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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 127-132, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279091

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de las conductas exposición y protección solar en un grupo de adolescentes y compararlos con un grupo de adultos en la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo en estudiantes de 16 a 18 años y en adultos mayores de 18 años. Resultados: Se encuestaron 748 alumnos, 60 % mujeres y 40 % hombres. El 90 % busca la sombra, el 70.1 % evita exponerse al sol de las 10 a las 16 horas y el 30.6 % usa filtro solar. De 620 adultos, 67.5 % mujeres y 32.4 % hombres, el 82.6 % buscan la sombra, el 60.2 % evita el sol de las 10 a las 16 horas y el 48.1 % utiliza filtro solar. El 72.9 % de adultos y el 80.8 % de adolescentes se exponen al sol debido a actividades domésticas. Discusión: Existe una tendencia similar en las conductas de protección y exposición solar en adolescentes y adultos. Es alta la prevalencia de uso de fotoprotector en adultos en comparación con los adolescentes.


Abstract Objective: To know the prevalence of sun exposure and protection behaviors in a group of adolescents and to compare them with a group of adults in Mexico City. Material and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study in students aged 16 to 18 years and in adults older than 18 years. Results: Seven-hundred and forty-eight students were surveyed; 60 % were females and 40 % males; 90 % seek shade, 70.1 % avoid exposing themselves to the sun from 10.00 to 16.00 hours and 30.6 % use sunscreen. Out of 620 adults, 67.5 % were women and 32.4 % were men; 82.6 % seek shade, 60.2 % avoid the sun from 10.00 to 16.00 hours and 48.1% use sunscreen; 72.9 % of adults and 80.8 % of adolescents are exposed to the sun due to domestic activities. Discussion: There is a similar trend in sun protection and exposure behaviors in adolescents and adults. The prevalence of sunscreen use in adults is high in comparison with adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Radiation Protection/methods , Sunlight/adverse effects , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Health Behavior , Students/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Age Factors , Mexico
2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 610-616, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134547

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las exposiciones médicas con radiación ionizante son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global, entre ellas, los exámenes dentales corresponden a uno de los más frecuentes. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas a los pacientes durante estas exposiciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes. Dado que la legislación de Chile aún no ha incorporado el uso de los DRLs, el presente trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo analizar la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP para generar un documento que sirva de guía para los odontólogos, explicando de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, pero técnico, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiología dental.


SUMMARY: Currently exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the main source of exposure to artificial radiation worldwide, with dental examinations being one of the most frequent events. In order to prevent exposure of unnecessarily high doses in patients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to help maximize protection from radiation during medical exposure of patients. Given that the Chilean legislation has not yet incorporated the use of DRLs, the purpose of this study was to analyze publication N° 135 of the ICRP to generate a document, to serve as a guide for dentists, didactically outlining in simple but technical language, the main aspects to consider when establishing DRLs in dental radiology procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography, Dental/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , International Agencies , Practice Guideline , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic
3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 105-113, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138523

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Las unidades de Cardiología intervencional han evidenciado un número creciente de procedimientos, cada vez más variados y complejos, lo cual podría eventualmente generar daños a los profesionales ocupacionalmente expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes (POEs) de no contar con los adecuados elementos de radioprotección y un uso correcto de ellos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la disponibilidad y utilización de los elementos de radioprotección y dosimetría de unidades de cardiología intervencionista de centros Sudamericanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta autoaplicada a 139 POEs, de ambos sexos de 7 países, a través de una plataforma on-line, se les consultó sobre características demográficas, dosimétricas y de radioprotección. RESULTADOS: Los elementos de radioprotección más tradicionales; delantales y cuellos plomados se utilizaron un 99,5 % y 98,4 % respectivamente, aquellos elementos más recientes como gafas, gorros y paños plomados solo alcanzaron un 36,8 %, 6,8 % y 34,2%, de utilización respectivamente, en cuanto a la utilización de los dosímetros, solo un 7,9 % lo hace apegado a las normas de la Organización Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA). CONCLUSIÓN: Se constató en la muestra analizada una falta de elementos de radioprotección y un uso inadecuado de ellos, urge realizar intervenciones educativas y técnicas para mejorar estos datos.


BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of interventional cardiology procedures currently performed, health professionals (POE) are exposed to ionizing radiation unless adequate protective elements are used. AIM: to describe the use of radioprotection elements and dosimetry in interventional cardiology laboratories in South America. METHODS: A self-administered survey was performed on 139 POE of both sexes and 7 countries using an online platform. Demographic data, dosimetry and characteristics of radioprotection analyzed. RESULTS: Commonly used radioprotective elements (lead aprons and collars) were used in 99.5% and 98% respectively. Recently introduced protection elements like lead goggles, caps and drapery were used in 36.8, 6.8 and 34.2% , respectively. Dosimetry according to the International Atomic Energy Commission (OIAE) was performed in only 7.9% of the procedures. CONCLUSION: there is a severe lack of adequate radioprotection during interventional cardiology procedures. Urgent measures, including technical implementation and educational interventions are needed to improve radioprotection in interventional cardiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiography, Interventional/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection/instrumentation , Radiation Protection/statistics & numerical data , South America , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report , Personal Protective Equipment
4.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 40-45, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126192

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La protección gonadal ha sido durante largo tiempo un importante factor para abordar el requisito "tan bajo como sea razonablemente posible" ALARA. El presente artículo realiza una revisión sistemática sobre la utilidad de la protección gonadal en la radiografía de pelvis en la cual se han destacado los factores que tienen que ver con su realización diaria, es decir, la dosis de radiación involucrada, la radiosensibilidad de las gónadas, la posición del protector gonadal y el factor psicológico de la población en relación con su uso. La incorporación de equipamientos modernos, con dosis y protocolo optimizados, transforma el beneficio de la protección en un tema al menos debatible. Mientras algunos siguen respaldando la medida, otros organismos y autores ya no la respaldan. Es necesario reconsiderar prácticas actuales fundadas en consensos científicos que pueden estar obsoletos y considerar el factor de cambio cultural basados en estos nuevos consensos para su implementación, sin generar mayor preocupación en la población.


Abstract: Gonadal protection has long been an important factor in addressing the ALARA "as low as reasonably possible" requirement. This article performs a systematic review on the usefulness of gonadal protection in pelvic radiography, in which the factors that have to do with its daily performance have been highlighted, that is, radiation dose involved, the radiosensitivity of the gonads, the position of the gonadal shielding and the psychological factor of the population in relation to its use. The incorporation of modern equipment, with optimized dose and protocols, transforms the benefit of gonad shielding into an issue that is at least debatable. While some continue to support the measure, other agencies and authors no longer support it. It is necessary to reconsider current practices based on scientific consensus that may be obsolete and consider the factor of cultural change based on these new consensus for its implementation, without generating major concern in the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pelvis/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Protection/methods , Gonads/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , X-Rays , Radiography
5.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126552

ABSTRACT

Uno de los requerimientos indispensables en el diseño de las instalaciones donde se trabaja con radiación ionizante es la determinación del espesor adecuado de las paredes, pisos, techo y puertas de los locales, que garanticen dosis por debajo de las restricciones establecidas por la autoridad regulatoria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es desarrollar una herramienta interactiva, libre y de código abierto para calcular los blindajes requeridos en una instalación de Medicina Nuclear. En el código, desarrollado en Phyton utilizando el entorno interactivo Jupiter Notebook, se incluyó el análisis tanto para Tomografía por Emisión de Fotón Único como para Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones. La herramienta fue implementada para el cálculo de los blindajes de un departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica (CIREN). Esta herramienta libre y de código abierto facilita los cálculos de blindaje aumentando la velocidad, lo que contribuye a lograr una optimización de la protección radiológica, pero también puede usarse como herramienta pedagógica(AU)


One of the indispensable requirements in the design of the facilities where ionizing radiation is used is the determination of the adequate thickness of the walls, floors, ceiling and doors of the premises, which guarantee doses below the restrictions established by the regulatory authority. The goal of this work is to develop an interactive, free and open source tool to calculate the shields required in a Nuclear Medicine installation. Analysis for both Single Photon Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography was included in the code, developed in Phyton using the interactive Jupiter Notebook environment. The tool was implemented to calculate the shields of a Nuclear Medicine department of the International Center for Neurological Restoration (CIREN). This free and open source tool facilitates shielding calculations by increasing speed, which contributes to the optimization of radiation protection, but can also be used as a pedagogical tool(AU)


Subject(s)
Radiation Protection/methods , Building Codes/standards , Shielding against Radiation , Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital/standards
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. Objectives To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. Methods The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. Results The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. Study limitations The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. Conclusion The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Radiation Protection/methods , Solar Energy , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , General Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control
7.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(1): 19-25, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003746

ABSTRACT

Se sabe que las exposiciones médicas con radiaciones ionizantes son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas durante estas exposiciones a los pacientes, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de los Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes para diagnóstico y procedimientos de intervención. Dado que la legislación chilena no tiene incorporado aún su uso, el presente trabajo de revisión tiene como objetivo, elaborar un documento guía para los profesionales de la salud y áreas afines, que contenga de manera sucinta y con recomendaciones prácticas, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiodiagnóstico, intervencionismo y medicina nuclear, basados esencialmente en la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP sobre DRLs.


It is known that medical exposition with ionizing radiation is currently the main exposition source to artificial radiation at global level. To prevent unnecessarily high doses during these patient expositions, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to support the optimization of radiological protection for patient medical exposure for diagnosis and interventional procedures. Since that the Chilean legislation does not have its use incorporated yet, the present revision work aims to elaborate a guiding document for health professionals and related fields, that succinctly and with practical recommendations, the main aspects to consider for establishing DRLs in procedures for radiodiagnostic, intervention, and nuclear medicine, mainly based in N° 135 ICRP publication about DRLs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiology , Reference Standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Nuclear Medicine , Nuclear Medicine/standards
8.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(supl.1): 9-16, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-990710

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of health professionals about radiological protection and to implement educational actions to promote a safe working environment for professionals, patients and companions. Method: An exploratory cross-sectional study, applying a questionnaire to 59 participants from different sectors of a teaching hospital. Open-ended questions were analyzed through the discourse of the collective subject and closed-ended questions were analyzed through quantitative analysis. Results: In the opinion of the participants, their professional training did not offer radioprotection class or the training was insufficient for the practice. In addition, the work environment does not provide regulatory norms and training on radioprotection. Most participants do not have solid knowledge and do not present safe behavior in radioprotection. In the internal week for the prevention of work accidents, a lecture and a theatricalisation about the topic of radioprotection were conducted and a booklet was distributed. Conclusion: Radiation protection education is necessary in the curricula of the training courses for health professionals and in the work environment.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos de los profesionales de la salud sobre la protección radiológica con el intuito de implementar acciones educativas para promover un ambiente de trabajo seguro para los profesionales, pacientes y acompañantes Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal exploratorio, desarrollado por medio de un cuestionario aplicado a 59 participantes de diferentes sectores de un hospital de enseñanza. Se analizaron las cuestiones abiertas mediante el discurso del sujeto colectivo, y las cerradas, mediante análisis cuantitativo. Resultados: Según la opinión de los participantes, el curso no sumó conocimiento sobre la radioprotección o fue insuficiente para la práctica. El ambiente de trabajo tampoco pone a disposición normas reguladoras y formación sobre el tema. La mayoría de los participantes no poseen conocimiento sólido y comportamiento seguro en radioprotección. Durante la semana interna de prevención de accidentes de trabajo, se realizaron conferencias y teatralización sobre el tema radioprotección y se distribuyeron cartillas. Conclusión: Es necesario la inclusión educativa sobre radioprotección en los planes de estudio de los cursos formadores de profesionales de la salud y en el ambiente de trabajo.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento que os profissionais de saúde têm sobre proteção radiológica e implementar ações educativas para promover um ambiente de trabalho seguro aos profissionais, pacientes e acompanhantes. Método: Estudo transversal exploratório, aplicando-se um questionário a 59 participantes de diferentes setores de um hospital de ensino. Questões abertas foram analisadas pelo discurso do sujeito coletivo. Questões fechadas tiveram análise quantitativa. Resultados: Na opinião dos participantes, o curso que fizeram não ofereceu formação sobre radioproteção ou foi insuficiente para a prática. O ambiente de trabalho também não disponibiliza normas regulatórias e formação sobre radioproteção. A maioria dos participantes não tem conhecimento sólido e comportamento seguro em radioproteção. Na semana interna de prevenção de acidentes de trabalho, foram feitas palestra e teatralização sobre o tema radioproteção e distribuída cartilha. Conclusões: São necessárias inserções educativas em radioproteção nas grades curriculares dos cursos formadores de profissionais de saúde e no ambiente de trabalho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation Protection/methods , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Qualitative Research , Personal Protective Equipment/standards
9.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 5(1): 67-73, Ene-Mar. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151928

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la relación entre la dosis de radiación recibida y la práctica en intervención médica. Se estudiaron estadísticamente los reportes dosimétricos de profesionales que han laborado en intervencionismo con un Arco en C en el Hospital José Carrasco Arteaga de la ciudad de Cuenca, Ecuador. Estos informes se basan en lecturas bimensuales de los dosímetros TLD utilizados por el personal para seguridad radiológica. En total, se analizaron 124 personas que trabajaron en el período de noviembre de 2013 a marzo de 2018, es decir, 24 informes. La dosis promedio anual para las enfermeras de quirófanos es de 1,32 mSv, 1,59 mSv para el personal de Urología, 1,74 mSv para el personal de Gastroenterología, 1,78 mSv para el personal de Hemodinamia y 2,33 mSv para el personal de Traumatología. Se concluyó que la dosis promedio para cada práctica no excede la dosis de restricción de 1/3 de la dosis permitida para trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos. Intervencionismo en Traumatología resulta ser la práctica con mayor dosis recibida y la más baja perteneció al personal de Enfermería de Quirófanos. Estos resultados son de gran utilidad para saber qué nivel va acorde con cada práctica médica.


The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between the radiation dose received and the practice in medical intervention. The dosimetric reports of professionals who have worked in intervention with a C-Arm at the José Carrasco Arteaga Hospital in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador, were studied statistically. These reports are based on bi-monthly readings of the TLD dosimeters used by the staff for radiological safety. In total, 124 professionals who worked in the period from November 2013 to March 2018 were analyzed, that is, 24 reports. The average annual dose for operating room nurses is 1.32 mSv, 1.59 mSv for urology staff, 1.74 mSv for gastroenterology staff, 1.78 mSv for hemodynamic staff and 2.33 mSv for trauma staff. It is concluded that the average dose for each practice does not exceed the restriction dose of 1/3 of the dose allowed for occupationally exposed workers. Traumatology is the practice with the highest dose received and the lowest belongs to the operating room nursing staff. These results are very useful to know which level is consistent with each medical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiometry/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiology, Interventional/trends , Health Personnel , Ecuador , Research Report , Radiation Dosimeters/standards
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(1): eRW4456, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984367

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Layered double hydroxides have received more attention from researchers due to their range of applications, ease of synthesis and low cost of production. With broader knowledge about solar radiation effects on the body, the use of sunscreens has become even more important. The ability of some nanostructures, such as layered double hydroxides, to act as matrices has made it possible to obtain improvements in photoprotective formulations, with solutions to problems caused by radiation and sunscreens. This review article brings together the most recent advances of these clays, the layered double hydroxides, applied to photoprotection.


RESUMO Os hidróxidos duplos lamelares vêm ganhando maior atenção de pesquisadores, em decorrência da gama de aplicações, da facilidade de síntese e do baixo custo de produção. Com o crescente conhecimento sobre diversos efeitos da radiação solar sobre o organismo, a utilização de fotoprotetores tem se tornado indispensável. A capacidade de nanoestruturas, como os hidróxidos duplos lamelares, atuarem como matrizes possibilitou melhorias nas formulações fotoprotetoras, tendo em vista os problemas provocados pela radiação, bem como por alguns filtros solares. Este artigo de revisão reúne os avanços mais recentes destas argilas, os hidróxidos duplos lamelares, aplicados à fotoproteção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/methods , Sunburn/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/chemistry , Ultraviolet Rays , Nanostructures/chemistry , Hydroxides/chemistry
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(3): 246-251, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975741

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los procedimientos de imagenología dental son el tipo más frecuente de estudio radiológico y aportan información esencial para apoyar la evaluación, diagnóstico y tratamiento de patologías y/o alteraciones dentomaxilofaciales. La presente revisión narrativa, muestra los procedimientos de radiología dental, define conceptos asociados a la protección radiológica en éstos y entrega una guía con recomendaciones para mejorar la seguridad y protección radiológica del paciente y del operador, en esta clase de procedimientos imagenológicos. Comprender que bajo el actual sistema de protección radiológica, es el Odontólogo quién debe justificar la realización o no de un tipo de procedimiento radiológico, teniendo presente los costos económicos y sobre todo los costos en términos de dosis para el paciente.


ABSTRACT: Dental imaging procedures are the most frequent type of radiological study and provide essential information to support the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of pathologies and / or dentomaxillofacial alterations. The present narrative review shows dental radiology procedures, defines concepts associated with radiological protection in these and provides a guide with recommendations to improve the safety and radiological protection of the patient and the operator in this kind of imaging procedures. Understanding that under the current system of radiological protection, it is the dentist who must confirm the realization or not, of a type of radiological procedure, keeping in mind the financial costs, and above all, consequences to the patient in terms of dose used in the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiology/methods , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control
12.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 83(3): 210-213, set. 2018. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-976773

ABSTRACT

La cirugía ortopédica ha avanzado mucho en estos años y, con ello, el uso de la intensificación de imágenes en el quirófano. El objetivo de este informe es revisar los principios biológicos de la radiación, el marco legal actual y hacer una breve reseña sobre la situación actual en la Argentina.


Orthopedic surgery has significantly advanced in the past years along with image intensifier fluoroscopy in the operating room. The purpose of this report is to review biological principles of radiation, as well as the current legal framework and to outline the present situation in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Argentina , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiation Exposure/legislation & jurisprudence , Radiation Exposure/standards , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Orthopedic Surgeons , Occupational Diseases
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7404, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951760

ABSTRACT

DNA repair pathways, cell cycle checkpoints, and redox protection systems are essential factors for securing genomic stability. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of Ilex paraguariensis (Ip) infusion and one of its polyphenolic components rutin on cellular and molecular damage induced by ionizing radiation. Ip is a beverage drank by most inhabitants of Argentina, Paraguay, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC7Klys 2-3) was used as the eukaryotic model. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to gamma rays (γ) in the presence or absence of Ip or rutin. The concentrations used simulated those found in the habitual infusion. Surviving fractions, mutation frequency, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were determined after treatments. A significant increase in surviving fractions after gamma irradiation was observed following combined exposure to γ+R, or γ+Ip. Upon these concomitant treatments, mutation and DSB frequency decreased significantly. In the mutant strain deficient in MEC1, a significant increase in γ sensitivity and a low effect of rutin on γ-induced chromosomal fragmentation was observed. Results were interpreted in the framework of a model of interaction between radiation-induced free radicals, DNA repair pathways, and checkpoint controls, where the DNA damage that induced activation of MEC1 nodal point of the network could be modulated by Ip components including rutin. Furthermore, ionizing radiation-induced redox cascades can be interrupted by rutin potential and other protectors contained in Ip.


Subject(s)
Rutin/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/radiation effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antimutagenic Agents/pharmacology , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Radiation Protection/methods , Mass Spectrometry , DNA, Fungal/radiation effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, Liquid , Mutagenesis , DNA Repair , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , Mutation Rate , Gamma Rays
15.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(2): 82-87, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-847844

ABSTRACT

O processo de decisão clínica para utilização de radiação ionizante para obter estudos diagnósticos e prognósticos por imagem inclui obrigatoriamente critérios apropriados de indicação e avalia a razão risco-benefício dentro do princípio da mínima exposição, enquanto são obtidas informações de alta qualidade. Adicionalmente, a exposição à radiação médica continua a ser tópico de constante discussão, considerando-se o crescimento do uso de exames de imagem, em especial na oncologia e nas doenças cardiovasculares, o consequente aumento da dose efetiva de radiação, a falta de monitoração e a insuficiência de dados na exposição longitudinal à radiação de pacientes submetidos a múltiplos procedimentos ao longo do tempo, entre outros. Consequentemente, o tema "dose de radiação" envolvendo tais procedimentos ganhou destaque mundial e muitas teorias e especulações surgiram, tanto na literatura médica quanto na mídia leiga. O assunto com certeza merece atenção da comunidade médica e deve continuar recebendo novos investimentos, tanto no estudo de seus efeitos biológicos quanto na evolução tecnológica de equipamentos com capacidade de produzir exames com excelente capacidade diagnóstica e com dose de radiação cada vez menor. Até o momento, não se conhecem ao certo quais os efeitos biológicos da radiação de baixa dose em adultos, mas, considerando- se alguns fatos, evidências experimentais e epidemiológicas que relacionam a exposição a baixas doses de radiação ionizante e desenvolvimento de tumores sólidos e leucemias, protocolos rígidos de controle e segurança devem ser implementados na rotina diária, seguindo normatizações estabelecidas dos órgãos reguladores. Publicações recentes que envolvem a Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica (IAEA - 2016) recomendam como estratégia de redução de dose em imagens de perfusão do miocárdio com o uso de radiofármacos a observação rígida dos princípios básicos de proteção à radiação médica, categorizados como princípios da "Justificação" (teste correto para o paciente certo), "Otimização" (princípio "ALARA") e "Melhores Práticas". Finalmente, os estudos de imagem cardiovascular com radiação ionizante são considerados maléficos, subestimando-se, muitas vezes, os benefícios resultantes quando eles são bem indicados, porque podem ser decisivos para a conduta adequada


The clinical decision to use ionizing radiation to obtain diagnostic and prognostic studies by image must include appropriate indication criteria, and evaluate the risk-benefit ratio, adhering to the principle of minimum exposure while obtaining high-quality information. Moreover, medical exposure to radiation is a subject of ongoing debate, in view of the growth in the use of imaging exams, especially in oncology and cardiovascular disease, the consequent increase in effective radiation doses, the lack of monitoring, and the inadequacy of data on longitudinal exposure to radiation in patients submitted to multiple procedures over time,among other factors. Consequently, the subject of the "radiation dose" involved in these procedures has gained interest worldwide, and many theories and speculations have arisen, both in the medical literature and in the general media. Without a doubt, the subject deserves the attention of the medical community, and should continue to receive new investments, whether on the study of its biological effects or on the technological development of equipment capable of producing exams with excellent diagnostic capacity and increasingly lower radiation doses. So far, the biological effects of low radiation doses in adults is not known for certain, but considering some facts, such as experimental and epidemiological evidence linking exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation with the development of solid tumors and leucemias,strict control and safety protocols should be implemented as routine, following the guidelines of the regulatory bodies. Recent publications involving the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA - 2016) recommend, as a strategy for reducing the radiation dose in images of myocardial perfusion with the use of radiodrugs, strict observation of the basic principles of protection against medical radiation, categorized as principles of "Justification" (right test for the right patient), "Optimization" ("ALARA" principle) and "Best Practices". Finally, cardiovascular imaging studies with ionizing radiation are considered harmful, often underestimating the resulting benefits when they are well indicated, because they may be decisive for the appropriate conduct


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation , Radiation Protection/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Radiation, Ionizing , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Dosimetry , Neoplasms/therapy
16.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1263865

ABSTRACT

Objectif : Évaluer les connaissances des praticiens sur la radioprotection des patients au Burkina Faso.Méthodes : Étude descriptive transversale multisites du 1er mars au 31 mai 2015 dans trois structures sanitaires auprès des prescripteurs chez qui un questionnaire comportant plusieurs items en rapport avec les connaissances sur la radioprotection a été administré.Résultats : Le questionnaire a été soumis à 164 médecins : 123 (75%) ont accepté de le remplir ; 82,9% prenaient en compte le rapport bénéfice-risque ; 60% informaient le patient sur les risques des rayonnements ionisants ; 26,9% avaient une bonne connaissance sur les objectifs de la radioprotection et 17,9% sur les principes de la radioprotection ; 83,7% étaient informée de l'existence du risque de cancer radio-induit ; 80% reconnaissaient l'exposition médicale comme source d'irradiation et 36,6% considéraient l'IRM comme une technique irradiante. Conclusion : Notre étude a montré une faible connaissance des principes, des objectifs de la radioprotection par les praticiens bien que l'existence du risque de cancer radio-induit lors de la réalisation de certains examens radiologiques n'était pas ignorée


Subject(s)
Burkina Faso , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Safety , Radiation Protection/methods
17.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 85(3): 230-237, jul.-sep. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-767588

ABSTRACT

La cardiología intervencionista ha logrado un progreso que hace que cada año se haga una mayor cantidad de procedimientos de complejidad progresiva con una muy buena tasa de éxito. El problema es que ese progreso conlleva mayor dosis de radiación no solo para el paciente sino también para los trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos. Existen métodos simples para minimizar la dosis recibida. Estos incluyen: minimizar el tiempo de radioscopia y la cantidad de imágenes adquiridas, utilizar las tecnologías disponibles de reducción de dosis para pacientes, usar adecuada geometría del equipo, colimar, evitar las zonas de radiación reflejada, utilizar todo el blindaje disponible, realizar controles de calidad del equipo de imagen y utilizar los dosímetros personales y conocer la dosis recibida. La utilización eficaz de estos métodos requiere no solo educación y entrenamiento para todo el personal ocupacionalmente expuesto sino la disponibilidad y el uso de los elementos radioprotectores de la sala y del equipo. La revisión regular del equipo y la investigación de las dosis recibidas por el personal acompañadas por los cambios necesarios en la manera en que los procedimientos se realizan asegura una mejor práctica de protección radiológica en la sala de intervencionismo cardiovascular.


Interventional: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Radiation Protection , Radiography, Interventional , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiation Protection/standards
18.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(4): 319-331, oct.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-735293

ABSTRACT

El campo de utilización cada vez más amplio de las sustancias radiactivas en la medicina exige el manejo y la aplicación de los principios de la ética en una relación muy estrecha con la protección radiológica (PR). Existe una necesidad insoslayable de llevar la perspectiva de la ética en el uso de las radiaciones ionizantes y de la PR del paciente a la práctica de la Medicina Nuclear en Hematología (MNH). Esto no debe asumirse como un proceso de simple adopción, sino como la aplicación creativa de sus principios. Será de gran utilidad continuar incluyendo en la docencia que se imparte a los profesionales de las diversas especialidades que emplean la medicina nuclear como herramienta diagnóstica o terapéutica, una formación científica basada en los principios de la ética sumados a elementos de la PR. El colectivo multidisciplinario dedicado a la MNH tiene una responsabilidad de índole moral y ética en la garantía del uso adecuado de las sustancias radiactivas en la técnica médica y el desarrollo científico de la especialidad. La siguiente revisión del tema pretende contribuir al fomento de principios éticos en los especialistas de hematología durante su quehacer diario. Con la aplicación de la ética en el contexto de la MNH, perfeccionaremos la gestión de PR en el manejo de los pacientes, contribuiremos a la mejor atención a estos y elevaremos la calidad de nuestro trabajo...


The increasingly width of the field of radioactive substances use in medicine demands the managing and the application of ethics principles in a very close relation to radiological protection. There is an unavoidable need to take ethics perspective in the use of ionizing radiations and the radiological protection of the patient to the practice of Nuclear Medicine in Hematology (NMH). This must not be assumed as a process of simple adoption, but as the creative application of his principles. It will be highly useful to continue including in the teaching programs aimed to professionals who use nuclear medicine as a diagnostic or therapeutic tool, a scientific formation based on the ethics principles including the elements of radiological protection. The multidisciplinary group dedicated to NMH has a moral and ethical responsibility to guarantee the appropriate use of radioactive substances in the medical technology and scientific development of this specialty. The following review on the subject wishes to contribute to the promotion of ethical principles in hematology specialists during their daily work. With the application of ethics in the context of NMH, we will also improve the radiological protection of our patients which will contribute to their best care and will increase the quality of our work...


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematology/education , Hematology/ethics , Nuclear Medicine/ethics , Radiation Protection/methods , Ethics, Medical/education
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(6,supl.1): 1-74, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741059

ABSTRACT

Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/methods , Sunburn/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/administration & dosage , Skin Diseases/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Solar Energy/statistics & numerical data , Sunburn/epidemiology , Sunscreening Agents/chemistry , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Clothing , Environmental Exposure , Electromagnetic Radiation , Health Promotion/methods , Meteorological Concepts
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23622

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for abdominal or pelvic cancer, but there is a common and serious complication such as radiation-induced enteritis. Probiotics is reported to have positive effects against radiation-induced enteropathy. In this study, morphological changes of bowel mucosa were analyzed in rats to presume the effect of probiotics on radiation-induced enteritis and its correlation with radiation dose. A total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received a solution containing 1.0x108 colony-forming units of Lactiobacillus acidophilus or water once daily for 10 days. Each of two groups was divided into three subgroups and abdomino-pelvic area of each subgroup was irradiated with 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively on the seventh day of feeding the solutions. All rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation and the mucosal thickness and villus height of jejunum, ileum and colon were measured. The morphological parameters of the small intestine represented significant differences between two solution groups irradiated 10 or 15 Gy, except for villus height of jejunum in 15 Gy-subgroup (P=0.065). There was no significant morphometric difference between two groups irradiated with 20 Gy of radiation. Probiotics appear to be effective for the morphological shortening of small intestinal mucosa damaged by radiation less than or equal to 15 Gy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Enteritis/pathology , Ileum/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Intestine, Small , Jejunum/pathology , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolism , Male , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/prevention & control , Radiation Protection/methods , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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