Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 137
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777465

ABSTRACT

Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Shengmai San has the effects of enhancing immunity and improving blood circulation, and Curcumae Longae Rhizoma(Jianghuang) has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation and other functions. Shengmai San combined with Jianghuang is a new research direction in the study of anti-tumor of traditional Chinese medicines. The main treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is radiation therapy, but radiation therapy can cause a variety of side effects, and it also changes the composition of the intestinal flora. In this study, the 16 s rDNA sequencing platform was used to perform macro-sequence sequencing of the intestinal flora samples of nude mice bearing the veins of Shengmai Jianghuang San, and then the results of intestinal flora data were analyzed to investigate the effect of Shengmai Jianghuang San on tumors. The results showed that Shengmai Jianghuang San combined with irradiation could enhance the therapeutic effect of tumor treatment. Radiation therapy would reduce the total number and diversity of intestinal flora in nude mice, and also change the structure of the flora. Shengmai Jianghuang San could protect the diversity of colonies, and also partially restore the colony imbalance caused by irradiation. This study provides a research idea for Shengmai Jianghuang San as a sensitizing adjuvant for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice , Mice, Nude , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Radiotherapy , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Pharmacology
2.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 206-211, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812785

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the improving effect of astaxanthin (AST) on the sperm quality of rats with ornidazole (ORN)-induced oligoasthenozoospermiaand its action mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into groups A (solvent control), B (low-dose ORN [400 mg/(kg·d)]), C (high-dose ORN [800 mg/(kg·d)]), D (low-dose ORN [400 mg/(kg·d)] + AST [20 mg/(kg·d)]), and E (high-dose ORN [800 mg/(kg·d)] + AST [20 mg/(kg·d)]), all treated intragastrically for3 weeks.After treatment, the epididymal tails ononeside was taken for determination of sperm concentration and activity, and the epididymideson the other side harvested for measurement of the activities of GSH-Px, GR, CAT and SOD and the MDA contentin the homogenate.@*RESULTS@#Compared with group A, sperm motilityin the epididymal tail andGSH-Px and SOD activities in theepididymiswere markedly decreased while the MDAcontent significantlyincreased in group B (P<0.05), spermmotility and concentrationin the epididymal tail, testisindex, and the activities of GSH-Px, GR, CAT and SOD in the epididymis were remarkably reduced while theMDA contentsignificantly increased in group C(P<0.05). In comparison with group B, group D showed markedly increased sperm motility ([45.3±8.7]% vs [66.3±8.9]%, P<0.05) in the epididymal tail and SOD activity in the epididymis ([116.7±25.3] U/mg prot vs [146.1±23.8] U/mg prot, P<0.05), decreased MDA content([1.68±0.45] nmol/mg prot vs [1.19±0.42] nmol/mg prot, P<0.05).Compared with group C, group Eexhibited significant increases in the weight gained ([89.0±9.5] vs [99.9±4.1] %, P<0.05) and sperm motility ([17.9±3.5]% vs [27.3±5.3] %, P<0.05) but a decrease in the content of MDA ([2.03±0.30] nmol/mg prot vs [1.52±0.41] nmol/mg prot, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AST can improve spermquality in rats with ORN-inducedoligoasthenozoospermia, which may be associated with its enhancing effect on the antioxidant capacity of the epididymis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Asthenozoospermia , Epididymis , Metabolism , Male , Oligospermia , Ornidazole , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Metabolism , Xanthophylls , Pharmacology
3.
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2017; 19 (Supp. 1): 86-95
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189344

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study evaluated enhanced induced DNA damages and apoptosis of a spheroid culture of DU145 prostate cancer cells treated by a combination of radiofrequency hyperthermia [RF HT] with radiation treatment [RT] from an external radiotherapy machine compared to RT alone


Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, DU145 cells were cultured as spheroids until they reached 300 micro m in diameter. We exposed these cultures to either: RF HT for 90 minutes at 43[degree]C originated from a Celsius TCS system, RF HT followed by RT at doses of 2 Gy or 4 Gy [15 MV energy] with 15-minute interval, or RT alone at the above mentioned doses. The trypan blue exclusion assay, alkaline comet assay, and annexin V/PI flow cytometry were performed to measure cell viability, the amount of DNA damage in an individual cell as the tail moment, and percentage of induced cell apoptosis in response to treatments explained


