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Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 15-20, mar. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178270


Introducción: los estudios por imágenes (EPI) son de gran ayuda para el diagnóstico clínico, pero su uso irracional puede ocasionar daños. Objetivos: relevar las percepciones y expectativas sobre estudios por imágenes pediátricos en un grupo de padres de niños sanos. Evaluar los datos obtenidos en relación con el registro de EPI solicitados por Guardia durante el mismo período. Materiales y métodos: estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, cuali-cuantitativo mediante una encuesta en una muestra por conveniencia en un centro pediátrico ambulatorio, a lo largo de dos meses. Análisis retrospectivo de solicitud de EPI en el registro informatizado de historias clínicas de Guardia durante el mismo período. Resultados: respondieron 243 padres. El 93,4% refirió conocer métodos de EPI (la radiografía[Rx] fue el más conocido). Se había realizado al menos un EPI al 83,4% de los niños en los últimos doce meses. El estudio fue explicado en forma clara en el 96,4% de los casos. Un 47,7% de los padres refirieron conocer las consecuencias del uso repetitivo de EPI. El 81,6% acordó con que "ante cualquier traumatismo se debe realizar Rx para descartar fractura". Más del 60% consideró que debe realizarse Rx de tórax a todo niño con tos sin fiebre o con fiebre de más de dos días y 55% solicitarían Rx de senos paranasales si el niño elimina mocos verdes. El 49,8% opinó que los médicos piden EPI de menos (por falta de recursos, para trabajar menos o para ahorrar dinero). Durante el período estudiado se solicitó una radiografía al 5% de los pacientes que consultaron por Guardia; no se encontró justificación para solicitar el estudio en el 29% de los casos. Conclusión: un gran porcentaje de padres conoce los EPI; sin embargo, desconocen los riesgos asociados a su uso. Existen errores de concepto que generan expectativas desmedidas con respecto a la indicación de Rx. Se informó un exceso en las solicitudes de EPI por Guardia. Los padres consideran que los médicos solicitan EPI de menos. (AU)

Introduction: ediatric radiologic exams (PRE) are of great value for clinicians. It's over or misuse can lead to irreparable damage that can be prevented. Objective: to describe perceptions and expectations for the use of PRE among healthy children`s parents in an ambulatory center. To analyze these results in relation to the report of PRE performed in the emergency room during the same period. Methods: observational, cross sectional, quali- quantitative study using a survey on a convenience sample conducted in an outpatient pediatric center over a two months period. Retrospective analysis of medical records to evaluate PRE requested on the ER during the 2 months of the study. Results: 243 parents completed the survey. 93,4% were familiar with PRE (X-rays being the most popular among them). 83,4% of children in our sample had at least one PRE in the past 12 months. The need and utility of the study had been explained to the parents clearly in 96,4% of cases. 47,7% of parents knew about the side effects associated with repetitive use of PRE. 81,6% agreed with the statement "in the event that a child should suffer any trauma, an X-Ray should be performed to look for fractures". Over 60% think a chest X ray has to be obtained if the child has fever for over 48 hours and 55% would expect an X ray to be performed whenever a child has green nasal discharge. 49,8% respondents think that doctors order less than necessary (for lack of resources, unwillingness to work in or to save money). The analysis of clinical reports showed that X-Rays were performed to 5% of children at the emergency clinic. Among them, we found no reason for the study in 29% of the cases. Conclusion: we found that parents were very familiar with PRE, however less than half our sample knew of the potential risks related to their use. There are considerable misconceptions among parents regarding X-Ray use. Parents considered that doctors order too little PRE. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics/statistics & numerical data , Diagnostic Imaging/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Radiation Injuries/etiology , Radiation, Ionizing , X-Rays , Diagnostic Imaging/adverse effects , Radiography/statistics & numerical data , Risk , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880333


BACKGROUND@#Numerous studies have concentrated on high-dose radiation exposed accidentally or through therapy, and few involve low-dose occupational exposure, to investigate the correlation between low-dose ionizing radiation and changing hematological parameters among medical workers.@*METHODS@#Using a prospective cohort study design, we collected health examination reports and personal dose monitoring data from medical workers and used Poisson regression and restricted cubic spline models to assess the correlation between changing hematological parameters and cumulative radiation dose and determine the dose-response relationship.@*RESULTS@#We observed that changing platelet of 1265 medical workers followed up was statistically different among the cumulative dose groups (P = 0.010). Although the linear trend tested was not statistically significant (P@*CONCLUSION@#We concluded that although the exposure dose was below the limit, medical workers exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation for a short period of time might have increased first and then decreased platelets, and there was a dose-response relationship between the cumulative radiation dose and platelets changing.

Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/radiation effects , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878442


OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on the secretion of the paracellular pathway in rat submandibular glands (SMGs) and reveal the changes in the tight junction (TJ) protein claudin-4.@*METHODS@#A total of 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and irradiation groups. The irradiation groups were further divided into 1, 4, and 12 weeks groups after irradiation. One-time 20 Gy irradiation was given to the SMG area on the experimental side of the irradiation group. At 1, 4, and 12 weeks after irradiation, the secretion of SMGs was measured using the Schirmer's test. The pathological changes in the gland tissues were observed under light microscopy after hematoxylin⁃eosin (HE) staining. The changes in the TJ ultrastructure were observed under transmission electron microscopy. The immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor, aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and claudin-4 protein.@*RESULTS@#At 1, 4, and 12 weeks after irradiation, the secretion of SMGs in the irradiation group was significantly decreased and lower than that in the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The changes in the TJ structure, the upregulation of the claudin-4 expression, and the damage in the paracellular pathway were involved in the hyposecretion of SMGs after irradiation.

Animals , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Radiation, Ionizing , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Submandibular Gland , Tight Junctions
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200140, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1250256


Tetanus toxin blocks the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system and causes tetanus and its main form of prevention is through vaccination. The vaccine is produced by inactivation of tetanus toxin with formaldehyde, which may cause side effects. An alternative way is the use of ionizing radiation for inactivation of the toxin and also to improve the potential immunogenic response and to reduce the post-vaccination side effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the tetanus toxin structure after different doses of ionizing radiation of 60Co. Methods Irradiated and native tetanus toxin was characterized by SDS PAGE in reducing and non-reducing conditions and MALD-TOF. Enzymatic activity was measured by FRET substrate. Also, antigenic properties were assessed by ELISA and Western Blot data. Results Characterization analysis revealed gradual modification on the tetanus toxin structure according to doses increase. Also, fragmentation and possible aggregations of the protein fragments were observed in higher doses. In the analysis of peptide preservation by enzymatic digestion and mass spectrometry, there was a slight modification in the identification up to the dose of 4 kGy. At subsequent doses, peptide identification was minimal. The analysis of the enzymatic activity by fluorescence showed 35 % attenuation in the activity even at higher doses. In the antigenic evaluation, anti-tetanus toxin antibodies were detected against the irradiated toxins at the different doses, with a gradual decrease as the dose increased, but remaining at satisfactory levels. Conclusion Ionizing radiation promoted structural changes in the tetanus toxin such as fragmentation and/or aggregation and attenuation of enzymatic activity as the dose increased, but antigenic recognition of the toxin remained at good levels indicating its possible use as an immunogen. However, studies of enzymatic activity of tetanus toxin irradiated with doses above 8 kGy should be further analyzed.(AU)

Radiation, Ionizing , Tetanus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gamma Rays , Tetanus Toxin , Cobalt
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1685-1689, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143669


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Workers describe many physical and mental symptoms when working in radiation areas. This study aimed to assess these symptoms in radiation workers using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: A total of 42 radiation workers (22 males and 20 females, mean age 34±7 years) and 47 control subjects (22 males and 27 females, mean age 31± 8 years) who work in non-radiation areas in the hospital were included in the study. All participants anonymously filled out the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: The demographic data of workers were not significantly different between groups. In the BAI, the dizzy or lightheaded (p =0.01), terrified (p= 0.01), unsteady (p=0.02), heart-pounding and racing (p=0.02) items were significantly higher in the radiation-exposed group compared to the control group. -The BAI score was also significantly higher in the radiation-exposed group (11.1±6.8 vs. 8.7±3.8, p =0.04) CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility that radiation may play a role in the psychometric properties of workers. The effects of radiation on the health of employees need to be further investigated and understood.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Ao trabalhar em áreas de radiação, trabalhadores descrevem muitos sintomas físicos e mentais. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar esses sintomas em trabalhadores expostos à radiação utilizando a Escala de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI - Beck Anxiety Inventory). MÉTODOS: Um total de 42 trabalhadores expostos à radiação (22 homens e 20 mulheres, com idade média de 34±7 anos) e 47 controles (22 do sexo masculino e 27 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 31±8 anos) que trabalham em áreas do hospital sem radiação foram incluídos no estudo. Todos os participantes responderam anonimamente ao questionário da BAI. RESULTADOS: Os dados demográficos dos trabalhadores dos dois grupos não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Na BAI, os itens de tonturas ou vertigens (p =0,01), medo (p= 0,01), instabilidade (p=0,02) e batimento cardíaco mais forte e acelerado (p=0,02) foram significativamente mais elevados no grupo exposto à radiação em comparação ao grupo de controle. A pontuação da BAI também foi significativamente maior no grupo exposto à radiação (11,1 ± 6,8 versus 8,7 ± 3,8, p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados sugerem a possibilidade de que a radiação pode desempenhar um papel importante nas propriedades psicométricas dos trabalhadores. Os efeitos da radiação na saúde dos funcionários precisam ser mais bem investigados e compreendidos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders , Psychometrics , Radiation, Ionizing , Risk Factors
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 297-304, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139709


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The largest radiological accident to occur in any urban area happened in Goiânia, Brazil, in 1987. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between breast cancer incidence and ionizing radiation levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological study among residents of the city of Goiânia, Brazil. METHODS: The central region of Goiânia, with seven major sources of contamination from cesium-137, was defined as the study area. The addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer were identified between 2001 and 2010. The data were geographically referenced and, using census data, the annual averages of crude incidence rates were estimated. The existence of clusters of new cases was ascertained by means of the Moran index. Correlations of radiometric measurements with the incidence were assessed using unconditional linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 4,105 new cases were identified, of which 2,233 were in the study area, and of these, 1,286 (57.59%) were georeferenced. The gross rates of total and referenced cases were 102.91 and 71.86/100,000 women, respectively. These were close to the average for Brazilian state capitals, which is 79.37/100,000 women. The cluster analysis showed slight correlations in three small sets of census tracts, but these were far from the sources of contamination. The scatter plot of points and the R2 value close to zero indicated that there was no association between the variables. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the hypothesis that the ionizing radiation levels to which women living in Goiânia are now exposed to are not associated with the onset of new cases of breast cancer.

