Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 389
Filter
1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 127-132, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279091

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de las conductas exposición y protección solar en un grupo de adolescentes y compararlos con un grupo de adultos en la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo en estudiantes de 16 a 18 años y en adultos mayores de 18 años. Resultados: Se encuestaron 748 alumnos, 60 % mujeres y 40 % hombres. El 90 % busca la sombra, el 70.1 % evita exponerse al sol de las 10 a las 16 horas y el 30.6 % usa filtro solar. De 620 adultos, 67.5 % mujeres y 32.4 % hombres, el 82.6 % buscan la sombra, el 60.2 % evita el sol de las 10 a las 16 horas y el 48.1 % utiliza filtro solar. El 72.9 % de adultos y el 80.8 % de adolescentes se exponen al sol debido a actividades domésticas. Discusión: Existe una tendencia similar en las conductas de protección y exposición solar en adolescentes y adultos. Es alta la prevalencia de uso de fotoprotector en adultos en comparación con los adolescentes.


Abstract Objective: To know the prevalence of sun exposure and protection behaviors in a group of adolescents and to compare them with a group of adults in Mexico City. Material and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study in students aged 16 to 18 years and in adults older than 18 years. Results: Seven-hundred and forty-eight students were surveyed; 60 % were females and 40 % males; 90 % seek shade, 70.1 % avoid exposing themselves to the sun from 10.00 to 16.00 hours and 30.6 % use sunscreen. Out of 620 adults, 67.5 % were women and 32.4 % were men; 82.6 % seek shade, 60.2 % avoid the sun from 10.00 to 16.00 hours and 48.1% use sunscreen; 72.9 % of adults and 80.8 % of adolescents are exposed to the sun due to domestic activities. Discussion: There is a similar trend in sun protection and exposure behaviors in adolescents and adults. The prevalence of sunscreen use in adults is high in comparison with adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Radiation Protection/methods , Sunlight/adverse effects , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Health Behavior , Students/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Age Factors , Mexico
2.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 11, 2021. 14 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1147095

ABSTRACT

En el presente instrumento administrativo se define la estructura organizativa de la Dirección de Protección Radiológica y las unidades que la integran, delimitando para cada dependencia los objetivos inherentes a su naturaleza y el marco de funcionamiento dentro de los diferentes procesos involucrados en esta Dirección


This administrative instrument defines the organizational structure of the Radiation Protection Directorate and the units that comprise it, delimiting for each agency the objectives inherent to its nature and the operating framework within the different processes involved in this Directorate


Subject(s)
Radiation Protection , Manuals as Topic
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887876

ABSTRACT

Objective To design a novel automatic dispensing and injecting system of positron radiopharmaceuticals,for precise dose dispensing,simplified operation,and reduction of occupational radiation exposure. Methods The automatic dispensing and injecting system was fabricated with tungsten alloy as the shielding material.The performance and radiation protection of the device were assessed. Results The total time of injection using the automatic dispensing and injecting system was about 60 s.The ratio of successful injection in stability test was 100%.The deviation of the dispensing dose with the system was ≤3%.With the tungsten alloy shield(40 mmPb of the cabinet,60 mmPb of the countertop,15 mmPb of the protective shield,and 50 mmPb of the inbuilt jar for radiopharmaceuticals),the average dose rate at 30 cm from the device was 1.44 μSv/h,and the radiation dose at the operator's extremity was reduced by 99%. Conclusions This automatic dispensing and injecting system of positron radiopharmaceuticals is easy to operate with precise dispensing dose.It is safe and meets the requirements of radiation protection.


