirúrgico padrão, arco cirúrgico com braço em "L" e técnica biplanar. A radiação recebida por cirurgião, cadáver e técnico de radiologia foi mensurada com dosímetro em cada procedimento e em tempo real. Resultados: A dose de radiação absorvida pelo cirurgião foi maior com o uso do arco cirúrgico padrão, em comparação com o uso de arco cirúrgico com braço em "L" ou com técnica biplanar. Conclusões: O uso do arco cirúrgico com braço em "L" ou da técnica biplanar para acesso percutâneo do pedículo vertebral reduz a exposição do cirurgião à radiação em comparação com a técnica fluoroscópica com arco cirúrgico padrão.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comparar la exposición a la radiación del cirujano, paciente y técnico de radiología durante el acceso percutáneo del pedículo vertebral, utilizando tres técnicas fluoroscópicas diferentes. Métodos: Acceso percutáneo del pedículo vertebral de T9-L5 de nueve cadáveres de adultos del sexo masculino utilizando tres técnicas fluoroscópicas diferentes: arco en C estándar, arco en C con brazo en L y técnica biplanar. La radiación recibida por cirujano, cadáver y técnico de radiología se midió usando dosímetro en cada procedimiento y en tiempo real. Resultados: La dosis de radiación absorbida por el cirujano fue mayor cuando se usó la técnica del arco en C estándar, en comparación con el arco en C con brazo en L o con técnica biplanar. Conclusiones: El uso del arco en C con brazo en L o de la técnica biplanar para el acceso percutáneo del pedículo vertebral reduce la exposición a la radiación del cirujano en comparación con la técnica fluoroscópica con arco en C estándar.


Subject(s)
Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Dosage , Fluoroscopy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
13.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 24(1-4): f:38-l:43, jan.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878999

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As aplicações médicas representam a maior fonte de exposição radiológica ionizante e, neste contexto, é de especial importância a questão do risco profissional. Embora existam diferentes sensibilidades à radiação dos distintos órgãos do corpo humano, avaliações específicas do impacto nas diversas regiões do corpo do operador, com diferentes dispositivos de radioproteção, são raras em nosso meio. Métodos: Teste de radiação espalhada foi realizado com câmara de ionização em estação de fluoroscopia, com jogo de acessórios de radioproteção padrão do equipamento (saia inferior e escudo móvel superior, em duas diferentes posições), a distâncias sequenciais em relação à fonte, utilizando fantoma de acrílico em simulação de tórax humano. Resultados: Foram identificadas diferenças na radiação em relação à distância e ao uso dos dispositivos de radioproteção. A redução mediana da radiação foi de 50,6% (intervalo interquartil − IQ de 39,42% a 51,05%) com uso do escudo saia inferior, 71,3% (IQ de 67,66% a 77,05%) com adição de escudo superior em posicionamento angulado e 84,7% (IQ de 83,75% a 85,87%) com adição de escudo superior em linha ao escudo inferior. Diferenças significativas foram encontradas ainda em relação à altura e à distância da fonte. Conclusões: O uso dos dispositivos locais de radioproteção avaliados se mostrou efetivo na redução global do impacto radiológico ao operador, havendo, no entanto, vias de escape de radiação, especialmente com posicionamento não ideal, demonstrando a importância do uso adicional dos dispositivos de proteção individuais


Background: Medical applications are the main source of ionizing radiation exposure, and in this context the issue of occupational risk is particularly important. Although the different organs of the human body present different radiation sensitivities, specific assessments of the impact on the different regions of the interventionist's body with diverse radioprotection devices are rare in Brazil. Methods: A scattered radiation test was performed using an ionization chamber in a fluoroscopy station, with standard radioprotection accessory kit of the equipment (lower skirt and upper movable shield, in two different positions), at sequential distances from the source, using acrylic phantoms as human chest simulation. Results: Differences in radiation were identified in relation to distance and use of radioprotection devices. The median radiation reduction was 50.6% (interquartile range ­ IQ from 39.42% to 51.05%) using the lower skirt shield, 71.3% (IQ from 67.66% to 77.05%) with the addition of an upper shield in angulated position, and 84.7% (IQ from 83.75% to 85.87%) with the addition of an upper shield aligned with the lower shield. Significant differences were also found regarding height and distance from the source Conclusions: The use of the assessed local radioprotection devices was effective in reducing the overall radiological impact to the interventionist. However, there were radiation escape routes, especially with non-ideal positioning, demonstrating the importance of the additional use of individual protection devices


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Personal Protective Equipment , Radiation Protection , Radiation, Ionizing , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Occupational Risks , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiology, Interventional , Risk Factors , X-Rays
14.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(10): 2110-2126, Out. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770602

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a associação entre exposição a radiações eletromagnéticas não ionizantes da estação radiobase de telefonia celular e sintomas à saúde. Em um estudo transversal realizado em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, entrevistaram-se 440 indivíduos. Queixas e diagnósticos psiquiátricos constituíram as variáveis dependentes e a distância do domicílio para estação radiobase foi considerada a variável independente principal. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística hierarquizada para avaliação de confundimento e efeito. Observou-se associação entre sintomas psiquiátricos e residir próximo à estação radiobase e formas de uso do telefone celular (sinal de cobertura fraco, perto do corpo, dois ou mais chips e nunca desligar o celular quando dorme) e com uso de outros eletroeletrônicos. Concluiu-se que a exposição à radiação eletromagnética não ionizante de telefonia celular e a outros eletroeletrônicos foi associada aos sintomas psiquiátricos independente do sexo, escolaridade e tabagismo. Recomenda-se a adoção de medidas precaucionárias no sentido de se reduzir este tipo de exposição.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la asociación entre la exposición a la radiación electromagnética no ionizante de una estación base telefonía móvil y sus efectos sobre la salud. Se trata de un estudio transversal en Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, donde se entrevistaron a 440 personas. Las quejas y diagnósticos psiquiátricos fueron las variables dependientes y la distancia del hogar a la estación base se consideró como la variable independiente principal. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística jerárquica para evaluar la confusión y modificación de los efectos. Se observó una asociación entre los efectos psiquiátricos y residir cerca de una estación base y formas de uso del teléfono celular (débil cobertura de la señal, cerca del cuerpo dos o más chips y nunca apagar el teléfono cuando se duerme) y uso de otros aparatos electrónicos. Se concluyó que la exposición a radiación no ionizante de la telefonía móvil y otros aparatos electrónicos se asoció con efectos psiquiátricos, independiente de sexo, la educación y el tabaquismo. Se recomienda la adopción de medidas de precaución, con el fin de reducir la exposición.


Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual’s residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mental Disorders/etiology , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radio Waves/adverse effects , Brazil , Cell Phone , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electromagnetic Radiation , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(10): 895-901, Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761598

ABSTRACT

According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Injuries/diagnosis , Radioactive Hazard Release/statistics & numerical data , Radiometry/methods , Skin/radiation effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Finger Injuries/etiology , Hand Injuries/etiology , Luminescent Measurements , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Injuries/epidemiology
16.
Coluna/Columna ; 14(1): 41-44, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find a biological effect by means of detection of the thyroid profile in research personnel, and a physical effect through radiation detection plates type Durr. METHODS: Five medical residents (four of first year and one of second) were submitted to the study of the basal thyroid profile, and annually after a year of radiation exposure. In two of them five plates of Durr type were placed by surgery at different body parts and 20 separate surgeries, using fluoroscopy, a total of 200 plates exposed. RESULTS: Three residents had decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone and two had a significant increase. Ninety-one plates were exposed, most of which corresponds to the neck (thyroid). CONCLUSION: Biological and physical changes were observed that require us to realize and implement protective measures against radiation, at least in the neck, because the thyroid is susceptible to radiation. .


OBJETIVO: Encontrar um efeito biológico através da detecção do perfil da tireoide dos profissionais de investigação, e um efeito físico através da detecção de radiação com placas tipo Durr. MÉTODOS: Cinco médicos residentes (quatro de primeiro ano e um de segundo) foram submetidos ao estudo do perfil tireoidiano basal, e anualmente após um ano de exposição à radiação. Em dois deles, foram colocadas cinco placas de Durr por cirurgia, em diferentes partes do corpo e em 20 cirurgias distintas, utilizando-se fluoroscopia, perfazendo um total de 200 placas expostas. RESULTADOS: Três residentes tiveram diminuição do hormônio estimulador da tireoide e dois, um aumento significativo. Foram expostas 91 placas, cuja maioria corresponde ao pescoço (tireoide). CONCLUSÃO: Foram verificadas mudanças biológicas e físicas que nos impulsionam à conscientização e implementação de medidas de proteção contra a radiação, pelo menos no pescoço, uma vez que a tireoide é suscetível à radiação. .


OBJETIVO: Encontrar un efecto biológico mediante detección de perfil tiroideo al personal investigador, y un efecto físico mediante detección de radiación con placas tipo Durr. MÉTODOS: Fueron sometidos al estudio, cinco médicos residentes, (cuatro de primer año y uno de segundo) para el perfil tiroideo basal, y anual después de un año de radiación. A dos de ellos les fueron colocadas cinco placas de Durr por cirugía, distribuidas en diferentes partes del cuerpo en 20 cirugías distintas con la utilización de fluoroscopio, dando un total de 200 placas expuestas. RESULTADOS: En tres de los residentes hubo una disminución de la hormona tiroidea estimulante y en dos un aumento significativo. Se expusieron 91 placas siendo la mayoría de estas correspondientes al cuello (tiroides). CONCLUSIÓN: Se encontraron cambios biológicos y físicos que nos impelen a tomar conciencia y medidas necesarias de radioprotección por lo menos a nivel del cuello, ya que la tiroides es susceptible a las radiaciones .


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Fluoroscopy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Occupational Health
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