Results: We calculated the thermal enhancement factor [TEF] for the combined treatment regime. RF HT followed by the 4 Gy dose of RT resulted in minimum viability [85.33 +/- 1.30%], the highest tail moment [1.98 +/- 0.18], and highest percentage of apoptotic cells [64.48 +/- 3.40%] compared to the other treatments. The results of the TEF assay were 2.54 from the comet assay and 2.33 according to flow cytometry


Conclusion: The present data suggest that combined treatment of mega voltage X-rays and RF HT can result in significant radiosensitization of prostate cancer cells


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hyperthermia, Induced , Radiation , DNA Damage , Cell Line, Tumor , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Apoptosis
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156656

ABSTRACT

Locoregional failure is the most frequent pattern of failure in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients and it leads to death in most of the patients. Second primary tumors occurring in the other head and neck region reach up to almost 40% of long-term survivors. Recommended and preferred retreatment option in operable patients is salvage surgical resection, reporting a 5-year overall survival of up to 40%. However, because of tumor location, extent, and underlying comorbidities, salvage surgery is often limited and compromised by incomplete resection. Reirradiation with or without combined chemotherapy is an appropriate option for unresectable recurrence. Reirradiation is carefully considered with a case-by-case basis. Reirradiation protocol enrollment is highly encouraged prior to committing patient to an aggressive therapy. Radiation doses greater than 60 Gy are usually recommended for successful salvage. Despite recent technical improvement in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the use of concurrent chemotherapy, and the emergence of molecularly targeted agents, careful patient selection remain as the most paramount factor in reirradiation. Tumors that recur or persist despite aggressive prior chemoradiation therapy imply the presence of chemoradio-resistant clonogens. Treatment protocols that combine novel targeted radiosensitizing agents with conformal high precision radiation are required to overcome the resistance while minimizing toxicity. Recent large number of data showed that IMRT may provide better locoregional control with acceptable acute or chronic morbidities. However, additional prospective studies are required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn on safety and effectiveness of IMRT.


Subject(s)
Clinical Protocols , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Neck , Patient Selection , Prospective Studies , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Re-Irradiation , Recurrence , Retreatment , Survivors
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) on sensitivities of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and the underlying mechanisms.
@*METHODS@#Cell proliferation was examined by MTT and colony formation assay, while cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V/PI double staining and 2-(4-Amidinophenyl)-6-indolecarbamidine dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by commercial kit (JC-1). The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and autophagy-related protein beclin1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) were examined by Western blot.
@*RESULTS@#Cisplatin (DDP), ionizing radiation (IR) or tunicamycin (TM) treatment obviously inhibited the proliferation of HONE-1 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Compared with control group, pretreatment with 1 mmol/L of 3-MA significantly 
reduced cell viability and enhanced the apoptosis in the DDP (6.00 μmol/L), 4.00 Gy IR or TM (1.00 μmol/L) groups. There was no significant difference in the apoptosis between the DDP (5.8%) and 4Gy IR (6.7%) groups. Compared with the control group, protein levels of GRP78, beclin1 and lipid-conjugated membrane-bound form (LC3-II) were significantly increased after the treatment of DDP, 4.00 Gy IR or TM, which were inhibited by pretreatment of 3-MA.
@*CONCLUSION@#3-MA can sensitize HONE-1 cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which is related to prevention of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Metabolism , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Carcinoma , Cell Line, Tumor , Radiation Effects , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cisplatin , Pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Heat-Shock Proteins , Metabolism , Humans , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Pathology , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Pharmacology , Tunicamycin , Pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44801

ABSTRACT

Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is found in about 20% of breast cancer patients. With treatment using trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, systemic control is improved. Nonetheless, the incidence of brain metastasis does not be improved, rather seems to be increased in HER2-positive breast cancer. The mainstay treatment for brain metastases is radiotherapy. According to the number of metastatic lesions and performance status of patients, radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy can be performed. The concurrent use of a radiosensitizer further improves intracranial control. Due to its large molecular weight, trastuzumab has a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, has been noted to be a promising agent that can be used as a radiosensitizer to affect HER2-positive breast cancer. This review will outline general management of brain metastases and will focus on preclinical findings regarding the radiosensitizing effect of small molecule HER2 targeting agents.