Subject(s)
Electrons , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , Radiopharmaceuticals
4.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(82): 49-55, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291932

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Mensurar los niveles de radiación de fuga y dispersión emanada a través de los blindajes y estructuras plomadas del tubo de rayos X de la unidad dental portátil NOMAD, controlando la retrodispersión con el uso del escudo protector de acrílico plomado adaptado en el extremo final del tubo localizador plomado. Se midieron las tasas de exposición dispersadas mediante un detector tipo Geiger-Müller y una cámara de ionización con respuesta en el rango de energías aportadas en diagnóstico por imágenes para la medición de la exposición directa y determinación posterior de las dosis. Se utilizó un fantomas diseñado para diagnóstico odontológico, sopesando la radiación en diferentes angulaciones de operación del equipo NOMAD, simulando los gestos posturales de odontólogos, radiólogos y sujetos a identificar. Se controlaron las tasas de exposición para determinar los valores de las dosis aportadas en las zonas significativas corporales más radiosensibles del operador del equipo. Se obtuvo como resultado que la retrodispersión en el cristalino del ojo del operador fue significativamente menor cuando el fantomas estaba acostado, mientras que a nivel de gónadas resultó más baja con el cuerpo sentado. La tasa de dosis máxima de radiación dispersa que impactó en los operadores fue de 350.8 micro Sieverts por hora (uSv/h) en la zona de gónadas, por cada radiografía tomada sin el uso del delantal de goma plomada, reduciéndose a 4.38 micro Sieverts por hora (uSv/h) al utilizarlo (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiography, Dental/methods , Technology, Dental , Dental Equipment , Forensic Dentistry , Patients , Argentina , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , Scattering, Radiation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Victims Identification , Radiation Exposure Control , Equipment Design
5.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20200161, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1252284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the software for the management of radiological protection, SisPRad, and its construction process, as well as to analyze its implementation and use in a radiodiagnosis service. Method: a methodological and quasi-experimental research study carried out between November 2016 and October 2019. The study population consisted of the professionals who make up the Radiological Protection Committee of the service. The model chosen for software engineering was the cascade model. In the implementation phase, an evaluation and analysis of the usability of the software was carried out. Results: the software for radiological protection management presents the structure of the technology and its functionalities. The usability evaluation showed that SisPRad is a tool that will assist the multi-professional and interdisciplinary team of the hospital radiology service in the management of radiological protection. The computerization of the systems and the integration of the sectors that need shared data in the work routines enhance the management of hospital radiological protection for the multi-professional team. The technology was positively evaluated by the multi-professional team working in the hospital radiodiagnosis service. SisPRad generated registration n.. 512019002125-8 by the National Institute of Industrial Property. Conclusion: this tool was developed aiming at the safety of the professionals working in the radiodiagnosis service and of its users, in addition to enabling the constant improvement of the tool, and it can be adapted in other institutions.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el software para la gestión de protección radiológica, SisPRad, su proceso de construcción y analizar su implementación y uso en un servicio de radiodiagnóstico. Método: investigación metodológica y cuasiexperimental realizada entre noviembre de 2016 y octubre de 2019. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por los profesionales que integran el Comité de Protección Radiológica del servicio. Para la ingeniería de software, se eligió el modelo en cascada. En la etapa de implementación se realizó la evaluación y el análisis de usabilidad del software. Resultados: el software de gestión de protección radiológica presenta la estructura de la tecnología y sus funcionalidades. La evaluación de usabilidad mostró que SisPRad es una herramienta que ayudará al equipo multidisciplinario e interdisciplinario del servicio de radiología del hospital en la gestión de la protección radiológica. La informatización de sistemas y la integración de sectores que requieren datos en común en las rutinas de trabajo potencian la gestión de la protección radiológica hospitalaria del equipo multidisciplinario. La tecnología fue valorada positivamente por el equipo multiprofesional que cumple sus funciones en el servicio de radiodiagnóstico del hospital. SisPRad generó el registro 512019002125-8 en el Instituto Nacional de Propiedad Industrial. Conclusión: esta herramienta fue desarrollada con el objetivo de promover la seguridad de los profesionales que trabajan en el servicio de radiodiagnóstico y de sus usuarios, además de permitir la mejora constante de la herramienta, que puede ser adaptada a otras instituciones.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever o software para gestão da proteção radiológica, SisPRad, seu processo de construção e analisar sua implantação e utilização em um serviço de radiodiagnóstico. Método: pesquisa metodológica e quase-experimental realizada entre novembro de 2016 e outubro de 2019. A população do estudo foi constituída pelos profissionais que compõem o Comitê de Proteção Radiológica do serviço. O modelo escolhido para a engenharia do software foi o modelo em cascata. Na fase de implantação foi realizada avaliação e análise da usabilidade do software. Resultados: o software de gestão para proteção radiológica apresenta a estrutura da tecnologia e suas funcionalidades. A avaliação da usabilidade evidenciou que o SisPRad é uma ferramenta que irá auxiliar a equipe multiprofissional e interdisciplinar do serviço de radiologia hospitalar na gestão da proteção radiológica. A informatização dos sistemas e a integração dos setores que necessitam de dados em comum nas rotinas de trabalho potencializam a gestão da proteção radiológica hospitalar para a equipe multiprofissional. A tecnologia foi avaliada positivamente pela equipe multiprofissional atuante no serviço de radiodiagnóstico hospitalar. O SisPRad gerou o registro 512019002125-8 pelo Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial. Conclusão: essa ferramenta foi desenvolvida visando a segurança dos profissionais atuantes no serviço de radiodiagnóstico e seus usuários, além de possibilitar a melhora da ferramenta constantemente, podendo ser adaptada em outras instituições.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection , Radiology Department, Hospital , Medical Informatics , Technology, Radiologic , Health Management
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 610-616, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134547

