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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-9, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284417

ABSTRACT

Background:Lumbar sympathectomy through radio ablation is a useful treatment of peripheral ischemia. However, clinical efficacy with respect to lower limb ulcers is not adequately established in the Indian population. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia in healing of ischemic ulcers of the lower limb.Method:The prospective study with 63 patients registered in the General surgery department with lower limb ischemic ulcers between December 2017­ July2019 were treated with RFA. Patients with cardiopulmonary disease, pregnant, congenital malformation, or skin infection at the site of intervention, or suffering from bleeding disorders, were excluded from the study. Clinical investigation of the wound was performed, and demographic data was collected. Comparative reduction in wound size was assessed through Friedman`s ANOVA (P<0.001). Difference in pain score, hospital stay, and walking distance were evaluated using Wilcoxon matched pair test (P<0.001), Unpaired t-test, and Paired t-test (P<0.05).Result:Majority of the patients were male (n=40) with a mean age of 60.93 SD14.34 years. Significant reduction in wound size, pain scores and hospital stay were observed post procedure(P<0.001). Number of RFA sessions was significantly associated with the size of the ulcer and Fontaine's classification 2 and 3 (P<0.0001).Conclusion:RFA of lumbar sympathetic ganglia is a potential treatment modality for lower limb ischemic ulcers.


Antecedentes: La simpatectomía lumbar a través de la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un tratamiento útil de la isquemia periférica. Sin embargo, la eficacia clínica con respecto a las úlceras en las extremidades inferiores no está adecuadamente establecida en la población india. El estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el papel de la ablación por radiofrecuencia (RFA) de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares en la curación de las úlceras isquémicas de la extremidad inferior. Método: El estudio prospectivo con 63 pacientes registrados en el departamento de cirugía general con úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de 2019 fueron tratados con RFA. Los pacientes con enfermedad cardiopulmonar, malformación embarazada, congénita o infección de la piel en el lugar de la intervención, o que sufren de trastornos hemorrágicos, fueron excluidos del estudio. Se realizó una investigación clínica de la herida y se recopilaron datos demográficos. La reducción comparativa en el tamaño de la herida se evaluó a través del ANOVA de Friedman (P<0.001).Resultado: La diferencia en la puntuación del dolor, la estancia en el hospital y la distancia a pie se evaluaron mediante la prueba de par coincidente de Wilcoxon (P<0.001), la prueba t no emparejada y la prueba t emparejada (P<0.05). La mayoría de los pacientes eran varones (n-40) con una edad media de 60,93 SD14,34 años. Se observó una reducción significativa en el tamaño de la herida, las puntuaciones de dolor y la estancia hospitalaria (P<0.001). El número de sesiones de RFA se asoció significativamente con el tamaño de la úlcera y las clasificaciones 2 y 3 de Fontaine (P<0.0001).Conclusión: LA RFA de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares puede constituir una opción terapéutica para las úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ulcer/therapy , Lower Extremity , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Ischemia/therapy , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , India
2.
Rev. guatemalteca cir ; 27(1): 3-9, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1359836

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Actualmente se prefieren procedimientos mínimamente invasivos como las técnicas endovasculares para el tratamiento de la insuficiencia de vena safena mayor que pueden ser por ablación térmica, química o mecánica. Éstos tienen la ventaja de ser ambulatorios, presentar menos complicaciones postoperatorias, una rápida incorporación laboral y mejores resultados estéticos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los resultados del tratamiento con radiofrecuencia versus crosectomía safenofemoral más oclusión endovascular distal. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de insuficiencia de la vena safena mayor de enero 2017 a octubre 2019. La elección de la técnica a utilizar se hizo al azar. Resultados: El 77% correspondió al género femenino, con edad media 49 años, el estadío C:2 de la clasificación clíica CEAP fue la más frecuente (57%) y el shunt tipo 3 (63%). La ablación por radiofrecuencia se realizó con mayor frecuencia (83%). El dolor y parestesias (fueron las complicaciones más frecuentes en ambos grupos sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0.1470). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativo entre las dos técnicas quirúrgicas realizadas en resultado estético (p = 0.4456), el retorno de actividades cotidianas (p = 0.992) ni las laborales (p = 0.901). Conclusiones: Tanto la ablación por radiofrecuencia de la vena safena mayor como la crosectomía safenofemoral más oclusión endovascular distal se consideran dos métodos seguros y efectivos para tratar insuficiencia de vena safena mayor; ya que los resultados finales fueron similares para ambas técnicas quirúrgicas.


Introduction: Minimally invasive endovascular procedures like thermal, chemical or mechanical ablation are currently preferred for the treatment of the great saphenous vein insufficiency, because have the advantage of being outpatient, with minimal postoperative complications, a faster incorporation to work and better aesthetic results. This study persuit to evaluate the results of radiofrequency treatment versus sapheno-femoral crosectomy plus distal endovascular occlusion. Methods: The study included all the patients with a diagnosis of great saphenous vein insufficiency from January 2017 to October 2019. The technic was chosen randomly. Results: 77% of patients was female , with a mean age of 49 , the C2 stage of the CEAP classification is present in 57% and the type 3 shunt in 63%. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in 83% of the cases. Pain and paresthesia were the most frequent complications, without statistically signification between both technics (p = 0.1470). The aesthetic result, the return to daily activities (p = 0.992) and to work (p = 0.901) had not statistically significant differences between the two surgical techniques. Conclusions: Both, radiofrequency ablation of the greater saphenous vein and sapheno-femoral crosectomy plus distal endovascular occlusion are considered safe and effective methods to treat great saphenous vein insufficiency because the final results were similar for both surgical techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Venous Insufficiency/surgery , Ablation Techniques/methods , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Pain/etiology , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.


Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 285-289, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013466

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of robotically assisted, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery combined with left atrial reduction for mitral valve surgery and elimination of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Eleven patients with severe mitral regurgitation, AF, and left atrial enlargement who underwent robotic, minimally invasive surgery between May 2013 and March 2018 were evaluated retrospectively. The da Vinci robotic system was used in all procedures. The patients' demographic data, electrocardiography (ECG) findings, and pre- and postoperative transthoracic echocardiography findings were analyzed. During follow up ECG was performed at postoperative 3, 6, and 12 months additionally at the 3rd month trans thoracic echocardiography was performed and functional capacity was also evaluated for all patients. Results: All patients underwent robotic-assisted mitral valve surgery with radiofrequency ablation and left atrial reduction. Mean age was 45.76±16.61 years; 7 patients were male and 4 were female. Preoperatively, mean left atrial volume index (LAVI) was 69.55±4.87 mL/m2, ejection fraction (EF) was 54.62±8.27%, and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was 45.75±9.42 mmHg. Postoperatively, in hospital evaluation LAVI decreased to 48.01±4.91 mL/m2 (P=0.008), EF to 50.63±10.13% (P>0.05), and PAP to 39.02±3.11 mmHg (P=0.012). AF was eliminated in 8 (72%) of the 11 patients at the 1st postoperative month. There were significant improvements in functional capacity and no mortality during follow-up. Conclusion: Left atrial reduction and radiofrequency ablation concomitant with robotically assisted minimally invasive mitral valve surgery can be performed safely and effectively to eliminate AF and prevent recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Heart Atria/surgery , Mitral Valve/surgery , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 43-49, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984052

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although the nose and lungs are separate organs, numerous studies have reported that the entire respiratory system can be considered as a single anatomical and functional unit. The upper and lower airways affect each other either directly or through reflex mechanisms. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency ablation of persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy on nasal and pulmonary function. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with bilateral persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy without septal deviation were included in this study. All of the patients were evaluated using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, acoustic rhinometry, a visual analogue scale, and flow-sensitive spirometry on the day before and 4 months after the radiofrequency ablation procedure. Results: The post-ablation measurements revealed that the inferior turbinate ablation caused an increase in the mean cross-sectional area and volume of the nose, as well as in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow of the patients. These differences between the pre- and post-ablation results were statistically significant. The post-ablation visual analogue scale scores were lower when compared with the pre-ablation scores, and this difference was also statistically significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the widening of the nasal passage after the reduction of the inferior turbinate size had a favorable effect on the pulmonary function tests.


Resumo Introdução: Embora o nariz e os pulmões sejam órgãos separados, numerosos estudos relataram que todo o sistema respiratório pode ser considerado como uma única unidade anatômica e funcional. As vias aéreas superiores e inferiores afetam uma à outra diretamente ou através de mecanismos reflexos. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da ablação por radiofrequência em conchas nasais inferiores com hipertrofia persistente sobre a função nasal e pulmonar. Método: Foram incluídos neste estudo 27 pacientes com hipertrofia persistente bilateral de conchas inferiores sem desvio septal. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados com rinoscopia anterior, endoscopia nasal, rinometria acústica, escala visual analógica e espirometria sensível ao fluxo no dia anterior e quatro meses após o procedimento de ablação por radiofrequência. Resultados: As medidas pós-ablação demonstraram que a ablação das conchas nasais inferiores resultou em um aumento da área transversal média e do volume do nariz, bem como do volume expiratório forçado em um segundo, da capacidade vital forçada e do fluxo expiratório máximo dos pacientes. Essas diferenças entre os resultados pré e pós-ablação foram estatisticamente significantes. Os escores da escala visual analógica pós-ablação foram menores quando comparados com os escores pré-ablação e essa diferença também foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: O alargamento da passagem nasal após a redução do tamanho das conchas nasais inferiores teve efeito favorável nos testes de função pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Turbinates/physiopathology , Hyperostosis/surgery , Nasal Obstruction/surgery , Nasal Obstruction/physiopathology , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Organ Size , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Turbinates/surgery , Turbinates/pathology , Turbinates/diagnostic imaging , Hyperostosis/physiopathology , Nasal Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Rhinometry, Acoustic , Endoscopy/methods , Visual Analog Scale
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4526, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001911

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the use of the radiofrequency thermoablation of the saphenous vein with the ligation technique, and complete removal of the saphenous vein, from the saphenofemoral junction to the ankle. Methods: A total of 49 patients with chronic venous disease in the Comprehensive Classification System for Chronic Venous Disorders (CEAP) classes 2 to 4 for clinical signs, etiology, anatomic distribution and pathophysiology, were assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 1 year. The parameters assessed were complications, period of absence from activities, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and quality of life scores according to Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ). They were re-examined 1 and 3 years after treatment to evaluate recurrence rates. Results: The success rate per limb (p=0.540), VCSS (p=0.636), AVVQ (p=0.163), and clinical complications were similar in the two treatment groups. Nevertheless, the radiofrequency thermoablation group had significant shorter length of hospital stay (0.69±0.47) and absence from activities (8.62±4.53), p<000.1. Conclusion: Patients submitted to radiofrequency thermoablation had an occlusion rate, clinical recurrence and improvement in quality of life comparable to removal of the saphenous vein. However, these patients spent less time hospitalized and away from their daily activities during recovering.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o uso da termoablação por radiofrequência da veia safena com a técnica de ligação e retirada completa da veia safena da junção safeno-femoral ao tornozelo. Métodos: Foram avaliados 49 pacientes com doença venosa crônica nas categorias 2 a 4 (Comprehensive Classification System for Chronic Venous Disorders − CEAP) para classificação clínica, etiológica, anatômica e fisiopatológica, no início do estudo, 4 semanas e 1 ano após o procedimento. Os parâmetros analisados foram complicações, período de ausência de atividades,(Venous Clinical Severity) Score revisado (R-VCSS) e escore de qualidade de vida de acordo com o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire(AVVQ). Os pacientes foram reexaminados 1 e 3 anos após o tratamento, para avaliar as taxas de recorrência. Resultados: As taxas de sucesso por membro (p=0,540), VCSS (p=0,636), AVVQ (p=0,163) e complicações clínicas foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. No entanto, o grupo termoablação por radiofrequência teve períodos de internação significativamente mais curtos (0,69±0,47) e ausência de atividades (8,62±4,53), com p<000,1. Conclusão: Pacientes submetidos à termoablação por radiofrequência apresentaram taxa de oclusão, recidiva clínica e melhora da qualidade de vida comparáveis à retirada completa da veia safena. No entanto, esses pacientes passaram menos tempo internados e ausentes de suas atividades diárias durante a recuperação.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Postoperative Period , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Saphenous Vein/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Absenteeism , Length of Stay , Ligation/methods
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 542-552, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The effects of energy source on the maintenance of sinus rhythm and the contribution of demographic characteristics to the case selection in patients submitted to ablation performed concurrently with mitral valve surgery were analyzed. Methods: Cryothermal (n=42; 43.8%) and radiofrequency (n=54; 56.3%) energy were employed in 96 patients submitted to mitral valve replacement and Cox maze IV procedure. Patients were called for control visits between 15 days and 12 months after discharge. The causal relationship between recurrence of atrial fibrillation and factors such as left atrial diameter, C-reactive protein, hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and body mass index was determined. Results: Maintenance rates of the sinus rhythm with radiofrequency and cryoablation were 97.6% and 96.3%, respectively, in the first postoperative month, whereas at the 12th postoperative month were 88.1% and 83.3%. No significant difference was found between groups in relation to the energy source. Sensitivity and specificity for left atrial diameter with a cut-off value of 50.5 mm were 85.7% and 70.7%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for C-reactive protein with a cut-off value of 12 mg/dL on the 15th postoperative day were 83.3% and 88.9%, respectively. The effect of body mass index on atrial fibrillation recurrence was 3.2 times. Sensitivity and specificity for left ventricular ejection fraction 37% cut-off value were 96.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Atrial fibrillation in hypertensive cases was 5.3 times more. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, recurrence of atrial fibrillation was 40%. The causal relation between recurrence of atrial fibrillation and the studied factors was established. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics have a significant impact on ablation efficiency, while the type of energy source does not.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation/methods , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Cryosurgery/methods , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mitral Valve/surgery , Postoperative Period , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery
8.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(supl.1): S16-S20, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120139

ABSTRACT

Barrett's esophagus has a risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma and it increases when dysplasia is present. For this reason, its diagnosis requires endoscopic surveillance or eradication if dysplasia or cancer appears. In the past, high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal esophageal adenocarcinoma were routinely treated with esophagectomy, but with considerable morbidity and mortality. This has led to the development of new alternatives as less invasive endoscopic treatments for both dysplastic lesion and total eradication of the remaining metaplastic mucosa. The most commonly used treatment options include cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, endoscopic resection (mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection) or a combination of these (multimodal endoscopic eradication). For patients with low-grade dysplasia still some international guides suggest keeping endoscopic follow up; however, considering the good results of endoscopic ablation and new evidence about the course of this disease, this concept has changed towards the therapeutic approach. For Barrett´s esophagus without any complication, endoscopic therapy is not recommended, but endoscopic surveillance. In this article we will review the endoscopic therapeutic alternatives to Barrett's esophagus, its scientific basis and how they have evolved in recent times.


El Esófago de Barrett es una lesión adquirida que tiene riesgo de desarrollar adenocarcinoma esofágico. Su presencia obliga, por lo tanto, a la vigilancia endoscópica y erradicación cuando aparece displasia sobre este epitelio, pues aumenta la probabilidad de progresar a cáncer. Antes de la aparición de la terapia endoscópica estos casos con displasia de alto grado y adenocarcinoma esofágico independiente de su estadío, eran sometidos a una esofagectomía. Sin embargo, esta intervención se asocia a una morbimortalidad importante. De esta manera, los avances en la cirugía endoscópica también han sido traspasados al manejo del Esófago de Barrett con displasia o cáncer intramucoso, que incluyen en estos casos la erradicación del epitelio columnar en su totalidad. Las alternativas terapéuticas más utilizadas son la crioterapia, ablación por radiofrecuencia, resección endoscópica (mucosectomía o disección submucosa endoscópica) o una combinación de éstas (erradicación endoscópica multimodal). Para pacientes portadores de Barrett con displasia de bajo grado, la recomendación de la mayoría de las guías internacionales sigue siendo la vigilancia endoscópica. Sin embargo, dado los buenos resultados de la ablación endoscópica y nuevas evidencias respecto al curso de esta patología, este concepto ha ido cambiando hacia tomar una conducta terapéutica. En caso de ausencia de displasia no se recomienda la terapia endoscópica de regla sino la vigilancia endoscópica. En el presente artículo revisaremos las alternativas terapéuticas endoscópicas frente al esófago de Barrett, su sustento científico y cómo han evolucionado en el último tiempo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Barrett Esophagus/surgery , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Cryotherapy/methods , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/methods , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Barrett Esophagus/prevention & control , Esophageal Neoplasms/prevention & control
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