Subject(s)
Biology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Epidermal Growth Factor , Humans , Incidence , Molecular Weight , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer is an important cause of death among women. The development of radioresistance in breast cancer leads to recurrence after radiotherapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a polyphenolic compound of honeybee propolis, is known to have anticancer properties. In this study, we examined whether CAPE enhanced the radiation sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and T47D (estrogen receptor-positive) cell lines. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of CAPE on MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells was evaluated by performing an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To assess clonogenic ability, MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells were treated with CAPE (1 µM) for 72 hours before irradiation, and then, a colony assay was performed. A comet assay was used to determine the number of DNA strand breaks at four different times. RESULTS: CAPE decreased the viability of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the clonogenic assay, pretreatment of cells with CAPE before irradiation significantly reduced the surviving fraction of MDA-MB-231 cells at doses of 6 and 8 Gy. A reduction in the surviving fraction of T47D cells was observed relative to MDA-MB-231 at lower doses of radiation. Additionally, CAPE maintained radiation-induced DNA damage in T47D cells for a longer period than in MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CAPE impairs DNA damage repair immediately after irradiation. The induction of radiosensitivity by CAPE in radioresistant breast cancer cells may be caused by prolonged DNA damage.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cause of Death , Cell Line , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , DNA , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Propolis , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
8.
Clinics ; 70(8): 556-562, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of elemene on the radiosensitivity of A549 cells and its possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: Apoptosis of A549 cells was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The effect of double-strand break (DSB) damage repair in A549 cells was evaluated using the neutral comet assay. Protein expression levels were detected using western blotting, and the correlation between protein levels was analyzed. RESULTS: Elemene exhibited a radiosensitizing effect on A549 cells. The level of apoptosis induced by elemene combined with radiation was significantly greater (p<0.01) than that elicited by either radiation or elemene alone. Following radiation and subsequent repair for 24 h, the tail intensity of A549 cells treated with a combination of elemene and radiation was greater than that of cells treated with either elemene or radiation alone (p<0.01). This result indicates that elemene inhibits cellular DSB repair. Both elemene combined with radiation and radiation alone decreased the protein expression of DNA-PKcs and Bcl-2 compared to elemene alone (p<0.01), while p53 protein expression was increased (p<0.01). A negative correlation was observed between DNA-PKcs and p53 expression (r=−0.569, p=0.040), while a positive correlation was found between DNA-PKcs and Bcl-2 expression (r=0.755, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Elemene exhibits a radiosensitizing effect on A549 cells, and its underlying molecular mechanism of action may be related to the downregulation of DNA-PKcs gene expression. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Tolerance/radiation effects , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Comet Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , DNA Repair/drug effects , DNA Repair/radiation effects , DNA-Activated Protein Kinase/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/radiation effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Tolerance/drug effects , /metabolism
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(3): 275-281, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753169

ABSTRACT

Summary The aim of this study is to describe the biogenesis of microRNA, its relations with carcinogenesis, and the correlation between microRNA and ionizing radiation (IR), focusing on radioresponsiveness. It is known that microRNA biogenesis is well established and involves different enzymatic cleavages, resulting in the production of mature microRNA. MicroRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis. Their interaction is related to the genetic and epigenetic changes associated with activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Several studies have shown that the levels of expression of some microRNAs vary significantly after irradiation. There are evidences that microRNAs can influence cellular response after IR. In addition, microRNAs are related to modulation of the expression of several post-transcriptional targets in DNA damage response pathways, and to the DNA damage repair regulation mechanism. Future studies can clarify a possible clinical use of microRNAs as a new class of radiosensitive agents.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é descrever a biogênese do microRNA, suas relações na carcinogênese e a correlação do microRNA com a radiação ionizante (RI), com enfoque na radiorresponsividade. Observou-se que a biogênese do microRNA está bem estabelecida e envolve diversas clivagens enzimáticas que resultam na produção do microRNA maduro. Os microRNAs estão envolvidos na carcinogênese. Sua interação está relacionada às alterações genéticas e epigenéticas, associadas à ativação de proto- -oncogenes ou à inativação de genes supressores de tumor. Vários estudos demonstraram que os níveis de expressão de alguns microRNAs variam significativamente após a irradiação. Há evidências de que os microRNAs podem influenciar a resposta celular após a RI. Além disso, os microRNAs estão relacionados à modulação da expressão de vários alvos de pós-transcrição das vias de resposta aos danos no DNA e o do mecanismo de regulação de reparação de danos do DNA. Estudos futuros podem elucidar uma possível utilização clínica dos microRNAs como uma nova classe de agentes radiossensíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs , Radiation, Ionizing , DNA Damage , DNA Repair/radiation effects , MicroRNAs/biosynthesis , MicroRNAs/physiology , MicroRNAs/radiation effects , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , RNA Cleavage , Transcription Factors/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237954

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol on hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line FADU in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line FADU was cultured in in vitro DMEM. Its inhibition on cell proliferation was detected using cytotoxicity test (MTT assay). The cell survival curve was drawn using clone formation to obtain sensitive enhancement ratio (SER). Changes of the cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry (FCM).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Results of MTT showed the inhibition of resveratrol on FADU cells increased along with its concentrations (P < 0.05). Results of clone formation indicated the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.717 ± 0.062 in the irradiation group, and 0.426 ± 0.035 in the resveratrol plus irradiation group (with SER ranged 1.684 ± 0.178) with statistical difference (P = 0.007). Results of FCM showed that after radiation of 4 Gy radiation, cells at G2/M phase arrest increased, but cells at G1 decreased. After radiation of resveratrol for 24 h, cells at G1 decreased, but cells at G2/M phase and S phase arrest increased. When 4 Gy radiation combined resveratrol was used, cells at G2/M phase arrest significantly increased, but cells at G1 significantly decreased. The apoptosis rate was 1.94% ± 1.65% in the control group, 4.56% ± 0.92% in the irradiation group, 2.03% ± 1.46% in the resveratrol group, and 23.11% ± 7.22% in the resveratrol plus irradiation group. There was statistical difference between the resveratrol plus irradiation group and the rest 3 groups (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Resveratrol could enhance the radiosensitivity of hypopharyngeal carcinoma FADU cells in vitro possibly by inducing cell apoptosis and causing changes in the cell cycle distribution.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Stilbenes , Therapeutic Uses
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90546

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) could induce anti-tumor and radiosensitizing effects in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c-nu mice that were inoculated with A431 (human squamous cell carcinoma) cells in the right hind legs were divided into five groups: I (no treatment), II (EGF for 6 days), III (EGF for 20 days), IV (radiotherapy [RT]), and V (RT plus concomitant EGF). EGF was administered intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg) once a day and the RT dose was 30 Gy in six fractions. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of tumor, liver, lung, and kidney tissues were investigated. Additionally, tumors were subjected to immunohistochemistry staining with caspase-3. RESULTS: EGF for 6 days decreased tumor volume, but it approached the level of the control group at the end of follow-up (p=0.550). The duration of tumor shrinkage was prolonged in group V while the slope of tumor re-growth phase was steeper in group IV (p=0.034). EGF for 20 days decreased tumor volume until the end of the observation period (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry revealed that mice in group V showed stronger intensity than those in group IV. There were no abnormal histological findings upon H&E staining of the normal organs. CONCLUSION: EGF-induced anti-tumor effect was ascertained in the xenograft mouse models with A431 cells. Concomitant use of EGF has the potential role as a radiosensitizer in the design of fractionated irradiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Epidermal Growth Factor , Follow-Up Studies , Hematoxylin , Heterografts , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney , Leg , Liver , Lung , Mice , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Tumor Burden , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-747841

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and the disease control rate and survival time are able to be greatly improved by enhancing the radiosensitivity. Via mechanisms such as binding to target genes mRNA 3'untranslated region (3'UTR), microRNA (miRNA) inhibits translation, which therefore regulates transcription of target genes and thus affect target protein expression. Recent research showed that miRNAs play significant roles in improvement of radiosensitivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This article reviews mechanism of miRNA action to strengthen radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the future of clinical practice of miRNA in this disease.