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las exposiciones médicas con radiación ionizante son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global, entre ellas, los exámenes dentales corresponden a uno de los más frecuentes. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas a los pacientes durante estas exposiciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes. Dado que la legislación de Chile aún no ha incorporado el uso de los DRLs, el presente trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo analizar la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP para generar un documento que sirva de guía para los odontólogos, explicando de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, pero técnico, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiología dental.


SUMMARY: Currently exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the main source of exposure to artificial radiation worldwide, with dental examinations being one of the most frequent events. In order to prevent exposure of unnecessarily high doses in patients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to help maximize protection from radiation during medical exposure of patients. Given that the Chilean legislation has not yet incorporated the use of DRLs, the purpose of this study was to analyze publication N° 135 of the ICRP to generate a document, to serve as a guide for dentists, didactically outlining in simple but technical language, the main aspects to consider when establishing DRLs in dental radiology procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography, Dental/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , International Agencies , Practice Guideline , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic
7.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 105-113, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138523

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Las unidades de Cardiología intervencional han evidenciado un número creciente de procedimientos, cada vez más variados y complejos, lo cual podría eventualmente generar daños a los profesionales ocupacionalmente expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes (POEs) de no contar con los adecuados elementos de radioprotección y un uso correcto de ellos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la disponibilidad y utilización de los elementos de radioprotección y dosimetría de unidades de cardiología intervencionista de centros Sudamericanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta autoaplicada a 139 POEs, de ambos sexos de 7 países, a través de una plataforma on-line, se les consultó sobre características demográficas, dosimétricas y de radioprotección. RESULTADOS: Los elementos de radioprotección más tradicionales; delantales y cuellos plomados se utilizaron un 99,5 % y 98,4 % respectivamente, aquellos elementos más recientes como gafas, gorros y paños plomados solo alcanzaron un 36,8 %, 6,8 % y 34,2%, de utilización respectivamente, en cuanto a la utilización de los dosímetros, solo un 7,9 % lo hace apegado a las normas de la Organización Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA). CONCLUSIÓN: Se constató en la muestra analizada una falta de elementos de radioprotección y un uso inadecuado de ellos, urge realizar intervenciones educativas y técnicas para mejorar estos datos.


BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of interventional cardiology procedures currently performed, health professionals (POE) are exposed to ionizing radiation unless adequate protective elements are used. AIM: to describe the use of radioprotection elements and dosimetry in interventional cardiology laboratories in South America. METHODS: A self-administered survey was performed on 139 POE of both sexes and 7 countries using an online platform. Demographic data, dosimetry and characteristics of radioprotection analyzed. RESULTS: Commonly used radioprotective elements (lead aprons and collars) were used in 99.5% and 98% respectively. Recently introduced protection elements like lead goggles, caps and drapery were used in 36.8, 6.8 and 34.2% , respectively. Dosimetry according to the International Atomic Energy Commission (OIAE) was performed in only 7.9% of the procedures. CONCLUSION: there is a severe lack of adequate radioprotection during interventional cardiology procedures. Urgent measures, including technical implementation and educational interventions are needed to improve radioprotection in interventional cardiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiography, Interventional/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection/instrumentation , Radiation Protection/statistics & numerical data , South America , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report , Personal Protective Equipment
8.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126552

ABSTRACT

Uno de los requerimientos indispensables en el diseño de las instalaciones donde se trabaja con radiación ionizante es la determinación del espesor adecuado de las paredes, pisos, techo y puertas de los locales, que garanticen dosis por debajo de las restricciones establecidas por la autoridad regulatoria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es desarrollar una herramienta interactiva, libre y de código abierto para calcular los blindajes requeridos en una instalación de Medicina Nuclear. En el código, desarrollado en Phyton utilizando el entorno interactivo Jupiter Notebook, se incluyó el análisis tanto para Tomografía por Emisión de Fotón Único como para Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones. La herramienta fue implementada para el cálculo de los blindajes de un departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica (CIREN). Esta herramienta libre y de código abierto facilita los cálculos de blindaje aumentando la velocidad, lo que contribuye a lograr una optimización de la protección radiológica, pero también puede usarse como herramienta pedagógica(AU)


One of the indispensable requirements in the design of the facilities where ionizing radiation is used is the determination of the adequate thickness of the walls, floors, ceiling and doors of the premises, which guarantee doses below the restrictions established by the regulatory authority. The goal of this work is to develop an interactive, free and open source tool to calculate the shields required in a Nuclear Medicine installation. Analysis for both Single Photon Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography was included in the code, developed in Phyton using the interactive Jupiter Notebook environment. The tool was implemented to calculate the shields of a Nuclear Medicine department of the International Center for Neurological Restoration (CIREN). This free and open source tool facilitates shielding calculations by increasing speed, which contributes to the optimization of radiation protection, but can also be used as a pedagogical tool(AU)


Subject(s)
Radiation Protection/methods , Building Codes/standards , Shielding against Radiation , Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital/standards
9.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 40-45, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126192

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La protección gonadal ha sido durante largo tiempo un importante factor para abordar el requisito "tan bajo como sea razonablemente posible" ALARA. El presente artículo realiza una revisión sistemática sobre la utilidad de la protección gonadal en la radiografía de pelvis en la cual se han destacado los factores que tienen que ver con su realización diaria, es decir, la dosis de radiación involucrada, la radiosensibilidad de las gónadas, la posición del protector gonadal y el factor psicológico de la población en relación con su uso. La incorporación de equipamientos modernos, con dosis y protocolo optimizados, transforma el beneficio de la protección en un tema al menos debatible. Mientras algunos siguen respaldando la medida, otros organismos y autores ya no la respaldan. Es necesario reconsiderar prácticas actuales fundadas en consensos científicos que pueden estar obsoletos y considerar el factor de cambio cultural basados en estos nuevos consensos para su implementación, sin generar mayor preocupación en la población.


Abstract: Gonadal protection has long been an important factor in addressing the ALARA "as low as reasonably possible" requirement. This article performs a systematic review on the usefulness of gonadal protection in pelvic radiography, in which the factors that have to do with its daily performance have been highlighted, that is, radiation dose involved, the radiosensitivity of the gonads, the position of the gonadal shielding and the psychological factor of the population in relation to its use. The incorporation of modern equipment, with optimized dose and protocols, transforms the benefit of gonad shielding into an issue that is at least debatable. While some continue to support the measure, other agencies and authors no longer support it. It is necessary to reconsider current practices based on scientific consensus that may be obsolete and consider the factor of cultural change based on these new consensus for its implementation, without generating major concern in the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pelvis/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Protection/methods , Gonads/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , X-Rays , Radiography
10.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(2): 01-06, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115997

ABSTRACT

Contexto: A tomografia computadorizada revolucionou os estudos radiológicos convencionais. Porém, tal avanço se deu associado com o aumento das doses de radiação ionizante. A tomografia computadorizada representa 15% de todos os exames de imagem e contribui com 75% de radiação para a população. Objetivo: Estimar a dose efetiva de radiação imprimida aos pacientes durante os exames de tomografia computadorizada. Desenho e local: Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo em instituição hospitalar de nível terciário no Rio de Janeiro. Métodos: Foram selecionados 1.476 pacientes que realizaram exames de tomografia computadorizada de crânio, tórax e abdome/pelve, sem contraste endovenoso, no serviço de radiodiagnóstico do hospital no período de 1 de janeiro a 31 de março de 2018 para os exames de tórax, e no período de 1 de janeiro a 28 de fevereiro de 2018 para os exames de crânio e de abdome/pelve. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Picture Archivingand Communication System (PACS) da instituição para avaliar a dose de radiação utilizada por cada tipo de exame, por meio do cálculo das doses efetivas médias em cada tipo de exame. Resultados: As médias das doses efetivas encontradas foram de 1,57 mSv, 8,37 mSv e 12,28 mSv para os exames de crânio, tórax e abdome/pelve, respectivamente. Conclusão: O estudo verificou que os exames de crânio e abdome/pelve foram realizados com as médias das doses efetivas dentro dos valores típicos preconizados, enquanto nos exames de tórax as doses efetivas estavam acima da faixa fornecida pela Associação Americana de Física Médica (American Association of Physicists in Medicine, AAPM) (relatório # 96).


Subject(s)
Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dosimetry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880394

ABSTRACT

Compared with conventional high energy X-ray radiotherapy, proton/carbon ion has obvious advantages because of its Bragg peak dose distribution. However, proton heavy ion facility has complex structure, high energy and various radiation types due to various nuclear reaction processes, the radiation protection safety brought by the operation of facilities has gradually attracted attention. Taking the proton/carbon ion radiotherapy facility of Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center as an example, the author mainly analyzed the operation principle of proton/carbon ion treatment facility, the basis of radiation protection, analysis of key radiation source points, etc., so as to provide theoretical support and experience for radiation protection.


Subject(s)
China , Heavy Ion Radiotherapy , Heavy Ions , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Protons , Radiation Protection , Radiotherapy
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878681

ABSTRACT

Ionizing radiation causes the massive apoptosis of human tissue cells,leading to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and hematopoietic system.Thus,high-efficiency,low-toxicity radiation protection drugs are urgently needed.Toll-like receptor agonists have been developed based on the anti-apoptotic mechanism of tumor cells in recent years,which exert their radioprotective effects by activating downstream pathways,mainly nuclear factor-κB.Here we elucidate several agonists of Toll-like receptors involved in radiation protection,with an attempt to inform the research and development of new radiation protection agents.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Humans , NF-kappa B , Radiation Protection , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
14.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e46780, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1118766

ABSTRACT

Introdução: ouso da radiação ionizante na prática médica pode ocasionar eventos nocivos à saúde do indivíduo exposto. Diante disso, o emprego ético da radiação ionizante deve contemplar o que preconiza a legislação nacional e internacional, assim como os princípios de proteção radiológica e da bioética. O sofrimento moral relaciona-se à dimensão ética na prática da saúde,podendo afetar os profissionais das técnicas radiológicas. Objetivo: identificar as situações desencadeadoras de sofrimento moral nos profissionais das técnicas radiológicas em um serviço de radiologia convencional. Metodologia: trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória. Usou-se como técnicas de coleta de dados a observação participante, a entrevista semiestruturada e a validação consensual. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise temática. Resultados e discussão: observou-se situações de sofrimento moral quando o profissional da técnica radiológica se deparava com pacientes em condições clínicas de se dirigir a unidade de diagnóstico e imagem, diante da não indicação clínica do exame radiológico, ante ao desrespeito dos princípios de proteção radiológica e perante a falta de autonomia para fazer cumprir os preceitos éticos do emprego da radiação ionizante. Conclusão: o desrespeito dos princípios legais, assim como dos princípios de proteção radiológica e bioéticos levamo profissional das técnicas radiológicas ao sofrimento moral.