Humans , Female , Adult , Radiation, Ionizing , Breast/radiation effects , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cesium Radioisotopes/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Radioactive/adverse effects , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Radioactive Hazard Release
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 105-113, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138523


ANTECEDENTES: Las unidades de Cardiología intervencional han evidenciado un número creciente de procedimientos, cada vez más variados y complejos, lo cual podría eventualmente generar daños a los profesionales ocupacionalmente expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes (POEs) de no contar con los adecuados elementos de radioprotección y un uso correcto de ellos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la disponibilidad y utilización de los elementos de radioprotección y dosimetría de unidades de cardiología intervencionista de centros Sudamericanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta autoaplicada a 139 POEs, de ambos sexos de 7 países, a través de una plataforma on-line, se les consultó sobre características demográficas, dosimétricas y de radioprotección. RESULTADOS: Los elementos de radioprotección más tradicionales; delantales y cuellos plomados se utilizaron un 99,5 % y 98,4 % respectivamente, aquellos elementos más recientes como gafas, gorros y paños plomados solo alcanzaron un 36,8 %, 6,8 % y 34,2%, de utilización respectivamente, en cuanto a la utilización de los dosímetros, solo un 7,9 % lo hace apegado a las normas de la Organización Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA). CONCLUSIÓN: Se constató en la muestra analizada una falta de elementos de radioprotección y un uso inadecuado de ellos, urge realizar intervenciones educativas y técnicas para mejorar estos datos.

BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of interventional cardiology procedures currently performed, health professionals (POE) are exposed to ionizing radiation unless adequate protective elements are used. AIM: to describe the use of radioprotection elements and dosimetry in interventional cardiology laboratories in South America. METHODS: A self-administered survey was performed on 139 POE of both sexes and 7 countries using an online platform. Demographic data, dosimetry and characteristics of radioprotection analyzed. RESULTS: Commonly used radioprotective elements (lead aprons and collars) were used in 99.5% and 98% respectively. Recently introduced protection elements like lead goggles, caps and drapery were used in 36.8, 6.8 and 34.2% , respectively. Dosimetry according to the International Atomic Energy Commission (OIAE) was performed in only 7.9% of the procedures. CONCLUSION: there is a severe lack of adequate radioprotection during interventional cardiology procedures. Urgent measures, including technical implementation and educational interventions are needed to improve radioprotection in interventional cardiology.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiography, Interventional/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection/instrumentation , Radiation Protection/statistics & numerical data , South America , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report , Personal Protective Equipment
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(2): 01-06, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115997


Contexto: A tomografia computadorizada revolucionou os estudos radiológicos convencionais. Porém, tal avanço se deu associado com o aumento das doses de radiação ionizante. A tomografia computadorizada representa 15% de todos os exames de imagem e contribui com 75% de radiação para a população. Objetivo: Estimar a dose efetiva de radiação imprimida aos pacientes durante os exames de tomografia computadorizada. Desenho e local: Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo em instituição hospitalar de nível terciário no Rio de Janeiro. Métodos: Foram selecionados 1.476 pacientes que realizaram exames de tomografia computadorizada de crânio, tórax e abdome/pelve, sem contraste endovenoso, no serviço de radiodiagnóstico do hospital no período de 1 de janeiro a 31 de março de 2018 para os exames de tórax, e no período de 1 de janeiro a 28 de fevereiro de 2018 para os exames de crânio e de abdome/pelve. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Picture Archivingand Communication System (PACS) da instituição para avaliar a dose de radiação utilizada por cada tipo de exame, por meio do cálculo das doses efetivas médias em cada tipo de exame. Resultados: As médias das doses efetivas encontradas foram de 1,57 mSv, 8,37 mSv e 12,28 mSv para os exames de crânio, tórax e abdome/pelve, respectivamente. Conclusão: O estudo verificou que os exames de crânio e abdome/pelve foram realizados com as médias das doses efetivas dentro dos valores típicos preconizados, enquanto nos exames de tórax as doses efetivas estavam acima da faixa fornecida pela Associação Americana de Física Médica (American Association of Physicists in Medicine, AAPM) (relatório # 96).

Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dosimetry
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 8-15, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115444


ANTECEDENTES: Un número creciente de artículos está llamando la atención en forma consistente sobre la eventual asociación que existe entre los denominados trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a bajos niveles de radiación ionizante (POEs) y una mayor frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas, a nivel Sudamericano estos estudios son escasos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas en linfocitos de sangre periférica de POEs de un hospital y de sujetos sanos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de los artículos que a la fecha abordaron este tema. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se condujo un análisis citogenético destinado a cuantificar las aberraciones cromosómicas en sangre periférica de linfocitos de 6 POEs de la unidad de Cardiología Intervencional y, como controles, 6 muestras de sujetos de la población general fueron analizadas. RESULTADOS: Se observó un importante contraste en el número de aberraciones cromosómicas presentadas en los POEs versus la población general no expuesta a radiaciones ionizantes, siendo esta de una relación de 6:1, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados preliminares indican una mayor frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas en los POEs versus la población general, sin embargo, se deberá esperar los resultados de la segunda fase de investigación, donde al ampliar la muestra en análisis se podrán obtener conclusiones estadísticamente significativas.

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an increased number of chromosomes aberrations in subjects exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation (POEs). There are few studies on this subject in Latin America AIM: To evaluate the frequency of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood in subjects working in laboratories where low levels of ionizing radiation are present and to compare these findings to those of unexposed subjects. METHODS: A cytogenic analysis to quantify chromosome aberrations was performed in 6 POs subjects from a cardiology invasive laboratory and 6 controls from a general unexposed population. RESULTS: Compared to controls, an approximately 6-fold increase in the number of chromosome aberrations was subjects exposed to ionizing radiation CONCLUSION: These preliminary results indicate that there is an increased number of chromosome aberrations in subjects exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation, as occurs in people working in a cardiology interventional laboratory. Studies in large numbers of subjects and preferably followed prospectively are needed to evaluate more precisely this effect.

Humans , Male , Female , Personnel, Hospital , Radiation, Ionizing , Chromosome Aberrations/radiation effects , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Radiation Dosage , Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Chile , Pilot Projects , Occupational Exposure , Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Chromosomes, Human/radiation effects , Cytogenetic Analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878681


Ionizing radiation causes the massive apoptosis of human tissue cells,leading to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and hematopoietic system.Thus,high-efficiency,low-toxicity radiation protection drugs are urgently needed.Toll-like receptor agonists have been developed based on the anti-apoptotic mechanism of tumor cells in recent years,which exert their radioprotective effects by activating downstream pathways,mainly nuclear factor-κB.Here we elucidate several agonists of Toll-like receptors involved in radiation protection,with an attempt to inform the research and development of new radiation protection agents.

Apoptosis , Humans , NF-kappa B , Radiation Protection , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200191, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134799


Abstract Objective: This study analyzed the effect of ionizing radiation on bone microarchitecture and biomechanical properties in the bone tissue surrounding a dental implant. Methodology: Twenty rabbits received three dental morse taper junction implants: one in the left tibia and two in the right tibia. The animals were randomized into two groups: the nonirradiated group (control group) and the irradiated group, which received 30 Gy in a single dose 2 weeks after the implant procedure. Four weeks after the implant procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the implant/bone specimens were used for each experiment. The specimens (n=10) of the right tibia were examined by microcomputed tomography to measure the cortical volume (CtV, mm3), cortical thickness (CtTh, mm) and porosity (CtPo, %). The other specimens (n=10) were examined by dynamic indentation to measure the elastic modulus (E, GPa) and Vickers hardness (VHN, N/mm2) in the bone. The specimens of the left tibia (n=10) were subjected to pull-out tests to calculate the failure load (N), displacement (mm) up to the failure point and interface stiffness (N/mm). In the irradiated group, two measurements were performed: close, at 1 mm surrounding the implant surface, and distant, at 2.5 mm from the external limit of the first measurement. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t-test (α=0.05). Results: The irradiated bone closer to the implant surface had lower elastic modulus (E), Vickers hardness (VHN), Ct.Th, and Ct.V values and a higher Ct.Po value than the bone distant to the implant (P<0.04). The irradiated bone that was distant from the implant surface had lower E, VHN, and Ct.Th values and a higher Ct.Po value than the nonirradiated bone (P<0.04). The nonirradiated bone had higher failure loads, displacements and stiffness values than the irradiated bone (P<0.02). Conclusion: Ionizing radiation in dental implants resulted in negative effects on the microarchitecture and biomechanical properties of bone tissue, mainly near the surface of the implant.

Animals , Radiation, Ionizing , Bone and Bones/radiation effects , Dental Implants , Rabbits , Biomechanical Phenomena , Osseointegration , X-Ray Microtomography
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e46780, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1118766


Introdução: ouso da radiação ionizante na prática médica pode ocasionar eventos nocivos à saúde do indivíduo exposto. Diante disso, o emprego ético da radiação ionizante deve contemplar o que preconiza a legislação nacional e internacional, assim como os princípios de proteção radiológica e da bioética. O sofrimento moral relaciona-se à dimensão ética na prática da saúde,podendo afetar os profissionais das técnicas radiológicas. Objetivo: identificar as situações desencadeadoras de sofrimento moral nos profissionais das técnicas radiológicas em um serviço de radiologia convencional. Metodologia: trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória. Usou-se como técnicas de coleta de dados a observação participante, a entrevista semiestruturada e a validação consensual. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise temática. Resultados e discussão: observou-se situações de sofrimento moral quando o profissional da técnica radiológica se deparava com pacientes em condições clínicas de se dirigir a unidade de diagnóstico e imagem, diante da não indicação clínica do exame radiológico, ante ao desrespeito dos princípios de proteção radiológica e perante a falta de autonomia para fazer cumprir os preceitos éticos do emprego da radiação ionizante. Conclusão: o desrespeito dos princípios legais, assim como dos princípios de proteção radiológica e bioéticos levamo profissional das técnicas radiológicas ao sofrimento moral.

Introduction: The use of ionizing radiation in medical practice may cause harm to the health of the exposed individual. Thus, the ethical use of ionizing radiation must contemplate what is required by national and international legislation, as well as the principles of radiological protection and bioethics. Moral distress is related to the ethical dimension in healthpractice, and may affect radiological technologists. Objective:To identify the situations that trigger moral distress among radiological technologistsin a conventional radiology service.Methodology:This is a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research. Data collection techniques were participant observation, semi-structured interview and consensus validation. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results and discussion:Situations of moral distress were observed when the radiological technologist was faced with patients in clinical conditions to go to the diagnostic and imaging unit, due to the non-clinical indication of the radiological exam, due to the disrespect of the protection principles and lack of autonomy to enforce the ethical precepts of the use of ionizing radiation. Conclusion:Failure to respect the legal principles as well as the principles of radiological and bioethical protection lead the professional of radiological techniques to moral distress.

Humans , Male , Female , Radiation , Radiation Protection , Radiology , Health Personnel , Morale , Patients , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiology Department, Hospital , X-Rays , Bioethics , Health , Occupational Health , Personal Autonomy , Education, Continuing , Ethics , Respect , Intensive Care Units , Lead
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055521


Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on fluoride release, surface roughness, flexural strength, and surface chemical composition of the materials. The study groups comprised five different restorative materials: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer, and Fuji IX GP. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) for fluoride release and 20 bar-shaped specimens (25 x 2x 2 mm) for flexural strength were prepared from each material. Each material group was divided into two subgroups: irradiated (IR) and non-irradiated (Non-IR). The specimens from IR groups were irradiated with 1.8 Gy/day for 39 days (total IR = 70.2 Gy). The amount of fluoride released into deionized water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours and on days 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 39 (n = 10). The flexural strength was evaluated using the three-point bending test (n = 10). After the period of measurement of fluoride release, seven specimens (n = 7) from each group were randomly selected to evaluate surface roughness using AFM and one specimen was randomly selected for the SEM and EDS analyses. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). The irradiation significantly increased fluoride release and surface roughness for Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer groups (p < 0.05). No significant change in flexural strength of the materials was observed after irradiation (p > 0.05). The ionizing radiation altered the amount of fluoride release and surface roughness of only Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer. The effect could be related to the chemical compositions of materials.

Apatites/radiation effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/radiation effects , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/radiation effects , Apatites/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Time Factors , Zirconium/radiation effects , Zirconium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Flexural Strength , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 26(6): 317-321, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115587


Abstract Objective: To determine the association between occupational ionizing radiation exposure in the cardiovascular catheterization laboratories staff and development of lens changes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was made. Participants were recruited at the XIII Colombian Conference of Interventional Cardiology and SOLACI conferences in Bogotá - Colombia 2017. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Demographics and clinical data were collected. Associated lens changes were determined according to the ionizing radiation exposure status. Results: A total of 89 subjects (178 eyes) participated in the study. In general, the mean age was 40 years old, ranging from 19 to 78 years old. Distribution according gender was 55.3% male and 44.7% female. 31 subjects (62 eyes) were deemed to have not occupational exposure to radiation and 58 subjects (116 eyes) with a history of occupational radiation exposure. Exposed eyes had twice risk for present subcapsular posterior lens opacity compared to non-exposed eyes. The subjects with older age and physician role were associated to the presence of lens opacity, with a p value 0.001 in both cases. Likewise, exposed subjects with any lens opacity had a high mean occupational lifetime, with a p 0.001. Conclusions: This study confirms a statistically significant increase in radiation-associated subcapsular lens changes in the eyes of interventional cardiology staff compared to unexposed controls.

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre la exposición a radiación ionizante en el personal de las salas de cateterismo cardiovascular y el desarrollo de cambios en el cristalino. Métodos: Se hizo un estudio transversal. Los participantes fueron reclutados en el XIII Congreso Colombiano de Cardiología Intervencionista y las Conferencias SOLACI en Bogotá - Colombia 2017. Se obtuvo el consentimiento informado de todos los participantes. Se recolectaron datos demográficos y clínicos. Se determinó la asociación entre los cambios en el cristalino y la exposición a la radiación ionizante. Resultados: Un total de 89 sujetos (178 ojos) participaron en el estudio. En general, la edad promedio fue de 40 años, con edades comprendidas entre los 19 años y 78 años. La distribución según el género fue del 55,3% en hombres y el 44,7% en mujeres. Se consideró que 31 sujetos (62 ojos) no tenían exposición ocupacional a la radiación y 58 sujetos (116 ojos) presentaban exposición ocupacional a esta. Los ojos expuestos tenían dos veces el riesgo de presentar opacidad subcapsular posterior del cristalino en comparación con los ojos no expuestos. Los sujetos de mayor edad y con rol de médico se asociaron a la presencia de opacidad del cristalino, con un valor p de 0.001 en ambos casos. Del mismo modo, los sujetos expuestos con cualquier opacidad del cristalino tenían una vida laboral más larga, con una p 0.001. Conclusiones: Este estudio confirma un aumento estadísticamente significativo en la presencia de cambios en el cristalino en el personal de las salas de cateterismo cardiovascular en comparación con los controles no expuestos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Radiation, Ionizing , Cataract , Occupational Exposure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 960-968, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055049


Abstract Background: Coronary angiography with two catheters is the traditional strategy for diagnostic coronary procedures. TIG I catheter permits to cannulate both coronary arteries, avoiding exchanging catheters during coronary angiography by transradial access. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of one-catheter strategy, by avoiding catheter exchange, on coronary catheterization performance and economic costs. Methods: Transradial coronary diagnostic procedures conducted from January 2013 to June 2017 were collected. One-catheter strategy (TIG I catheter) and two-catheter strategy (left and right Judkins catheters) were compared. The volume of iodinated contrast administered was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included radial spasm, procedural duration (fluoroscopy time) and exposure to ionizing radiation (dose-area product and air kerma). Direct economic costs were also evaluated. For statistical analyses, two-tailed p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: From a total of 1,953 procedures in 1,829 patients, 252 procedures were assigned to one-catheter strategy and 1,701 procedures to two-catheter strategy. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. One-catheter strategy required less iodinated contrast [primary endpoint; (60-105)-mL vs. 92 (64-120)-mL; p < 0.001] than the two-catheter strategy. Also, the one-catheter group presented less radial spasm (5.2% vs. 9.3%, p = 0.022) and shorter fluoroscopy time [3.9 (2.2-8.0)-min vs. 4.8 (2.9-8.3)-min, p = 0.001] and saved costs [149 (140-160)-€/procedure vs. 171 (160-183)-€/procedure; p < 0.001]. No differences in dose-area product and air kerma were detected between the groups. Conclusions: One-catheter strategy, with TIG I catheter, improves coronary catheterization performance and reduces economic costs compared to traditional two-catheter strategy in patients referred for coronary angiography.

Resumo Fundamento: A cineangiocoronariografia com dois cateteres é a estratégia tradicional para procedimentos coronarianos de diagnóstico. O cateter TIG I permite canular ambas as artérias coronárias, evitando a troca de cateteres durante a cineangiocoronariografia por acesso transradial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o impacto da estratégia de um cateter, evitando a troca de cateter, no desempenho da coronariografia por cateterismo e nos seus custos econômicos. Métodos: Foram coletados os procedimentos diagnósticos coronarianos transradiais realizados entre janeiro de 2013 e junho de 2017. A estratégia de um cateter (cateter TIG I) e a estratégia de dois cateteres (cateteres coronários direito e esquerdo de Judkins) foram comparadas. O volume de contraste iodado administrado foi o endpoint primário. Os endpoints secundários eram espasmo radial, duração do procedimento (tempo de fluoroscopia) e exposição a radiações ionizantes (produto dose-área e kerma no ar). Os custos econômicos diretos também foram avaliados. Para as análises estatísticas, valores de p < 0,05 bicaudais foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: De um total de 1.953 procedimentos em 1.829 pacientes, 252 procedimentos foram atribuídos à estratégia de um cateter e 1.701 procedimentos à estratégia de dois cateteres. Não houve diferenças nas características basais entre os grupos. A estratégia de um cateter exigiu menos contraste iodado [endpoint primário; (60-105) -mL vs. 92 (64-120) -mL; p < 0,001] em comparação com a estratégia de dois cateteres. Além disso, o grupo da estratégia de um cateter apresentou menos espasmo radial (5,2% vs. 9,3%, p = 0,022) e menor tempo de fluoroscopia [3,9 (2,2-8,0) -min vs. 4,8 (2,9-8,3) -min, p = 0,001] e economia de custos [149 (140-160)-€/procedimento vs. 171 (160-183) -€/procedimento; p < 0,001]. Não foram detectadas diferenças no produto dose-área e kerma no ar entre os grupos. Conclusões: A estratégia de um cateter, com cateter TIG I, melhora o desempenho da coronariografia por cateterismo e reduz os custos econômicos em comparação com a estratégia tradicional de dois cateteres em pacientes encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Angiography/methods , Cardiac Catheters/economics , Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Spasm , Time Factors , Fluoroscopy , Cardiac Catheterization/economics , Cardiac Catheterization/instrumentation , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Retrospective Studies , Cost Savings/economics , Coronary Angiography/economics , Coronary Angiography/instrumentation , Radial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(3): 397-408, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038108


Entre los escasos radioprotectores en uso, la amifostina resulta eficaz para reducir la toxicidad aguda inducida por la radiación ionizante. Sin embargo, presenta efectos tóxicos importantes que impiden su uso repetido o en dosis altas. Es necesario entonces desarrollar radioprotectores menos tóxicos, por sí mismos o como coadyuvantes de la amifostina en dosis bajas. Se expusieron ratas Sprague-Dawley a una dosis de rayos X de 6 Gy (cuerpo entero). Se ensayó el butirato de sodio como mitigante luego de una dosis baja de amifostina previa a la irradiación. A distintos tiempos después de la irradiación se realizó el recuento de eritrocitos, leucocitos y la fórmula leucocitaria. Los efectos genotóxicos se evaluaron en leucocitos de sangre mediante el ensayo Cometa. Se realizaron también estudios de supervivencia a 60 días y la evaluación histológica del duodeno e intestino grueso. El efecto del tratamiento resultó moderadamente protector respecto de la recuperación de los valores normales de eritrocitos, leucocitos y la fórmula leucocitaria en los animales sobrevivientes en ambos sexos, así como de los epitelios intestinales y el ADN de los leucocitos. También aumentó significativamente la sobrevida a 60 días. La radioprotección con amifostina en una dosis baja seguida de una mitigación con butirato fue claramente significativa.

Among the few radioprotectors in use, amifostine is effective in reducing the acute toxicity induced by ionizing radiation. However, it has important toxic effects that prevent its repeated use or in high doses. It is necessary then to develop less toxic radioprotectors, by themselves or as adjuvants of amifostine in low doses. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to an X-ray dose of 6 Gy (whole body). Sodium butyrate was tested as a mitigant after a low dose of amifostine prior to irradiation. At different times after the irradiation, the erythrocytes, leukocytes and the leukocyte formula were counted. Genotoxic effects were evaluated in blood leukocytes by the Comet assay. Sixty-day survival studies and histological evaluation of the duodenum and large intestine were also performed. The effect of the treatment was moderately protective with respect to the recovery of the normal values of erythrocytes, leukocytes and the leukocyte formula in the surviving animals in both sexes as well as for the intestinal epithelia and leukocytes DNA. It also significantly increased the 60-day survival. The radioprotection with amifostine in a low dose followed by mitigation with butyrate was clearly significant.

Entre os poucos radioprotetores em uso, a amifostina é eficaz na redução da toxicidade aguda induzida pela radiação ionizante. No entanto, tem importantes efeitos tóxicos que impedem seu uso repetido ou em altas doses. É necessário, então, desenvolver radioprotetores menos tóxicos, isoladamente ou como coadjuvantes da amifostina em baixas doses. Ratos Sprague-Dawley foram expostos a uma dose de raios X de 6 Gy (corpo inteiro). O butirato de sódio foi testado como mitigante após uma dose baixa de amifostina antes da irradiação. Em diferentes momentos após a irradiação, os eritrócitos, leucócitos e a fórmula de leucócitos foram contados. Os efeitos genotóxicos foram avaliados em leucócitos de sangue pelo ensaio Cometa. Estudos de sobrevida de 60 dias e avaliação histológica do duodeno e do intestino grosso também foram realizados. O efeito do tratamento resultou moderadamente protetor em relação à recuperação de valores normais de eritrócitos, leucócitos e fórmula leucocitária nos animais sobreviventes em ambos os sexos, bem como protegeu epitélios intestinais e o DNA dos leucócitos. Também aumentou significativamente a sobrevida para 60 dias. A radioproteção com amifostina em baixa dose seguida de uma mitigação com butirato foi claramente significativa.

Animals , Rats , Sodium/toxicity , Butyrates/toxicity , Amifostine/toxicity , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation Protection , Butyrates/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Amifostine/administration & dosage
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 35(1): 21-24, Ene-Jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120636


Con el objetivo de identificar hallazgos ecográficos en el parénquima tiroideo en el personal ocupacionalmente expuesto y no expuesto a radiación ionizante (RI) del Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con una muestra de 45 individuos expuestos a RI del Servicio de Radiología y Diagnóstico por Imágenes Dr. Theoscar Sanoja Hernández y 38 individuos de los Servicios de Traumatología y Ortopedia y Medicina Física y Rehabilitación que no están expuestos a RI obteniendo que el 63% del personal expuesto presentaron algún tipo de alteración en el ultrasonido tiroideo en comparación con el 43% del personal no ocupacionalmente expuesto; los hallazgos más frecuentes en el personal expuesto fueron bocio difuso (44%), nódulos (32%) y quistes (24%) mientras que en el personal no expuesto fueron quistes (38%), bocio difuso (19%) y nódulos (19%). Estos hallazgos permiten concluir que el porcentaje del personal con afectación de la glándula tiroides fue mayor en personal expuesto y que los hallazgos ecográficos difieren entre los grupos estudiados(AU)

In order to identify ultrasound findings in thyroid parenchyma of hospital staff exposed and not exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) of the Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio Maria Pineda, we performed a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 45 individuals exposed to IR who worked in the Servicio de Radiología y Diagnóstico por Imágenes Dr. Theoscar Sanoja Hernández and 38 individuals who worked at the Servicios de Traumatología y Ortopedia y Medicina Física y Rehabilitación and were not exposed. The results showed that 63% of the exposed group had ultrasound thyroid findings in contrast to 43% of the non-exposed group. The most common findings in the exposed group were diffuse goiter (44%), nodules (32%) and cysts (24%) and in the non-exposed group were cysts (38%), diffuse goiter (19%) y nodules (19%). These findings show that ultrasound thyroid findings was higher in exposed hospital staff and that the type of thyroid disease differ among both groups(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Radiation, Ionizing , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Ultrasonography , Diagnostic Imaging , Endocrine System , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 392-399, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001281


Abstract Background: Posterior subcapsular cataract is a tissue reaction commonly found among professionals exposed to ionizing radiation. Objective: To assess the prevalence of cataract in professionals working in hemodynamics in Brazil. Methods: Professionals exposed to ionizing radiation (group 1, G1) underwent slit lamp examination with a biomicroscope for lens examination and compared with non-exposed subjects (group 2, G2). Ophthalmologic findings were described and classified by opacity degree and localization using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Both groups answered a questionnaire on work and health conditions to investigate the presence of risk factors for cataract. The level of significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 112 volunteers of G1, mean age of 44.95 (±10.23) years, and 88 volunteers of G2, mean age of 48.07 (±12.18) years were evaluated; 75.2% of G1 and 85.2% of G2 were physicians. Statistical analysis between G1 and G2 showed a prevalence of posterior subcapsular cataract of 13% and 2% in G1 and G2, respectively (0.0081). Considering physicians only, 38% of G1 and 15% of G2 had cataract, with the prevalence of posterior subcapsular cataract of 13% and 3%, respectively (p = 0.0176). Among non-physicians, no difference was found in the prevalence of cataract (by types). Conclusions: Cataract was more prevalent in professionals exposed to ionizing radiation, with posterior subcapsular cataract the most frequent finding.

Resumo Fundamento: A catarata subcapsular posterior é uma reação tecidual encontrada com frequência nos profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante. Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata nos profissionais que atuam na área de hemodinâmica no Brasil. Métodos: Profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante (grupo 1, G1) foram submetidos ao exame biomicroscópico com lâmpada de fenda para avaliação do cristalino, e comparados aos não expostos (grupo 2, G2). Os achados foram descritos e classificados quanto ao grau de opacidade e localização por meio do Lens opacities classification system III. Ambos os grupos responderam questionário sobre condições de trabalho e de saúde para afastar fatores de risco para catarata, e foram comparados quanto aos achados. Foi utilizado um nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: Foram avaliados 112 voluntários (G1) com média de idade 44,95 (±10,23) anos e 88 voluntários (G2) com média de 48,07 (±12,18) anos. Desses, 75,2% (G1) e 85,2% (G2) eram médicos. A análise estatística entre os grupos G1 e G2 mostrou uma prevalência da catarata no grupo G1 de 33% comparada ao G2 de 16% (p = 0,0058), sendo a catarata subcapsular posterior presente em 13% no G1 e 2% no G2 (p = 0,0081). Considerando apenas os médicos, 38% no G1 e 15% no G2 (p = 0,0011) apresentaram catarata, sendo a subcapsular posterior 13% e 3% (p = 0,0176), respectivamente. No grupo dos profissionais não médicos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na prevalência dos achados oftalmológicos. Conclusões: A catarata esteve mais presente no grupo de profissionais expostos à radiação ionizante, sendo que a catarata subcapsular posterior foi o dano tecidual mais encontrado.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cataract/epidemiology , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Cardiologists/statistics & numerical data , Lens, Crystalline/radiation effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Radiation, Ionizing , Cataract/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Radiation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Eye Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Hemodynamics , Occupational Diseases/etiology
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 259-264, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786564


PURPOSE: Accurate localization of the lumpectomy cavity during accelerated partial breast radiation (APBR) is essential for daily setup to ensure the prescribed dose encompasses the target and avoids unnecessary irradiation to surrounding normal tissues. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) allows direct visualization of the lumpectomy cavity without additional radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 3D-US in daily target localization for APBR.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients with stage I breast cancer who underwent breast conserving surgery were treated with a 2-week course of APBR. Patients with visible lumpectomy cavities on high quality 3D-US images were included in this analysis. Prior to each treatment, X-ray and 3D-US images were acquired and compared to images from simulation to confirm accurate position and determine shifts. Volume change of the lumpectomy cavity was determined daily with 3D-US.RESULTS: A total of 118 images of each modality from 12 eligible patients were analyzed. The average change in cavity volume was 7.8% (range, -24.1% to 14.4%) on 3D-US from simulation to the end-of-treatment. Based on 3D-US, significantly larger shifts were necessary compared to portal films in all three dimensions: anterior/posterior (p = 7E-11), left/right (p = 0.002), and superior/inferior (p = 0.004).CONCLUSION: Given that the lumpectomy cavity is not directly visible via X-ray images, accurate positioning may not be fully achieved by X-ray images. Therefore, when the lumpectomy cavity is visible on US, 3D-US can be considered as an alternative to X-ray imaging during daily positioning for selected patients treated with APBR, thus avoiding additional exposure to ionizing radiation.

Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiation Exposure , Radiation, Ionizing , Ultrasonography
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 302-308, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786558


The abscopal effect is a term that has been used to describe the phenomenon in which localized radiation therapy treatment of a tumor lesion triggers a spontaneous regression of metastatic lesion(s) at a non-irradiated distant site(s). Radiation therapy induced abscopal effects are believed to be mediated by activation and stimulation of the immune system. However, due to the brain’s distinctive immune microenvironment, extracranial abscopal responses following cranial radiation therapy have rarely been reported. In this report, we describe the case of 42-year-old female patient with metastatic melanoma who experienced an abscopal response following her cranial radiation therapy for her brain metastasis. The patient initially presented with a stage III melanoma of the right upper skin of her back. Approximately 5 years after her diagnosis, the patient developed a large metastatic lesion in her upper right pectoral region of her chest wall and axilla. Since the patient’s tumor was positive for BRAF and MEK, targeted therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib was initiated. However, the patient experienced central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such as headache and disequilibrium and developed brain metastases prior to the start of targeted therapy. The patient received radiation therapy to a dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions to her brain lesions while the patient was on dabrafenib and trametinib therapy. The patient’s CNS metastases improved significantly within weeks of her therapy. The patient’s non-irradiated large extracranial chest mass and axilla mass also shrank substantially demonstrating the abscopal effect during her CNS radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy of her residual chest lesions, the patient was disease free clinically and her CNS lesions had regressed. However, when the radiation therapy ended and the patient continued her targeted therapy alone, recurrence outside of her previously treated fields was noted. The disease recurrence could be due to the possibility of developing BRAF resistance clones to the BRAF targeted therapy. The patient died eventually due to wide spread systemic disease recurrence despite targeted therapy.

Adult , Axilla , Brain , Central Nervous System , Clone Cells , Diagnosis , Female , Headache , Humans , Immune System , Immunization , Melanoma , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiation, Ionizing , Recurrence , Skin , Skin Neoplasms , Thoracic Wall , Thorax