Subject(s)
3' Untranslated Regions , Carcinoma , Humans , MicroRNAs , Pharmacology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , RNA, Messenger , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
13.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 514-521, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349567

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is suggested to predict the radiosensitivity and/or prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study was designed to investigate the clinical and prognostic effects of IGFBP-3 on ESCC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>IGFBP-3 was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissues from 70 ESCC patients treated with radiotherapy alone and further examined by western blotting analysis in 10 pairs of fresh ESCC tissues and adjacent non-malignant esophageal specimens. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine cut-off scores for tumor positivity and to evaluate patient survival status. The χ(2) test was performed to analyze the association of IGFBP-3 expression with clinical characteristics and radiotherapy response. Associations between prognostic outcomes and IGFBP-3 expression were investigated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The threshold for IGFBP-3 positivity was set to greater than 65% [area under the ROC curve (AUC)=0.690, P<0.019]. Of the 70 ESCC patient tissues tested, 32 (45.7%) were defined as having high IGFBP-3 expression. The levels of IGFBP-3 protein expression were decreased in 70.0% (7 of 10) of ESCC tissues compared with adjacent non-malignant esophageal tissue. In addition, IGFBP-3 expression was associated with pathologic classification (P<0.05 for T, N, and M categories and clinical stage). Patients with elevated protein level of IGFBP-3 in the tumor had an improved radiotherapy response and prolonged overall survival (P<0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>High level of IGFBP-3 expression in ESCC associates with early clinical stages and are predictive for favorable survival of the patients treated with radiotherapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esophageal Neoplasms , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted in order to validate the radiosensitization effect of valproic acid, a biologically available histone deacetylase inhibitor, for fractionated radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiosensitization effect of valproic acid was tested for the A549 cell line and U87MG cell line in vitro. Fractionated irradiation of 12 Gy in four fractions was administered on D2-5 with valproic acid, 150 mg/Kg, ip, bid for six consecutive days (D1-6) to A549 and U87MG tumors implanted in BALB/c-nude mice. A growth delay curve was formulated. RESULTS: Radiosensitization effect of valproic acid was found for both cell lines; A549 at 1.5 mM and 3.0 mM concentration and U87MG at 3.0 mM concentration. In growth delay analysis, a statistically significant radiosensitization effect was observed for both tumors (p < 0.001 for both tumors). Difference for change in slope for control and valproic acid versus radiotherapy and radiotherapy plus valproic acid showed borderline significance for the U87MG cell line (p=0.065), indicating beyond additive effect, whereas this difference was statistically insignificant for A549 tumor (p=0.951), indicating additive effect. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that a radiosensitizing effect for fractionated radiotherapy of valproic acid for A549 and U87MG tumors in vivo is evident and that it may be more than additive for U87MG tumors. Further exploitation of histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials is warranted.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cell Line , Glioblastoma , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Mice , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Radiotherapy , Valproic Acid
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(6): 348-352, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726383

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lasers are widely used in treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. In current practice, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) lasers are the most common type of laser systems used. The aim here was to evaluate the rapid effect of high-power laser systems after application of hypericin. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental animal study conducted in the Department of Urology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey, in 2012. METHODS: Sixteen rats were randomized into four groups: 120 W KTP laser + hypericin; 120 W KTP laser alone; 80 W KTP laser + hypericin; and 80 W KTP laser alone. Hypericin was given intraperitoneally two hours prior to laser applications. The laser incisions were made through the quadriceps muscle of the rats. The depth and the width of the laser incisions were evaluated histologically and recorded. RESULTS: To standardize the effects of the laser, we used the ratio of depth to width. These new values showed us the depth of the laser application per unit width. The new values acquired were evaluated statistically. Mean depth/width values were 231.6, 173.6, 214.1 and 178.9 in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The most notable result was that higher degrees of tissue penetration were achieved in the groups with hypericin (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The encouraging results from our preliminary study demonstrated that hypericin may improve the effects of KTP laser applications. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Lasers são amplamente utilizados no tratamento de hiperplasia benigna de próstata sintomática. Na prática atual, lasers de fosfato de titanilo de potássio (KTP) são os tipos mais comuns usados dos sistemas. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito rápido do sistema laser de alta potência após a aplicação de hipericina. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo experimental animal, realizado no Departamento de Urologia, Academia de Medicina Militar de Gülhane, Ancara, Turquia, em 2012. MÉTODOS: 16 ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos: 120W KTP laser + hipericina; 120W KTP laser somente; 80W KTP laser + hipericina; 80W KTP laser somente. Hipericina foi dada intraperitonealmente duas horas antes da aplicação do laser. As incisões a laser foram feitas através do músculo quadríceps dos ratos. A profundidade e a largura das incisões a laser foram avaliadas histologicamente e registradas. RESULTADOS: Para padronizar o efeito do laser foi utilizada a razão entre profundidade e largura. Estes novos valores nos mostraram a profundidade da aplicação do laser de largura por unidade. Os novos valores adquiridos foram avaliados estatisticamente. Os valores da média de profundidade/largura foram 231,6, 173,6, 214,1 e 178,9 nos grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. O resultado mais notável foi atingir altos graus de penetração tecidual nos grupos com hipericina (P < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados promissores do nosso estudo preliminar mostraram que hipericina pode melhorar os efeitos das aplicações do laser KTP. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Lasers, Solid-State , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Perylene/analogs & derivatives , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/radiation effects , Perylene/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Thigh/pathology , Thigh/radiation effects
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154551

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy is regarded as one of the most important therapeutic modality for the treatment of malignant lesions. This field is undergoing rapid advancements in the recent times. With the use of radiosensitizers and radioprotective agents, the course of radiotherapy has improved the sensitization of tumor cells and protection of normal cells, respectively. The aim of this paper was to critically review and analyze the available compounds used as radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators. For reviewing, the author used the electronic search for the keywords 'Radiosensitizers', 'Radioprotectors', 'Radiation mitigators' on PubMed for inclusion of previously published articles and further search of reference papers on individual radiosensitizing and radioprotecting agents was done. Radiosensitizers are agents that sensitize the tumor cells to radiation. These compounds apparently promote fixation of the free radicals produced by radiation damage at the molecular level. The mechanism of action is similar to the oxygen effect, in which biochemical reactions in the damaged molecules prevent repair of the cellular radiation damage. Free radicals such as OH + are captured by the electron affinity of the radiosensitizers, rendering the molecules incapable of repair. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissues caused by radiation. These compounds are often antioxidants and must be present before or at the time of radiation for effectiveness. Other agents, termed mitigators, may be used to minimize toxicity even after radiation has been delivered. This article tries to discuss the various aspects of radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators including the newer agents.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Radiotherapy/methods
17.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is an alternative treatment of muco-cutaneous tumors that uses a light source able to photoactivate a chemical compound that acts as a photosensitizer. The phthalocyanines append to a wide chemical class that encompasses a large range of compounds; out of them aluminium-substituted disulphonated phthalocyanine possesses a good photosensitizing potential. RESULTS: The destructive effects of PDT with aluminium-substituted disulphonated phthalocyanine are achieved by induction of apoptosis in tumoral cells as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. Using protein microarray we evaluate the possible molecular pathways by which photodynamic therapy activates apoptosis in dysplastic oral keratinocytes cells, leading to the tumoral cells destruction. Among assessed analytes, Bcl-2, P70S6K kinase, Raf-1 and Bad proteins represent the apoptosis related biomolecules that showed expression variations with the greatest amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: Up to date, the intimate molecular apoptotic mechanisms activated by photodynamic therapy with this type of phthalocyanine in dysplastic human oral keratinocytes are not completely elucidated. With protein microarray as high-throughput proteomic approach a better understanding of the manner in which photodynamic therapy leads to tumoral cell destruction can be obtained, by depicting apoptotic molecules that can be potentially triggered in future anti-tumoral therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Photochemotherapy , Precancerous Conditions/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protein Array Analysis , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Keratinocytes/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf/analysis , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor , bcl-Associated Death Protein/analysis , Flow Cytometry , Indoles/therapeutic use
18.
Nanomedicine Journal. 2014; 1 (4): 211-219
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171635

ABSTRACT

The current systematic study has reviewed the therapeutic potential of gold nanoparticles as nano radiosensitizers for cancer radiation therapy. This study was done to review nano radiosensitizers. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Science Direct, SCOPUS, ISI web of knowledge, Springer databases were searched from 2000 to September 2013 to identify appropriate studies. Any study that assessed nanoparticles, candidate of radio enhancement at radiotherapy on animals or cell lines was included by two independent reviewers. Gold nanoparticles can enhance radiosenstivity of tumor cells. This effect is shown in vivo and in vitro, at kilovoltage or megavoltage energies, in 15 reviewed studies. Emphasis of studies was on gold nanoparticles. Radiosensitization of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticles' size, type, concentration, intracellular localization, used irradiation energy and tested cell line. Study outcomes have showed that gold nanoparticles have been beneficial at cancer radiation therapy


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Radiotherapy , Neoplasms
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329230

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol on human hypo pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu) cells in nude mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-three nude mice bearing FaDu cell xenografts were randomized into control group, radiotherapy (12 Gy) group, resveratrol treatment (50 mg/kg) group, and radiotherapy plus resveratrol treatment group. After corresponding treatments, the tumor volume in the mice was measured every 3 days, and the microvessel density (MVD) in the tumor was evaluated with CD31 immunofluorescence histochemical staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The tumor volume and weight were the smallest in mice receiving radiotherapy plus resveratrol treatment (P<0.05) but comparable between those having resveratrol treatment alone and the control mice. Radiotherapy plus resveratrol treatment resulted in a tumor inhibition rate of 76.64% and a significantly decreased MVD in the tumor compared with the other 3 groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Resveratrol can produce a radiosensitizing effect on human hypopharyngeal carcinoma in nude mice.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Radiation Effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , Mice , Mice, Nude , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Pharmacology , Stilbenes , Pharmacology , Transplantation, Heterologous , Tumor Burden
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313048

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) combined irradiation on the apoptosis of human lung cancer GLC-82 cells and to study its mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The growth inhibition rate of GLC-82 cells acted by different concentrations DHA was detected using MTT assay at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Clone forming test was used. With multi-target single-hit model, the radiosensitization effect was assessed by calculating sensitizing enhancement ratio (SER).The effect of DHA combined irradiation on the apoptosis of GLC-82 cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. The protein expression of p53, p21, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Different concentrations DHA (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 μg/mL) had cytotoxicity on GLC-82 cells. The IC50 for 24, 48, and 72 h was 38.25,20.58, and 10.36 μg/mL, respectively, in obvious dose- and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibition rate was more significantly increased than that of the blank control group (P < 0.01, P<0.05). DHA had sensitization enhancement effect on GLC-82 cells, with SER of 1.4. DHA combined irradiation could obviously change the structure of GLC-82 cells cell cycle and induce apoptosis (with the apoptosis rate of 21.5%), which was significantly different from that of the blank control group (P < 0.05). Western blot showed the expression of p53 and p21 protein could be increased by DHA combined irradiation, and the expression of Bcl-2 protein down-regulated (P <0.01, P <0. 05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>DHA had stronger cytotoxicity and radiosensitization on GLC-82 cells. Its mechanisms might lie in making the arrest of GLC-82 cells' growth at G0/G1 phase, decreasing the ratio of cells at S phase, restoring the function of p53, decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and inducing apoptosis in GLC-82 cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Artemisinins , Pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL