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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-9, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151572

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento con radioterapia, consiste en irradiar de forma homogénea el tumor, evitando irradiar los órganos cercanos. El desarrollo de la tecnología en el campo de la medicina, ha permitido que se cumpla este principio, con buenos resultados de respuesta objetiva, que se traduce en el control de la enfermedad de los pacientes con cáncer. La Tomografía axial computarizada por emisión de positrones (PET-CT) consigue una mayor precisión en el delineado del volumen blanco o tumoral. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la influencia del uso del PET-CT en el delineado de volúmenes a tratar en la planificación del tratamiento con radiaciones.Se diseñó un estudio piloto con dos pacientes preparados para radioterapia por neoplasias malignas, a los cuáles se les realizó un TAC simple y un PET-CT y observadores independientes realizaron la delimitación del tumor. Se examinó la consistencia entre los observadores y las mediciones en las imágenes.El uso del PET-CT favoreció la delimitación del volumen a irradiar lo que disminuye el riesgo para los órganos vecinos.


The treatment with radiotherapy consists on irradiating in a homogeneous way the tumor, avoiding to irradiate the near organs. The development of the technology in the field of the medicine, it has allowed that this principle is completed, with good results of objective answer what allows the control of the illness of the patients with cancer. The computerized axial tomography by positrons emission (PET-CT) it gets a bigger precision in the one delineated of the white volume or tumoral. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the use of the PET-CT in the one delineated of volumes to try in the planning of the treatment with radiations.A study pilot was designed with two prepared patients for radiotherapy for malignant diseases, to those which they were carried out a simple TAC and a PET-CT and independent observers carried out the delimitation of the tumor. The consistency was examined between the observers and the mensuration in the images.The use of the PET-CT favors the delimitation of the volume to irradiate what diminishes the risk for the neighboring organs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Radiotherapy/methods , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Radiation Oncology/methods , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 101-122, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342191

ABSTRACT

Humans when exposed to harmful ionising radiations suffer from various pathophysiological disorders including cancer. Radiotherapy is a treatment where these cancerous cells within a tumor aretargeted and killed by means of high energy waves. This therapy is very expensive and involves highly sophisticated instruments. In addition to this, most synthetic radioprotectors including Amifostine have been found to possess toxicity. This led researchers to develop a novel, economically viable, and efficient therapeutic alternative to radiation therapy. The last two decades have observed a major shift towards investigating natural products as radioprotectors, as these are immensely effective in terms of their potential bioequivalence relative to many of the established synthetic compounds available. Taking into account the limitations of radiation therapy, an approach 'Integrative Oncology' that involves a combination of both traditional and conventional medical treatment are used nowadays to treat patients suffering from cancer and associated mental and psychological disorders.


Los seres humanos, cuando se exponen a radiaciones ionizantes nocivas, sufren diversos trastornos fisiopatológicos, incluido el cáncer. La radioterapia es un tratamiento en el que estas células cancerosas dentro de un tumor son atacadas y destruidas por medio de ondas de alta energía. Esta terapia es muy cara e implica instrumentos muy sofisticados. Además de esto, se ha descubierto que la mayoría de los radioprotectores sintéticos, incluida la amifostina, poseen toxicidad. Esto llevó a los investigadores a desarrollar una novedosa, económicamente viable y eficiente alternativa terapéutica a la radioterapia. En las dos últimas décadas se ha observado un cambio importante hacia la investigación de productos naturales como radioprotectores, ya que son inmensamente eficaces en términos de su potencial bioequivalencia en relación con muchos de los compuestos sintéticos establecidos disponibles. Teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones de la radioterapia, hoy en día se utiliza un enfoque de "Oncología Integrativa" que implica una combinación de tratamiento médico tradicional y convencional para tratar a pacientes que padecen cáncer y trastornos mentales y psicológicos asociados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants/chemistry , Radiation-Protective Agents , Biological Products , Integrative Oncology/methods , Radiotherapy/methods , DNA Damage , Radiation Oncology/methods , Genomic Instability
3.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 168 f p. tab, graf, il.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368103

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo apresenta como cenário o ambulatório de radioterapia de um hospital de referência em Oncologia situado no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em que se realiza a consulta de enfermagem e teve como objetivos específicos: (1) Descrever o trabalho do enfermeiro em teleterapia; (2) Analisar o fluxo de pacientes nas consultas de enfermagem com base em Pavani Junior e Scucuglia (2011); (3) Identificar no mapa do serviço de teleterapia de modo a facilitar o fluxo no atendimento ao paciente; (4) Elaborar o novo fluxo para o atendimento às consultas de enfermagem em teleterapia; (5) Apresentar requisitos para propor o módulo de enfermagem em teleterapia. A investigação foi de abordagem qualitativa e natureza descritiva a partir da observação do fluxo no atendimento do paciente em teleterapia. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da técnica de observação sistemática segundo Gerhardt e Silveira (2009). Os resultados revelaram: fragilidade no fluxo de atendimento do paciente, ocasionado por retrabalho no agendamento das consultas, das movimentações desnecessárias dos pacientes e familiares às consultas de enfermagem por conta da necessidade de trazer a pasta de planejamentos na avaliação dos pacientes, e após entregar no setor de origem, e um sistema de informação que não atende às características de avaliação de enfermagem. Conclui-se que o fluxo existente é inadequado, assim como o processo de informação. Destaca-se a necessidade de organização do fluxo de atendimento ao paciente em teleterapia. Recomenda-se a proposição de um módulo de enfermagem, para ser utilizado no sistema informação existente, de modo a organizar as atividades do enfermeiro nas consultas de teleterapia.


The present study presents as a setting the radiotherapy outpatient clinic of a reference hospital in Oncology, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where nursing consultations take place. The general objective is to analyze the work process of nurses in teletherapy, to update the information system, in order to improve patient care. And as specific objectives: (1) Describe the work of nurses in teletherapy; (2) A Analyze the flow of patients to nursing consultations based on Pavani Junior and Scucuglia (2011); (3) Identify the teletherapy service map in order to facilitate the flow of patient care; (4) Develop the new flow for attending nursing consultations in teletherapy; (5) Present requirements to propose the teletherapy nursing module. The investigation was based on a qualitative descriptive approach, based on the observation of the flow in patient care in teletherapy. Data were obtained through the systematic observation technique according to Gerhardt e Silveira (2009). The results reveal: weakness in the flow of patient care, caused by rework in scheduling appointments, unnecessary movement of patients and families to nursing appointments due to the need to bring the planning folder in the assessment of patients and after delivering it to the sector origin and an information system that does not meet the characteristics of nursing assessment. It is concluded that the existing flow is inadequate, as well as the information process. The need to organize the flow of care for patients in teletherapy is highlighted. It is recommended to propose a nursing module, to be used in the existing information system, in order to organize the activities of nurses in teletherapy consultations.


Subject(s)
Nursing Records , Radiation Oncology , Health Information Systems
4.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8012, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128651

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Establecer recomendaciones para la toma de decisiones de manejo en radioterapia durante la pandemia de COVID-19, adaptadas a un país con recursos de salud limitados. MÉTODOS: A través de una revisión rápida de la literatura se buscaron publicaciones que describieran medidas para reducir el riesgo de infección por COVID-19, así como también pautas de manejo para reducir la carga de trabajo en las unidades de radioterapia. Se incluyeron en el alcance de esta revisión las siguientes patologías: tumores ginecológicos, cáncer de mama, tumores gastrointestinales, tumores genitourinarios, tumores de cabeza y cuello, cáncer de piel, tumores del sistema nervioso central y linfomas. Un grupo de expertos discutió en línea los datos extraídos y redactó las recomendaciones. Mediante un método Delphi modificado, se evaluó el consenso entre 14 radio-oncólogos certificados. Se evaluó la calidad de la evidencia que sustentó las recomendaciones sobre esquemas de tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron un total de 57 documentos. De 25 trabajos se extrajeron las estrategias para reducir el riesgo de infección. De los restantes, se obtuvieron las recomendaciones para cada patología. Las recomendaciones están orientadas a establecer escenarios específicos donde se pueden omitir, diferir, priorizar y acortar los tratamientos. En el ítem de acortar se recomiendan esquemas de tratamiento para cada patología, priorizando los esquemas hipofraccionados cuando fue posible. CONCLUSIÓN: Se plantean estrategias para la gestión de los servicios de radioterapia con el objetivo de garantizar que los tratamientos de alta calidad para pacientes oncológicos sigan entregándose, pese a la crisis sanitaria ocasionada por COVID-19.


OBJECTIVE: To generate recommendations on the management of radiotherapeutic treatments during the pandemic, adapted to a country with limited health resources. METHODS: We did a rapid review of the literature, searching for papers that describe any measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection, as well as management guidelines to reduce the workload, in radiotherapy units. The following conditions were included in the scope of this review: gynecological tumors, breast cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tumors, head and neck tumors, skin cancer, tumors of the central nervous system, and lymphomas. An expert group discussed online the extracted data and drafted the recommendations. Using a modified Delphi method, the consensus was reached among 14 certificated radio-oncologists. The quality of the evidence that supported the recommendations on treatment schedules was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 57 documents were included. Of these, 25 provided strategies to reduce the risk of infection. Recommendations for each condiction were extracted from the remaining documents. The recommendations aim to establish specific parameters where treatments can be omitted, deferred, prioritized, and shortened. Treatment schemes are recommended for each condition, prioritizing hypo-fractionated schemes whenever possible. CONCLUSIONS: We propose strategies for the management of radiotherapy services to guarantee the continuity of high-quality treatments despite the health crisis caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Workload , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Consensus , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Disinfection/methods , Hygiene/standards , Triage/organization & administration , Delphi Technique , Radiation Oncology/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Physics , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/veterinary
6.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 23(2): 45-55, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042751

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: La radioterapia de intensidad modulada (IMRT) es una técnica avanzada que se usa ampliamente a nivel mundial; sin embargo, su uso adecuado en nuestro país requiere ser revisado. Objetivo: Actualizar un protocolo clínico (PC) basado en evidencia que contiene las indicaciones clínicas para la utilización de la técnica IMRT en el tratamiento de las patologías oncológicas tratadas más frecuentemente en el servicio de oncología radioterápica del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INC) - Colombia. Métodos: La elaboración de este documento fue realizada por un equipo multidisciplinario empleando un manual nacional para el desarrollo de PC. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura, seguido por la selección de los artículos relevantes y su evaluación utilizando las herramientas apropiadas. La evidencia fue resumida, contextualizada y empleada para generar las recomendaciones mediante un consenso formal tipo RAND/UCLA. Resultados: Se generaron indicaciones para el uso de la IMRT en pacientes con alguno de los siguientes tipos de cáncer: próstata y pene, cabeza y cuello, piel, sistema nervioso central, mama, sarcomas de tejidos blandos, pulmón, gastrointestinal, ginecológico y urgencias oncológicas. Conclusiones: En el periodo 2014 a 2017 ha surgido escasa evidencia sobre el impacto de la IMRT en desenlaces relacionados con la supervivencia y la calidad de vida y por tanto el uso de la IMRT sigue siendo en pacientes seleccionados.


Abstract Background: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced technique which has been put into service in several clinical settings around the world; however, its proper use in Colombia requires to be revisited. Aim: To update an evidence-based clinical care protocol (CCP) that contains clinical recommendations for using IMRT in order to treat the most common oncological malignancies seen in the Radiotherapy Unit of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología - Colombia. Methods: The elaboration of this CCP was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team who abided by a domestic CCP-development handbook. Briefly, a systematic search of literature was conducted; afterwards, relevant papers were selected and evaluated using appropriate appraisal tools; finally, evidence was summarized, contextualized, and used for generating the recommendations through a formal consensus approach (RAND/UCLA). Results: We established a handful of recommendations for using the IMRT technique in patients with any of the following types of cancer: prostate & penis, head & neck, skin, central nervous system, breast, soft tissue sarcoma, lung, gastrointestinal, and gynecologic, as well as oncologic emergencies. Conclusions: During the period 2014 - 2017, few evidence has emerged about the impact of IMRT on outcomes related to survival and quality of life; therefore, IMRT use still remains in selected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Protocols , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Radiation Oncology , Consensus , Neoplasms
7.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(2): e735, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042940

ABSTRACT

El reconocimiento inicial de la disfunción cardíaca ocasionada por estrategias terapéuticas aplicadas contra el cáncer fue realizado en la sexta década del siglo xx. La Cardiooncología es una nueva disciplina horizontal dirigida a la identificación de los pacientes en riesgo elevado para el desarrollo de toxicidad cardíaca. El eficaz desempeño inherente a la Cardiooncología pediátrica radica en la adecuada selección del medio diagnóstico capaz de identificar y evaluar los indicios de cardiotoxicidad mediante la detección de cambios precoces en la funcionalidad del miocardio tras la aplicación de terapias antitumorales y, sobre todo, la predicción a largo plazo de estos eventos en niños sobrevivientes de cáncer. La cardiotoxicidad secundaria a la terapéutica aplicada sobre estos pacientes es un problema de salud latente en nuestro país que precisa la adopción de medidas organizativas concebidas para su enfrentamiento. Se persigue contribuir a la estructuración de la atención integral correspondiente al niño con cáncer y afectado por cardiotoxicidad en Cuba(AU)


The initial recognition of cardiac dysfunction caused by therapeutic strategies applied against cancer was performed in the sixth decade of the twentieth century. Cardio-Oncology is a new horizontal discipline aimed at the identification of patients at high risk for the development of cardiac toxicity. The effective performance inherent in Pediatric cardio-oncology lies in the appropriate selection of the diagnostic mean which can be capable of identifying and evaluating the indications of heart toxicity by detecting early changes in myocardial functionality after the application of anti-tumour therapies and, above all, the long-term prediction of these events in children survivors of cancer. Cardiac toxicity secondary to the therapies applied on these patients is a latent health problem in our country that requires the adoption of organisational measures conceived for their confrontation. It is pursued to contribute to the structuring of the comprehensive care corresponding to children with cancer and affected by cardiotoxicity in Cuba(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Radiation Oncology/methods , Cardiotoxicity/complications , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 273-287, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002208

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Several recent randomized clinical trials have evaluated hypofractionated regimens against conventionally fractionated EBRT and shown similar effectiveness with conflicting toxicity results. The current view regarding hypofractionation compared to conventional EBRT among North American genitourinary experts for management of prostate cancer has not been investigated. Materials and Methods: A survey was distributed to 88 practicing North American GU physicians serving on decision - making committees of cooperative group research organizations. Questions pertained to opinions regarding the default EBRT dose and fractionation for a hypothetical example of a favorable intermediate - risk prostate cancer (Gleason 3 + 4). Treatment recommendations were correlated with practice patterns using Fisher's exact test. Results: Forty - two respondents (48%) completed the survey. We excluded from analysis two respondents who selected radical hypofractionation with 5 - 12 fractions as a preferred treatment modality. Among the 40 analyzed respondents, 23 (57.5%) recommend conventional fractionation and 17 (42.5%) recommended moderate hypofractionation. No demographic factors were found to be associated with preference for a fractionation regimen. Support for brachytherapy as a first choice treatment modality for low - risk prostate cancer was borderline significantly associated with support for moderate hypofractionated EBRT treatment modality (p = 0.089). Conclusions: There is an almost equal split among North American GU expert radiation oncologists regarding the appropriateness to consider moderately hypofractionated EBRT as a new standard of care in management of patients with prostate cancer. Physicians who embrace brachytherapy may be more inclined to support moderate hypofractionated regimen for EBRT. It is unclear whether reports with longer follow-ups will impact this balance, or whether national care and reimbursement policies will drive the clinical decisions. In the day and age of patient - centered care delivery, patients should receive an objective recommendation based on available clinical evidence. The stark division among GU experts may influence the design of future clinical trials utilizing EBRT for patients with prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Radiation Oncology/standards , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation/standards , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , United States , Brachytherapy/standards , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Radiation Oncology/methods , Neoplasm Grading
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 120-130, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of central nervous system (CNS) failure in Korean patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched breast cancer treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: A total of 749 patients from eight institutions were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent surgery followed by postoperative RT from 2003 to 2011; 246 (32.8%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 649 (81.7%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant trastuzumab was administered to 386 patients (48.6%). RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 84 (range, 8–171) months. The 7-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 79.0% and 84.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, mastectomy, nodal involvement, and presence of lymphatic invasion were correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.004, 0.022, and 0.011, respectively), whereas T stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Regarding CNS failures, 30 brain metastases, 2 leptomeningeal metastases, and 8 brain and leptomeningeal metastases were noted. The 7-year CNS relapse-free survival rates in patients receiving and not receiving trastuzumab were 91.2% and 96.9%, respectively (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the administration of adjuvant trastuzumab was the only prognostic factor in predicting a higher CNS failure rate (hazard ratio, 2.260; 95% confidence interval, 1.076–4.746; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant trastuzumab was associated with higher CNS failure rate in Korean patients with HER2-enriched breast cancer. Close monitoring and reasonable approaches such as CNS penetrating HER2 blockades combined with the current standard therapy could contribute to improving intracranial tumor control and quality of life in patients with CNS metastasis from HER2-enriched breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Quality of Life , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 285-296, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764262

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The benefit of post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in patients with breast cancer who achieve ypN0 following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has not yet been established. This study aimed to identify the role of PMRT in patients who achieve ypN0 according to molecular subtype. METHODS: We identified patients initially suspected with axillary disease who achieved ypN0 following NAC. From 13 institutions of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group between 2005 and 2011, a total of 189 patients were included in the analysis. Effects of PMRT on loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated for different molecular subtypes. RESULTS: In all patients, the prognostic effect of PMRT on LRC, DFS, or OS was not significant. Subgroups analysis showed that the effect of PMRT on LRC was different according to molecular subtype (p for interaction = 0.019). PMRT was associated with greater LRC in the luminal subtype (p = 0.046), but not in other subtypes. CONCLUSION: In patients who achieve ypN0 following NAC and mastectomy, PMRT shows no additional survival benefits for any molecular subtype.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Mastectomy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Phenobarbital , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1001-1010, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run procedures of the KROG 17-06 study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two steps tested hippocampus contouring variability and radiation therapy planning compliance. In the first step, the variation of the hippocampus delineation was investigated for two representative cases using the Dice similarity coefficients. In the second step, the participating institutions were requested to generate a HS-WBRT with SIB treatment plan for another representative case. The compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the first step, the median Dice similarity coefficients of the hippocampus contours for two other dummy run cases changed from 0.669 (range, 0.073 to 0.712) to 0.690 (range, 0.522 to 0.750) and from 0.291 (range, 0.219 to 0.522) to 0.412 (range, 0.264 to 0.598) after providing the hippocampus contouring feedback. In the second step, with providing additional plan priority and extended dose constraints to the target volumes and normal structures, we observed the improved compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol. CONCLUSION: The dummy run studies demonstrated the notable inter-institutional variability in delineating the hippocampus and treatment plan generation, which could be decreased through feedback from the trial center.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Compliance , Hippocampus , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the use of a radiopaque tissue fiducial marker (TFM) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients who undergo post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). TFM safety, its role and benefit in quantifying the set-up uncertainties in patients undergoing PPRT image-guided radiotherapy were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 consecutive PPRT patients underwent transperineal implantation of TFM at the level of vesicourethral anastomosis in the retrovesical tissue prior to intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Prostate bed motion was calculated by measuring the position of the TFM relative to the pelvic bony anatomy on daily cone-beam computed tomography. The stability and visibility of the TFM were assessed in the initial 10 patients. RESULTS: No postoperative complications were recorded. A total of 3,500 images were analysed. The calculated prostate bed motion for bony landmark matching relative to TFM were 2.25 mm in the left-right, 5.89 mm in the superior-inferior, and 6.59 mm in the anterior-posterior directions. A significant 36% reduction in the mean volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy (rV₇₀) was achieved for a uniform planning target volume (PTV) margin of 7 mm compared with the Australian and New Zealand Faculty of Radiation Oncology Genito-Urinary Group recommended PTV margin of 10 mm. CONCLUSION: The use of TFM was safe and can potentially eliminate set-up errors associated with bony landmark matching, thereby allowing for tighter PTV margins and a consequent favourable reduction in dose delivered to the bladder and rectum, with potential improvements in toxicities.


Subject(s)
Clothing , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Fiducial Markers , Humans , New Zealand , Postoperative Complications , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Rectum , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare treatment outcomes between cobalt-60 (Co-60) and iridium-192 (Ir-192) high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in stage IB2–IIIB cervical cancer patients at Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindrahiraj University. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and treated with radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital between 2004 and 2014. Survival rate was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and were compared between groups with log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients with cervical cancer and treated with radiotherapy were included, 274 patients for Ir-192 group and 206 patients for Co-60 group. The 2- and 5-year disease-free survival rate in Ir-192 group were 80.4% and 73.1% and in Co-60 group were 82.5% and 74.7%, respectively (p = 0.365). Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 89.4% and 77% of the Ir-192 group, and 91.6% and 81.9% in the Co-60 group, respectively (p = 0.238). The complications were primarily grade 1 or 2. Grade 3 and 4 complications were found in 13 of 274 and 7 of 206 in Ir-192 and Co-60 groups, respectively (p = 0.232). Grade and clinical stage of cancer significantly affected the survival outcome. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer patients who were treated with HDR Co-60 brachytherapy were comparable in survival and toxicity outcomes of those with HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy. Co-60 source has lots of economic advantages over Ir-192 and hence suitable for low resource radiotherapy setting.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713644

ABSTRACT

In 2017, 10 topics were selected as major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology. For cervical cancer, efficacy and safety analysis results of a 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and long-term impact of reduced dose of quadrivalent vaccine were updated. Brief introduction of KEYNOTE trials of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, followed. Tailored surveillance programs for gynecologic cancer related with Lynch syndrome and update on sentinel lymph node mapping were reviewed for uterine corpus cancer. For ovarian cancer, 5 topics were selected including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases inhibitors and immunotherapy. The other potential practice changers covered in this review were lymphadenectomy in advanced disease, secondary cytoreductive surgery in recurrent disease, weekly dose-dense regimen for first-line chemotherapy, incorporation of bevacizumab maintenance in platinum-sensitive recurrent disease, and effect of platinum-free interval prolongation. Conflicting opinions of academic societies on periodic pelvic examination were introduced in conjunction with relevant literature review. For the field of radiation oncology, results of 2 big trials, The Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Carcinoma-3 and Gynecologic Oncology Group-258, for endometrial cancer and recent advance in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer were reported. Topics for breast cancer covered adjuvant capecitabine after preoperative chemotherapy, adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease, olaparib for metastatic cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation, 20-year risks of recurrence after stopping endocrine therapy at 5 years, and contemporary hormonal contraception and the risk of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Brachytherapy , Breast Neoplasms , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Contraception , Drug Therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Gynecological Examination , Humans , Immunotherapy , Ligands , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Radiation Oncology , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence , Trastuzumab , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741934

ABSTRACT

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been considered the most successful development in radiation oncology since the introduction of computed tomography into treatment planning that enabled three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 1980s. More than three decades have passed since the concept of inverse planning was first introduced in 1982, and IMRT has become the most important and common modality in radiation therapy. This review will present developments in inverse IMRT treatment planning and IMRT delivery using multileaf collimators, along with the associated key concepts. Other relevant issues and future perspectives are also presented.


Subject(s)
Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy, Conformal
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1433-1443, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717511

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We previously developed a model to more accurately predict life expectancy for stage IV cancer patients referred to radiation oncology. The goals of this study are to validate this model and to compare competing published models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2012 to March 2015, 280 consecutive patientswith stage IV cancerwere prospectively evaluated by a single radiation oncologist. Patients were separated into training, validation and combined sets. TheNEAT model evaluated number of active tumors (“N”), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (“E”), albumin (“A”) and primary tumor site (“T”). The Odette Cancer Center model validated performance status, bone only metastases and primary tumor site. The Harvard TEACHH model investigated primary tumor type, performance status, age, prior chemotherapy courses, liver metastases, and hospitalization within 3 months. Cox multivariable analyses and logisticalregressionwere utilized to compare model performance. RESULTS: Number of active tumors, performance status, albumin, primary tumor site, prior hospitalizationwithin the last 3 months, and liver metastases predicted overall survival on uinvariate and multivariable analysis (p < 0.05 for all). The NEAT model separated patients into four prognostic groups with median survivals of 24.9, 14.8, 4.0, and 1.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The NEAT model had a C-index of 0.76 with a Nagelkerke’s R2 of 0.54 suggesting good discrimination, calibration and total performance compared to competing prognostic models. CONCLUSION: The NEAT model warrants further investigation as a clinically useful approach to predict survival in patients with stage IV cancer.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Discrimination, Psychological , Drug Therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Life Expectancy , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Radiation Oncology
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 244-250, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716698

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is a well-established treatment for breast cancer. However, there is a large degree of variation and controversy in practice patterns. A nationwide survey on the patterns of practice in breast RT was designed by the Division for Breast Cancer of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group. All board-certified members of the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology were sent a questionnaire comprising 39 questions on six domains: hypofractionated whole breast RT, accelerated partial breast RT, postmastectomy RT (PMRT), regional nodal RT, RT for ductal carcinoma in situ, and RT toxicity. Sixty-four radiation oncologists from 54 of 86 (62.8%) hospitals responded. Twenty-three respondents (35.9%) used hypofractionated whole breast RT, and the most common schedule was 43.2 Gy in 16 fractions. Only three (4.7%) used accelerated partial breast RT. Five (7.8%) used hypofractionated PMRT, and 40 (62.5%) had never used boost RT after chest wall irradiation. Indications for regional nodal RT varied; ≥pN2 (n=7) versus ≥pN1 (n=17) versus ≥pN1 with pathologic risk factors (n=40). Selection criteria for internal mammary lymph node (IMN) irradiation also varied; only four (6.3%) always treated IMN when regional nodal RT was administered and 30 (46.9%) treated IMN only if IMN involvement was identified through imaging. Thirty-one (48.4%) considered omission of whole breast RT after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. Fifty-two (81.3%) used heart-sparing techniques. Overall, there were wide variations in the patterns of practice in breast RT in Korea. Standard guidelines are needed, especially for regional nodal RT and omission of RT for ductal carcinoma in situ.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Patient Selection , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thoracic Wall
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167309

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the current role of medical oncologists in cancer care with a focus on increasing the recognition of medical oncology as an independent specialty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaires modified from the Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey dealing with oncology structure, resources, research, and patterns of care given by medical oncologists were selected. Several modifications were made to the questionnaire after feedback from the insurance and policy committee of the Korean Association for Clinical Oncology (KACO). The online survey was then sent to KACO members. RESULTS: A total of 214 medical oncologists (45.8% of the total inquiries), including 71 directors of medical oncology institutions, took the survey. Most institutions had various resources, including a medical oncology department (94.1%) and a department of radiation oncology (82.4%). There was an average of four medical oncologists at each institution. Medical oncologists were involved in various treatments from diagnosis to end-of-life care. They were also chemotherapy providers from a wide range of institutions that treated many types of solid cancers. In addition, 86.2% of the institutions conducted research. CONCLUSION: This is the first national survey in Korea to show that medical oncologists are involved in a wide range of cancer treatments and care. This survey emphasizes the contributions and proper roles of medical oncologists in the evolving health care environment in Korea.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Europe , Insurance , Korea , Medical Oncology , Radiation Oncology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167299

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is an effective emerging technique for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the current practice of SABR for early-stage NSCLC in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey of SABR for NSCLC by sending e-mails to all board-certified members of the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology. The survey included 23 questions focusing on the technical aspects of SABR and 18 questions seeking the participants' opinions on specific clinical scenarios in the use of SABR for early-stage NSCLC. Overall, 79 radiation oncologists at 61/85 specialist hospitals in Korea (71.8%) responded to the survey. RESULTS: SABR was used at 33 institutions (54%) to treat NSCLC. Regarding technical aspects, the most common planning methods were the rotational intensity-modulated technique (59%) and the static intensity-modulated technique (49%). Respiratory motion was managed by gating (54%) or abdominal compression (51%), and 86% of the planning scans were obtained using 4-dimensional computed tomography. In the clinical scenarios, the most commonly chosen fractionation schedule for peripherally located T1 NSCLC was 60 Gy in four fractions. For centrally located tumors and T2 NSCLC, the oncologists tended to avoid SABR for radiotherapy, and extended the fractionation schedule. CONCLUSION: The results of our survey indicated that SABR is increasingly being used to treat NSCLC in Korea. However, there were wide variations in the technical protocols and fractionation schedules of SABR for early-stage NSCLC among institutions. Standardization of SABR is necessary before implementing nationwide, multicenter, randomized studies.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Electronic Mail , Korea , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Radiation Oncology , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 101-111, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44443

ABSTRACT

The number of imaging data sets has significantly increased during radiation treatment after introducing a diverse range of advanced techniques into the field of radiation oncology. As a consequence, there have been many studies proposing meaningful applications of imaging data set use. These applications commonly require a method to align the data sets at a reference. Deformable image registration (DIR) is a process which satisfies this requirement by locally registering image data sets into a reference image set. DIR identifies the spatial correspondence in order to minimize the differences between two or among multiple sets of images. This article describes clinical applications, validation, and algorithms of DIR techniques. Applications of DIR in radiation treatment include dose accumulation, mathematical modeling, automatic segmentation, and functional imaging. Validation methods discussed are based on anatomical landmarks, physical phantoms, digital phantoms, and per application purpose. DIR algorithms are also briefly reviewed with respect to two algorithmic components: similarity index and deformation models.


Subject(s)
Dataset , Methods , Models, Theoretical , Radiation Oncology
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