Introduction: The use of ionizing radiation in medical practice may cause harm to the health of the exposed individual. Thus, the ethical use of ionizing radiation must contemplate what is required by national and international legislation, as well as the principles of radiological protection and bioethics. Moral distress is related to the ethical dimension in healthpractice, and may affect radiological technologists. Objective:To identify the situations that trigger moral distress among radiological technologistsin a conventional radiology service.Methodology:This is a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research. Data collection techniques were participant observation, semi-structured interview and consensus validation. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results and discussion:Situations of moral distress were observed when the radiological technologist was faced with patients in clinical conditions to go to the diagnostic and imaging unit, due to the non-clinical indication of the radiological exam, due to the disrespect of the protection principles and lack of autonomy to enforce the ethical precepts of the use of ionizing radiation. Conclusion:Failure to respect the legal principles as well as the principles of radiological and bioethical protection lead the professional of radiological techniques to moral distress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiation , Radiation Protection , Radiology , Health Personnel , Morale , Patients , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiology Department, Hospital , X-Rays , Bioethics , Health , Occupational Health , Personal Autonomy , Education, Continuing , Ethics , Respect , Intensive Care Units , Lead
15.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 31(2): 5328-5334, jun. 2020. imag, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1343284

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El uso de dosis adecuadas de radiación en pacientes pediátricos es un deber de los centros de diagnóstico médico debido a las características y retos que implica esta población. Por lo anterior, se han establecido unos niveles internacionales de referencia de dosis (DRL, del inglés dose reference level) para optimizar y comparar los protocolos de cada institución. En Colombia no se cuenta con estudios al respecto. Objetivo: Mostrar los DRL utilizados en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad en las modalidades de tomografía computarizada (TC), radiografía y fluoroscopia y compararlos con los estándares internacionales. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado entre 2018 y 2019. Se analizaron datos de producto dosis longitud (DLP) para TC de cráneo, tórax, abdomen y TC de tórax de alta resolución (TACAR); y producto dosis área (DAP) para radiografía de tórax, abdomen, huesos y fluoroscopia por grupos etarios. Resultados: Se obtuvieron los datos de 780 pacientes: 360 radiografías, 100 de fluoroscopia y 320 tomografías. Se encontró que los niveles de referencia de dosis de radiación usados en el hospital son bajos, comparados con guías europeas de 2018 de niveles de referencia. Se describen DRL para cada estudio y grupo etario. Conclusión: Se demostró que en el hospital donde hizo el estudio los niveles de referencia de radiación en la población pediátrica son bajos. El presente trabajo puede servir como referente nacional.


Introduction: Due to the characteristics and challenges of the pediatric population regarding radiation, the use of adequate doses of radiation is a duty of medical diagnostic centers. For this reason, the Dose Reference Levels (DRL) have been established in many countries to optimize and monitor the protocols of each institution. In Colombia there are no studies in this subject. Objective: To show the DRLs used in a university hospital of high complexity in the modalities of computed tomography (CT), radiography and fluoroscopy and to compare them with international standards. Methodology: Retrospective descriptive trial between 2018 and 2019. We analyzed dose length product (DLP) data for skull, chest, abdomen, and high-resolution chest CT (HRCT); and dose area product (DAP) for chest, abdomen, bone, and fluoroscopy radiography by age groups. Results: Data were collected for a total of 780 patients. 360 x-rays, 100 fluoroscopy and 320 tomography scans. Reference levels of radiation dose used in the hospital were found to be low compared to European guidelines of 2018 reference levels. DRLs are described for each study and age group. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that at the hospital where the study was conducted, reference levels of radiation in the pediatric population are low. This work can serve as a national reference.


Subject(s)
Multidetector Computed Tomography , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection
17.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 7(2): 119-133, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1046765

ABSTRACT

La odontología no es ajena al uso de equipos de rayos X, porque estos ayudan al diagnóstico, detección y control de patologías. Se calcula que 520 millones de personas se realizan estos exámenes cada año; pero la radiación emitida por los equipos de rayos X puede tener un efecto en el tejido celular, el cual depende de la dosis, el tiempo y el tipo de tejido. Por esto, las principales instituciones han establecido normas, guías e instrucciones sobre protección radiológica, las cuales ayudan a prevenir y disminuir los efectos y riesgos biológicos en las personas. El presente artículo tiene como propósito revisar las principales normas, reglamentos, guías e instrucciones acerca de la protección radiológica para el uso de equipos de rayos X en odontología. (AU)


Dentistry is no stranger to the use of X-ray equipment, because it helps to diagnose, detect and control the evolution of pathologies. An estimated 520 million people take these exams in a year. The radiation emitted by X-ray equipment can have an effect on cell tissue, it will depend on the dose, time and type of tissue. That is why the main institutions have established standards, guidelines and instructions on radiation protection, which help to prevent, reduce the effects and biological risks in which the health of people is exposed. The purpose of this article is to review the main rules, regulations, guides and instructions about radiation protection for the use of X-ray equipment in dentistry of the main institutions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation , Radiation Protection/legislation & jurisprudence , X-Rays , Radiography , Dentistry
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. Objectives To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. Methods The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. Results The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. Study limitations The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. Conclusion The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Radiation Protection/methods , Solar Energy , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , General Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control
19.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(3): 397-408, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038108

ABSTRACT

Entre los escasos radioprotectores en uso, la amifostina resulta eficaz para reducir la toxicidad aguda inducida por la radiación ionizante. Sin embargo, presenta efectos tóxicos importantes que impiden su uso repetido o en dosis altas. Es necesario entonces desarrollar radioprotectores menos tóxicos, por sí mismos o como coadyuvantes de la amifostina en dosis bajas. Se expusieron ratas Sprague-Dawley a una dosis de rayos X de 6 Gy (cuerpo entero). Se ensayó el butirato de sodio como mitigante luego de una dosis baja de amifostina previa a la irradiación. A distintos tiempos después de la irradiación se realizó el recuento de eritrocitos, leucocitos y la fórmula leucocitaria. Los efectos genotóxicos se evaluaron en leucocitos de sangre mediante el ensayo Cometa. Se realizaron también estudios de supervivencia a 60 días y la evaluación histológica del duodeno e intestino grueso. El efecto del tratamiento resultó moderadamente protector respecto de la recuperación de los valores normales de eritrocitos, leucocitos y la fórmula leucocitaria en los animales sobrevivientes en ambos sexos, así como de los epitelios intestinales y el ADN de los leucocitos. También aumentó significativamente la sobrevida a 60 días. La radioprotección con amifostina en una dosis baja seguida de una mitigación con butirato fue claramente significativa.


Among the few radioprotectors in use, amifostine is effective in reducing the acute toxicity induced by ionizing radiation. However, it has important toxic effects that prevent its repeated use or in high doses. It is necessary then to develop less toxic radioprotectors, by themselves or as adjuvants of amifostine in low doses. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to an X-ray dose of 6 Gy (whole body). Sodium butyrate was tested as a mitigant after a low dose of amifostine prior to irradiation. At different times after the irradiation, the erythrocytes, leukocytes and the leukocyte formula were counted. Genotoxic effects were evaluated in blood leukocytes by the Comet assay. Sixty-day survival studies and histological evaluation of the duodenum and large intestine were also performed. The effect of the treatment was moderately protective with respect to the recovery of the normal values of erythrocytes, leukocytes and the leukocyte formula in the surviving animals in both sexes as well as for the intestinal epithelia and leukocytes DNA. It also significantly increased the 60-day survival. The radioprotection with amifostine in a low dose followed by mitigation with butyrate was clearly significant.


Entre os poucos radioprotetores em uso, a amifostina é eficaz na redução da toxicidade aguda induzida pela radiação ionizante. No entanto, tem importantes efeitos tóxicos que impedem seu uso repetido ou em altas doses. É necessário, então, desenvolver radioprotetores menos tóxicos, isoladamente ou como coadjuvantes da amifostina em baixas doses. Ratos Sprague-Dawley foram expostos a uma dose de raios X de 6 Gy (corpo inteiro). O butirato de sódio foi testado como mitigante após uma dose baixa de amifostina antes da irradiação. Em diferentes momentos após a irradiação, os eritrócitos, leucócitos e a fórmula de leucócitos foram contados. Os efeitos genotóxicos foram avaliados em leucócitos de sangue pelo ensaio Cometa. Estudos de sobrevida de 60 dias e avaliação histológica do duodeno e do intestino grosso também foram realizados. O efeito do tratamento resultou moderadamente protetor em relação à recuperação de valores normais de eritrócitos, leucócitos e fórmula leucocitária nos animais sobreviventes em ambos os sexos, bem como protegeu epitélios intestinais e o DNA dos leucócitos. Também aumentou significativamente a sobrevida para 60 dias. A radioproteção com amifostina em baixa dose seguida de uma mitigação com butirato foi claramente significativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sodium/toxicity , Butyrates/toxicity , Amifostine/toxicity , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection , Butyrates/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Amifostine/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(3): 208-216, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1020335

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El control radioscópico intraoperatorio es una práctica cada vez más frecuente, que no está libre de eventos adversos para el personal de la salud. Objetivos: Conocer la tasa de uso de radioscopia en la cirugía vertebral, reconocer las medidas de control, evaluar la asimilación del cirujano a los elementos de protección y analizar los eventos adversos en estos profesionales. Materiales y Métodos: Se envió, por correo electrónico, a cirujanos espinales, una encuesta de 17 preguntas de opciones múltiples. Resultados: Se recibieron 55 encuestas. El 87% se dedicaba a la columna, en más del 60% de sus prácticas. El arco en C es el método más utilizado para el control final, en forma pulsátil. Solo el 31% controla el tiempo real. El delantal plomado de una pieza es el método más utilizado, pero se desconoce cuándo se debe reemplazar. La mitad utiliza más de un elemento. Siete casos de trastornos visuales, 5 patologías tiroideas, 3 dermatitis y 2 casos de infertilidad. Tres cirujanos fueron operados por nódulos tiroideos, cataratas o neoplasia. Conclusiones: El control radioscópico intraoperatorio es una práctica frecuente en la cirugía espinal. El delantal plomado de una pieza es el método más utilizado y, muchas veces, se lo combina, pero se desconoce cuándo se deben renovar los plomados. Uno de cada tres cirujanos presentaron las patologías evaluadas y 3, cirugías relacionadas. Así queda en evidencia la protección y el control escasos que existen en los cirujanos especialistas, acompañados de una falta de protocolización que deja a la deriva este control. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Background: Intraoperative radiographic control (IRC) is an increasingly common practice, but it causes certain adverse events for healthcare providers. Objectives: To measure the use of fluoroscopy in spinal surgery, recognize control measures, evaluate assimilation of protection elements by surgeons, and analyze adverse events for spinal surgeons. Materials and Methods: A survey of 17 multiple-choice questions was e-mailed to spinal surgeons. Results: 55 surveys were answered. More than 60% of surgeons were spinal surgeons. The C-arm is the most widely used machine for final control by pulsating X-rays. Real-time controls are carried out in 31% of cases. One-piece leaded aprons are the most commonly used method, but it is unknown when they should be replaced. Half of the respondents uses more than one protection element. There were seven cases of vision changes, 5 of thyroid disorders, 3 of dermatitis, and 2 of infertility. Three surgeons required surgery for thyroid nodules, cataracts or neoplasm. Conclusions: IRC is a common practice in spinal surgery. One-piece leaded aprons are the most commonly used method and they are often combined with other elements, but it is not known when aprons must be replaced. One in 3 surgeons suffered from the studied conditions, and there were 3 related surgeries. Lack of adequate protection and control is a reality for specialist surgeons, together with a lack of protocols, making this an unregulated issue. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Argentina , Radiation Protection , Spine/surgery , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Orthopedic Surgeons , Occupational Diseases
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL