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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1427-1435, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352122

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las heridas craneocerebrales penetrantes más frecuentes son las provocadas por armas de fuego; las restantes resultan de rara frecuencia. Se presentó un caso que recibió agresión craneoencefálica por arpón, de forma accidental, fuera del agua. Se describieron los detalles del suceso, los exámenes complementarios, la conducta adoptada, el manejo neuroquirúrgico, y la sorprendente evolución postoperatoria del paciente (AU).


ABSTRACT The most frequent penetrating craniocerebral wounds are those caused by firearms; the remaining ones are rare. We presented a case that received accidental cranioencephalic aggression by harpoon, an event that occurred out of the water. Details of the event, complementary examinations, adopted behavior and neurosurgical management that were decided, as well as the surprising post-operative evolution of the patient were described (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Head Injuries, Penetrating/diagnosis , Wounds, Penetrating/diagnostic imaging , Radiography/methods , Clinical Evolution/methods , Head Injuries, Penetrating/surgery , Head Injuries, Penetrating/diagnostic imaging
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 799-806, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129181

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of the compressive radiographic technique (pressures of 5, 10, 15 and 20mmHg) in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse in small breed dogs, in lateral cervicothoracic radiography. Out of the 50 dogs evaluated, 25 presented tracheal collapse (TG group), 23 did not present tracheal collapse (CG) and two were excluded because they did not tolerate a pressure of 20 mmHg. The TG group presented a smaller internal diameter of the trachea in the region of the fourth cervical vertebra (D4) and at the entrance of the thorax (TDE) compared to the CG group, in all the radiographic projections performed, as well as within the TG group where the compressive technique differed from conventional. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the clinical sign of coughing during cervical collar use and the presence of radiographic tracheal collapse at a pressure of 20 mmHg. It was concluded that the compressive radiographic technique was feasible and efficient in confirming the diagnosis of tracheal collapse in dogs, especially in the pressure of 20 mmHg, where it was associated with clinical signs, and can be used in isolation or complementary to the conventional technique.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade da técnica radiográfica compressiva no diagnóstico do colapso de traqueia em cães de raças pequenas, por meio da comparação do diâmetro da traqueia durante a radiografia cervicotorácica lateral convencional e sobre influência da compressão externa com pressões de 5, 10, 15 e 20mmHg (técnica compressiva). Dos 50 cães avaliados, 25 apresentaram colapso de traqueia (grupo TG), 23 não apresentaram o colabamento traqueal (grupo controle - CG) e dois foram excluídos por não tolerarem a pressão de 20mmHg. Os diâmetros internos da traqueia na região da quarta vértebra cervical (D4) e na entrada do tórax (DET) foram menores no grupo TG em relação ao CG, em todas as projeções radiográficas realizadas, bem como dentro do grupo TG, no qual a técnica compressiva diferiu da convencional. Houve correlação entre o sinal clínico de tosse durante o uso de coleira cervical e a presença do colapso de traqueia radiográfico, na pressão de 20mmHg. Concluiu-se que a técnica radiográfica compressiva foi exequível e eficiente na confirmação do diagnóstico do colapso de traqueia em cães, especialmente na pressão de 20mmHg, em que houve associação com sinais clínicos, podendo ser utilizada de forma isolada ou complementar à técnica convencional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Cough/veterinary , Radiography/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Cervical Cord/diagnostic imaging
4.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(3): 241-246, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039891

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A escoliose é definida como uma deformidade com desvio lateral da coluna no plano coronal, torsão da coluna e do tronco e distúrbio no perfil sagital. Essa alteração postural é avaliada por meio de radiografia de incidência anteroposterior, utilizando-se o método de Cobb. O objetivo do estudo é verificar a influência da experiência do avaliador sobre a confiabilidade intraexaminador e interexaminador do ângulo Cobb em curvaturas escolióticas de crianças. Foram incluídas na pesquisa 39 crianças portadoras de escoliose idiopática, com idade entre 7 e 18 anos. Os exames foram avaliados por dois fisioterapeutas, um quiropraxista e um estudante de fisioterapia - cada um avaliando duas vezes cada exame. A segunda avaliação ocorreu após sete dias, para confiabilidade intraexaminador. Ademais, as primeiras avaliações forneceram dados para confiabilidade interexaminador. A análise estatística foi realizada com coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI), análise de Bland e Altman e análise descritiva do desvio absoluto médio, erro-padrão de medição e mínima mudança detectável. Observou-se boa confiabilidade (CCI>0,5) para as análises intraexaminadores entre os profissionais, e confiabilidade fraca (CCI=0,4) para o avaliador inexperiente. A confiabilidade interexaminador dos profissionais foi boa (CCI=0,6), e com a presença do avaliador inexperiente foi fraca (CCI=0,3). As avaliações entre os profissionais apresentaram menor variabilidade das medidas e valores de desvio-padrão quando comparadas com as do avaliador inexperiente. A mensuração dos ângulos da escoliose por meio do método de Cobb realizada por profissionais experientes apresentou melhores índices de concordância e de confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores e menor desvio-padrão e variabilidade entre as medidas.


RESUMEN La escoliosis se define como una alteración con curvatura lateral de la columna vertebral en el plano coronal, torsión de la columna vertebral y del tronco y trastorno en el perfil sagital. Esta alteración postural se evalúa mediante radiografía anteroposterior, utilizando el método de Cobb. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo verificar la influencia de la experiencia del evaluador para la fiabilidad intraexaminador e interexaminador del ángulo de Cobb en las curvaturas escolióticas de los niños. El estudio incluyó a 39 niños con escoliosis idiopática entre 7 y 18 años de edad. Los exámenes fueron evaluados por dos fisioterapeutas, un quiropráctico y un estudiante de fisioterapia, siendo que cada uno evaluó cada examen dos veces. Tras siete días, ocurrió una segunda evaluación para la fiabilidad intraexaminador. Además, las primeras evaluaciones proporcionaron datos para la fiabilidad interexaminador. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (ICC), con el análisis de Bland y Altman y con el análisis descriptivo de la desviación media absoluta, del error estándar de medición y del cambio mínimo detectable. Se observó una alta fiabilidad (ICC>0,5) en los análisis intraexaminadores entre los profesionales, y una baja fiabilidad (ICC=0,4) en los de evaluadores inexpertos. La fiabilidad interexaminador de los profesionales fue buena (ICC=0,6), y la presencia del evaluador inexperto fue baja (ICC=0,3). Las evaluaciones entre los profesionales mostraron una menor variabilidad de las medidas y valores de desviación estándar en comparación con los del evaluador inexperto. La medición de los ángulos de escoliosis utilizando el método de Cobb que había sido realizada por profesionales con experiencia mostró mejores índices de concordancia y fiabilidad intra e interexaminadores y una menor desviación estándar y variabilidad entre las mediciones.


ABSTRACT Scoliosis is defined as a deformity with lateral deviation of the spine in the coronal plane, torsion of the spine and trunk, and disturbances in the sagittal profile. This postural alteration is evaluated by anteroposterior incidence radiography using the Cobb method. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of evaluator experience on inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Cobb angle of scoliosis curvatures in children. In total, 39 patients aged 7 to 18 years with idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. The exams were evaluated by two physical therapists, a chiropractor and a physical therapy student. Each evaluator rated each exam twice and the second evaluation occurred after seven days, characterizing the intra-rater reliability. Furthermore, the first evaluations provided the inter-rater reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis, descriptive analysis of mean absolute deviation, standard error of measurement, and minimum detectable chance. Correlations ranged from good (ICC>0.5) for intra-rater reliability among professionals to weak (ICC=0.4) for the inexperienced evaluator. The inter-rater reliability of the professional's evaluations was good (ICC=0.6) and the same analysis with the presence of an inexperienced evaluator was weak (ICC=0.3). Evaluations among professionals showed less variability of measurements and standard deviation values compared to the inexperienced evaluator. The measurement of the angles of the scoliosis through the Cobb method carried out by experienced professionals showed better agreement as well as intra- and inter-rater reliability, lower standard deviation, and variability among the measurements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Scoliosis/diagnostic imaging , Radiography/methods , Spinal Curvatures/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(2): 77-86, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020470

ABSTRACT

La sarcoidosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa no caseificante, multisistémica, de causa desconocida, que compromete al pulmón y a los ganglios linfáticos mediastinales entre el 90 y el 95% de los casos. También puede afectar otros órganos, como las glándulas salivales, piel, ojos, hígado, bazo, corazón, huesos y sistema nervioso central. La sarcoidosis tiene una baja prevalencia en Latinoamérica y es subdiagnosticada debido a la alta frecuencia de otros trastornos similares, como tuberculosis, lepra y micosis profundas. El diagnóstico presuntivo se establece con hallazgos imagenológicos característicos dentro de un contexto clínico apropiado y se confirma con la evidencia histológica de granulomas no caseificantes de células epiteliales, en ausencia de otras etiologías. Los hallazgos torácicos incluyen la afectación pulmonar, ganglionar y bronquial, los cuales son detectados a través de la radiografía (Rx) y tomografía computada (TC) de tórax, siendo esa última más sensible y específica. En este artículo, resaltamos la importancia de reconocer los patrones de presentación típicos y atípicos de la sarcoidosis en Rx y TC, así como la relevancia de las imágenes torácicas como elemento clave en el algoritmo diagnóstico de esa patología. También describimos la utilidad de la resonancia magnética (RM), como método adicional para el diagnóstico en casos de afectación cardíaca y el papel de la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET-CT) en el seguimiento terapéutico.


Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous, multisystemic disease of unknown cause that involves the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes in 90-95% of cases. It can also affect other organs such as the salivary glands, skin, eyes, liver, spleen, heart, bones and the central nervous system. Sarcoidosis has a low prevalence in Latin America and it is underdiagnosed due to the high frequency of other similar disorders such as tuberculosis, leprosy and deep mycosis. The presumptive diagnosis is established based on characteristic imaging findings within an appropriate clinical setting and is confirmed by histological evidence of non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas, in the absence of other etiologies. Thoracic imaging findings include pulmonary, nodal and bronchial involvement, which are detected on chest radiography (CXR) and computed tomography (CT), this last one having a higher sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we highlight the importance of recognizing the typical and atypical presentation patterns of sarcoidosis on CXR and CT, as well as the relevance of thoracic images as key elements in the diagnostic algorithm of this pathology. We also describe the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an additional method for diagnosis in cases of cardiac involvement and the role of positron emission tomography (PET-CT) in therapeutic follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoidosis , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Radiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic
7.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(1): 19-25, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003746

ABSTRACT

Se sabe que las exposiciones médicas con radiaciones ionizantes son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas durante estas exposiciones a los pacientes, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de los Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes para diagnóstico y procedimientos de intervención. Dado que la legislación chilena no tiene incorporado aún su uso, el presente trabajo de revisión tiene como objetivo, elaborar un documento guía para los profesionales de la salud y áreas afines, que contenga de manera sucinta y con recomendaciones prácticas, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiodiagnóstico, intervencionismo y medicina nuclear, basados esencialmente en la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP sobre DRLs.


It is known that medical exposition with ionizing radiation is currently the main exposition source to artificial radiation at global level. To prevent unnecessarily high doses during these patient expositions, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to support the optimization of radiological protection for patient medical exposure for diagnosis and interventional procedures. Since that the Chilean legislation does not have its use incorporated yet, the present revision work aims to elaborate a guiding document for health professionals and related fields, that succinctly and with practical recommendations, the main aspects to consider for establishing DRLs in procedures for radiodiagnostic, intervention, and nuclear medicine, mainly based in N° 135 ICRP publication about DRLs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiology , Reference Standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Nuclear Medicine , Nuclear Medicine/standards
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(2): 523-534, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984190

ABSTRACT

Resumo Escoliose idiopática do adolescente (EIA) atinge de 2% a 4% de jovens no Brasil. Repetidas exposições aos exames radiológicos, no acompanhamento desta deformidade, podem ser danosos à saúde. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar um protocolo de fotogrametria, como método não ionizante para quantificação da escoliose, e relacioná-lo ao método radiológico de Cobb. Dezesseis indivíduos portadores de escoliose idiopática (21,4 ± 6,1 anos de idade e 19,8±0,2 de índice de massa corporal) foram submetidos à radiografia posteroanterior do tronco, de pé e, posteriormente, fotografia do tronco posterior, após receberem marcadores anatômicos nos processos espinhosos das vértebras C7 até L5. As imagens foram encaminhadas para análise independente de dois examinadores treinados na quantificação da escoliose para o tipo de imagem recebida. A média angular torácica de Cobb e de fotogrametria foram 36,14° e 36,43°, respectivamente. A diferença média entre os métodos foi de 4,1°. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p-valor < 5%) entre eles. A fotogrametria, por ser não ionizante, ter baixo custo e ser portátil, poderá representar uma alternativa ao método radiológico. Novos estudos são necessários no aprimoramento das técnicas não ionizantes no rastreamento da EIA.


Abstract Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) affects 2% to 4% of young people in Brazil. Repeated exposures to radiation used in the monitoring of the deformity can be harmful to the health. This study aimed to present a photogrammetry protocol as a non-ionizing method to quantify scoliosis and relate it to the Cobb radiological method. Sixteen individuals with idiopathic scoliosis (age: 21.4 ± 6.1 years, body mass index: 19.8 ± 0.2 kg/m2) underwent standing posteroanterior X-ray examination of the trunk. Additionally, markers were placed on the spinal processes of the C7 to L5 vertebrae, and posterior trunk photographs were taken. All images were sent for independent analysis by two examiners who were trained in the quantification of scoliosis. The average of the thoracic curvature evaluated through the photogrammetry and Cobb methods were 36.43° and 36.14°, respectively. With an average difference of 4.1°, the methods were not statistically different (p < 0.05). As a non-ionizing method that is low cost and portable, photogrammetry may represent a suitable alternative to the radiological method. Further studies are needed for the improvement of non-ionizing techniques in AIS screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Scoliosis/diagnosis , Photogrammetry/methods , Radiography/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Scoliosis/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Cervical Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
9.
Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 24: 1-6, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1262522

ABSTRACT

Background: Guidelines for radiographers contain recommendations related to standard infection control precautions for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) which are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in hospital settings. However, the implementation of these recommendations has proven to be a challenge in the Malawian radiology departments, as there are no national guidelines or radiology policies for infection control.Aim: This article outlines the development of infection control recommendations that could facilitate sound knowledge and practices of radiographers regarding infection control.Setting: Radiology departments in hospitals in Malawi.Methods: The recommendations were developed based on data from a questionnaire that measured the knowledge and practices of 62 radiographers regarding infection control as well as data from the literature. The Florence Nightingale environmental theory was used as the conceptual framework for the recommendations, while its development was based on steps of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. For the format of the draft recommendations, an adapted version of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool was used.Results: Issues identified from the responses to the questionnaire and literature resulted in seven sets of recommendations: hand hygiene, personal hygiene, personal protective gear and the use of appropriate equipment, safe handling of sharps and sharp containers, decontamination and cleaning, housekeeping and routine infection control practices.Conclusions: The recommendations can be further reviewed and implemented to improve the implementation of infection control and to reduce HAIs in resource-constrained settings


Subject(s)
Infection Control/prevention & control , Radiography/methods , Radiography/standards
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180258, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990442

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The diagnosis and classification of megaesophagus can be challenging in patients with Chagas disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the agreement between upper endoscopies and esophagographies for the diagnosis and classification of megaesophagus in Chagas disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 50 patients with Chagas disease with upper digestive symptoms was undertaken. Esophagography and upper endoscopy exams were performed to compare diagnoses. Statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of upper endoscopies, and measures of agreement: linearly weighted Kappa (κw) and Cohen`s classical Kappa (κ) coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (46%) were diagnosed with megaesophagus by esophagography. The upper endoscopy sensitivity and specificity for megaesophagus diagnosis were 100% and 33.3%, respectively. Regarding megaesophagus classifications, there was a substantial agreement between the two exams (κw = 0.622; 95% CI: 0.498 to 0.746). Within megaesophagus groups, agreement for group I was slight (κ = 0.096; 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.403); for group II, substantial (κ = 0.703; 95% CI: 0.456 to 0.950); and for groups III and IV, inconclusive (κ = 0.457; 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.967; κ = 0.540; 95% CI: 0.035 to 1.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Upper endoscopy has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity to diagnose megaesophagus. Agreement between the two exams varies depending on the megaesophagus grade. Thus, upper endoscopy can be used in the diagnostic workup of a possible Chagas disease megaesophagus, but all identified cases should undergo esophagography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiography/methods , Esophageal Achalasia/etiology , Esophageal Achalasia/diagnostic imaging , Esophagoscopy/methods , Chagas Disease/complications , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Esophageal Achalasia/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(5): 1446-1458, set.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978682

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del genu varo doloroso es importante el estudio radiográfico de la rodilla, se pueden visualizar los cambios estructurales que aparecen en las superficies articulares de la rodilla. Objetivo: demostrar desde el punto de vista radiológico la variación que ocurre posterior a la ostectomía del peroné en los pacientes operados de genus varos. Materiales y métodos: se realiza un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y lineal en el Hospital Militar Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy de Matanzas desde abril del 2016 -2017 donde se aplica la técnica de ostectomía del peroné, del Dr. Zhang Ying-Ze, se presentan los primeros 51 pacientes operados, un total de 57 rodillas, a los cuales se les realizó radiografía previa a la operación y posterior a ella al cabo de los 6 meses, donde se midió la altura del espacio articular externo. Resultados: el promedio de edad es de 67,2 años (50 años el menor y 84 años el mayor), de los cuales 23 eran hombres y 28 mujeres, previo al tratamiento quirúrgico el promedio de este espacio fue de 8,84 mm±1,01 mm (18 mm el mayor y el menor 2 mm) y al cabo de los 6 meses fue de 6,08 mm±0,9 mm(el mayor 10 mm y el menor 2 mm), en 6 pacientes no hubo variación de esta medida. Conclusiones: con la ostectomía proximal del peroné se logra disminuir el espacio articular externo modificando el eje mecánico y anatómico del miembro inferior, lo que se traduce por una disminución de la compresión interna articular (AU).


ABSTRACT Background: the radiographic study of the knee is very important in the painful genu varum diagnosis and treatment: structural changes appearing in the knee joint surfaces may be observed. Objective: to show the changes taking place after fibular ostectomy in the patients surgically treated of genu varum from the radiological point of view. Material and methods: a lineal, prospective, descriptive study was carried out in the Military Hospital "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy" of Matanzas from April 2016 to April 2017, in 51 patients operated on applying Dr Zhang Ying-Ze's fibular ostectomy technique: a total of 57 knees. X-rays were taken before the surgery and six months after it, measuring the height of the external intra joint space. Results: the average age was 67.2 years (50 years the youngest and 84 the eldest patients); 23 were men and 28 women. Before the surgical treatment the average space was 8.84 mm±1.01 mm (18 mm the biggest and 2 mm the smallest); six months after surgery, it was 6.08 mm±0.9 mm (10 mm the biggest and 2 mm the smallest); six patients did not showed changes of the space. Conclusions: with the proximal fibular ostectomy we achieved the reduction of the external fibular space, modifying the anatomical and mechanical axis of the lower limb, what leads to a reduction of the internal joint compression (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genu Varum/surgery , Fibula/surgery , Osteotomy/rehabilitation , Radiography/methods , Knee/abnormalities , Knee/surgery
12.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915983

ABSTRACT

Bullet embolization of the arterial or venous systems is a rare complication of penetrating gunshot injuries. A 29-year­old man presented at the emergency department with a gunshot wound to the left arm, which had transfixed the arm and entered the thorax, with no exit wound. Initial radiographies showed a projectile in the upper left thigh. Contrast­enhanced tomography showed a pseudo-aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta and the bullet inside the proximal left superficial femoral artery. Physical examination found diminished left pedal pulses, and the patient complained of left toe numbness. Endovascular thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm repair was performed, sealing the descending aortic orifice with an endograft, and thromboembolectomy/bullet retrieval was carried out via a left femoral incision, both successfully. Considering that diagnosis of missile emboli depends on a high degree of suspicion, physicians who manage gunshot wound patients must be acutely aware of the possibility of intravascular bullet embolism


A embolia balística pelo sistema arterial ou venoso é uma complicação rara de ferimentos penetrantes por arma de fogo. Um homem de 29 anos se apresentou na emergência com um ferimento por arma de fogo no braço esquerdo, que transfixou o braço e atingiu o tórax, sem ferimento de saída. Radiografias iniciais mostraram o projétil na coxa superior esquerda. A tomografia contrastada mostrou um pseudoaneurisma da aorta torácica descendente e o projétil no interior da artéria femoral superficial proximal esquerda. Ao exame físico, o pulso pedioso esquerdo estava diminuído e o paciente referiu dormência no hálux esquerdo. Foi realizado o reparo endovascular da aorta torácica e a tromboembolectomia/retirada do projétil por incisão femoral esquerda, ambos bem-sucedidos. Considerando que o diagnóstico de embolia balística depende de um alto grau de suspeição, os médicos que manejam pacientes com ferimentos por arma de fogo devem estar atentos a essa possibilidade


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Embolism , Femoral Artery , Wounds, Gunshot , Aneurysm, False/complications , Aneurysm, False/diagnosis , Aorta, Thoracic/injuries , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Femoral Artery/injuries , Lower Extremity , Radiography/methods , Thromboembolism/complications , Tomography/methods , Upper Extremity
13.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(2): 61-69, feb. 18, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120426

ABSTRACT

Objective: the aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two direct digital radiography systems: the charge-coupled device (CCD) XIOS XG Sirona and the photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) VistaScan DürrDental, in the detection of non-cavitated proximal caries lesions. materials and methods: in this experimental and cross-sectional study 112 proximal surfaces from 27 molars and 31 premolars with or without proximal caries lesions were evaluated and randomly allocated in a study unit. bitewing radiographs were acquired with a CCD XIOS XG and with the PSP VistaScan. a single x-ray unit was used for both systems. radiographic images were assessed independently by two calibrated radiologists. histological evaluation on a stereomicroscope was used as gold standard. results: sensitivity values were found to be 0.35 for CCD and 0.31 for PSP. specificity values were found to be similar for both systems (0.867). az values showed a low diagnostic accuracy for both sensors: 0.61 for CCD and 0.59 for PSP, no statistical difference was found between these two values (p=0.78). conclusion: both digital radiology systems have a high diagnostic accuracy to detect sound surfaces but low diagnostic accuracy to detect proximal carious lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging , Dentin Sensitivity/diagnostic imaging , Bicuspid , Radiography/methods , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Epidemiology, Experimental , Equipment and Supplies , Molar
14.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 30(1): 3-8, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-837227

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Este trabalho teve por objetivos identificar as características comuns aos geradores e classificá-los no menor número possível de grupos para facilitar a identificação radiológica, e, também, identificar características que permitam diferenciar geradores DF1 de DF4. Método: A amostragem foi composta por 62 imagens de geradores de dispositivos implantáveis bem como de cabos-eletrodos comercialmente disponíveis no Brasil de 2008 até o presente momento das empresas Biotronik, Medtronic, St. Jude Medical e Boston Scientific. As imagens consideradas com qualidade adequada de cada modelo de dispositivo implantável foram selecionadas em busca de características comuns a cada fabricante. Resultados: A revisão criteriosa das características de cada fabricante e modelo possibilitou divisar claramente oito categorias, com características únicas de cada fabricante para estimuladores (grupo 1) e cardiodesfibriladores (grupo 2). Um algoritmo de identificação foi desenvolvido, a partir das características mais facilmente identificáveis de cada grupo. Conclusão: A identificação radiológica dos dispositivos implantáveis é possível e confiável. Os cabos-eletrodos de mesma função (choque ou estimulação) não puderam ser diferenciados em relação ao fabricante, mas algumas características das conexões de cabos-eletrodos de choque podem diferenciar a conexão DF1 de DF4, bem como mono coil de duplo coil


Background: This study is aimed at identifying common characteristics of generators and classify them into the lowest possible number of groups to facilitate X-ray identification as well as to identify characteristics to differentiate DF1 and DF4 generators. Method: The sample included 62 images of implantable device generators and leads available in the Brazilian market from 2008 to the present moment manufactured by Biotronik, Medtronic, St. Jude Medical and Boston Scientific. Good quality images from each implantable device model were chosen to help identify common characteristics of each manufacturer. Results: A careful review of manufacturer's characteristics and model enabled a clear division into eight categories with each manufacturer's unique characteristics for pacers (group 1) and cardiac defibrillators (group 2). An identification algorhythm was developed based on the most easily identifiable characteristics of each group. Conclusion: X-ray identification of implantable devices is possible and reliable. Leads with the same function (shock or pacing) were not differentiated by manufacturer, but some shock lead connection characteristics may differentiate DF1 from DF4 connections, as well monocoil from double coil


Subject(s)
Humans , X-Rays , Radiography/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable/trends , Pacemaker, Artificial , Electrodes/standards , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices/trends , Industry/standards
15.
Coluna/Columna ; 16(1): 22-24, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840155

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the measurement of the Cobb angle on printed radiographs and on scanned radiographs viewed through the software "PixViewer". Methods: Preoperative radiographs of 23 patients were evaluated on printed films and through the software "PixViewer". The same evaluator, a spine surgeon, chose the proximal and distal limiting vertebrae of the main curve on printed radiographs, without identification of patients, and measured the Cobb angle based on these parameters. The same parameters and measurements were applied to scanned radiographs. The measurements were compared, as well as the choice of limiting vertebrae. Results: The average variation of the Cobb angle between methods was 1.48 ± 1.73°. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.99, demonstrating excellent reproducibility. Conclusion: The Cobb method can be used to evaluate scoliosis through the "PixViewer" tool with the same reliability as the classic method on printed radiographs.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a aferição do ângulo de Cobb em radiografias impressas e em radiografias digitalizadas, visualizadas por meio da ferramenta "PixViewer". Métodos: Foram avaliadas as radiografias pré-operatórias de 23 pacientes em filmes impressos e pelo software "PixViewer". O mesmo avaliador, cirurgião de coluna, elegeu as vértebras limites proximal e distal da curva principal nas radiografias impressas, sem identificação dos pacientes, e realizou a aferição do ângulo de Cobb baseado nesses parâmetros. Os mesmos parâmetros e aferições foram aplicados às radiografias digitalizadas. As aferições foram comparadas, assim como a escolha das vértebras limites. Resultados: A variação média do ângulo de Cobb entre os métodos foi de 1,48 ± 1,73°. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI) foi de 0,99, demonstrando replicabilidade excelente.. Conclusão: O método de Cobb pode ser utilizado para avaliação da escoliose por meio da ferramenta "PixViewer" com a mesma confiabilidade que pelo método clássico em radiografias impressas.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comparar la medición del ángulo de Cobb en radiografías impresas y en radiografías digitalizadas vistas a través de la herramienta "PixViewer" . Métodos: Se evaluaron las radiografías preoperatorias de 23 pacientes en películas impresas y a través del software "PixViewer". El mismo evaluador, cirujano de columna, eligió las vértebras proximal y distal límites de la curva principal en las radiografías impresas, sin identificación de los pacientes, y realizó la medición del ángulo de Cobb en base a estos parámetros. Los mismos parámetros y mediciones se aplicaron a las radiografías digitalizadas. Las mediciones fueron comparadas, así como la elección de las vértebras límites. Resultados: La variación promedio del ángulo de Cobb entre los métodos fue de 1,48 ± 1,73°. El coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) fue de 0,99, demostrando reproducibilidad excelente. Conclusión: El método de Cobb puede ser utilizado para la evaluación de la escoliosis a través de la herramienta "PixViewer" con la misma fiabilidad que el método clásico en radiografías impresas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Scoliosis , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Radiography/methods , Spinal Curvatures/diagnostic imaging
16.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 30(1): f:20-l:22, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837232

ABSTRACT

As complicações relacionadas ao cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável em geral estão relacionadas a implante de cabo-eletrodo transvenoso, fratura do condutor ou ruptura do isolamento de silicone, além de infecções. Essas complicações podem ser evitadas com o implante do sistema de cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável totalmente subcutâneo. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 60 anos de idade, assintomático, com antecedentes de morte súbita cardíaca na família, submetido ao primeiro implante de cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável subcutâneo no Brasil


Complications related to the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator are often related to transvenous lead implant, conductor fracture or insulation disruption in addition to infections. These complications may be avoided by implanting a totally subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system. We report the case of a 60-year old, asymptomatic patient with a family history of cardiac sudden death, undergoing the first subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implant in Brazil


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Defibrillators, Implantable/trends , Patients , Risk Factors , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Exercise Test , Heart Ventricles , Radiography/methods , Treatment Outcome
17.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 30(1): f:28-l:30, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837262

ABSTRACT

Relatamos o caso de paciente portador de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, submetido a implante de cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável, que evoluiu, na primeira semana de pós-operatório, com dor torácica, síncope e choque cardiogênico. À ecocardiografia transtorácica, diagnosticou-se derrame pericárdico e perfuração do ventrículo direito pelo cabo-eletrodo de choque. Foi submetido a toracotomia de urgência e rafia do miocárdio com resolução do quadro. As possíveis razões desse desfecho são discutidas, comparativamente a outros casos na literatura


We report the case of a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, submitted to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implant who developed chest pain, syncope, and cardiogenic shock in the first post-operative week. Pericardial effusion and right ventricular perforation by shock lead were diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. The patient underwent emergency thoracotomy and myocardial raffia with resolution of the condition. We discuss the possible reasons for this outcome and compare it to other cases in the literature


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Electrodes , Heart Ventricles , Cardiac Tamponade/complications , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnosis , Heart , Radiography/methods , Thoracotomy/methods
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 378-383, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the interobserver reproducibility of the radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability. Methods: Measurements of the dynamic radiographs of the lumbar spine in lateral view were performed, evaluating the anterior translation and the angulation among the vertebral bodies. The tests were evaluated at workstations of the organization, through the Carestream Health Vue RIS (PACS), version 11.0.12.14 Inc. 2009© system. Results: Agreement in detecting cases of radiographic instability among the observers varied from 88.1 to 94.4%, and the agreement coefficients AC1 were all above 0.8, indicating excellent agreement. Conclusion: The interobserver analysis performed among orthopedic surgeons with different levels of training in dynamic radiographs of the spine obtained high reproducibility and agreement. However, some factors, such as the manual method of measurement and the presence of vertebral osteophytes, might have generated a few less accurate results in this comparative evaluation of measurements.


RESUMO Objetivo: Mensurar a reprodutibilidade interobservadores da avaliação radiográfica da instabilidade da coluna lombar. Métodos: Foram realizadas mensurações das radiografias dinâmicas de coluna lombar na incidência em perfil, avaliando-se a translação anterior e a angulação entre os corpos vertebrais. Os exames foram avaliados em workstations da própria instituição, por meio do sistema Vue RIS (PACS) da Carestream Health, versão 11.0.12.14 Inc. 2009©. Resultados: A proporção de concordância em detecção de casos de instabilidade radiográfica entre os observadores variou de 88,1 a 94,4%, e os coeficientes de concordância AC1 estiveram todos acima de 0,8, indicando concordância excelente. Conclusão: A análise interobservadores realizada entre médicos ortopedistas com diferentes níveis de treinamento em radiografias dinâmicas da coluna vertebral obteve elevada reprodutibilidade e concordância. No entanto, alguns fatores, como método manual de aferição e a presença de osteófitos vertebrais, podem ter gerado alguns resultados menos consistentes nessa avaliação comparativa de medidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiography/methods , Joint Instability/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Low Back Pain/diagnostic imaging , Lumbosacral Region/diagnostic imaging
19.
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 70(2): 141-146, abr.-jun. 2016. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797064

ABSTRACT

Cicatrizes fibrosas periapicais podem ter aspecto radiográfico semelhante a lesões periapicais, levando ao plano de tratamento incorreto. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um confronto entre o diagnóstico radiográfico e histopatológico de dentes que foram tratados endodonticamente e apresentaram“lesões periapicais” detectadas radiograficamente após 18 meses do tratamento. Dez pacientes submetidos ao tratamento endodôntico adequado e apresentando imagem radiolúcia persistente 18 meses pós-tratamento, tiveram cirurgia paraendodôntica indicada. Durante a cirurgia, o tecido em volta do ápice foi removido e mergulhado em solução de formalina 10% para processamento histopatológico através de coloração de HE. O ápice removido na apicectomia foi mantido em glutaraldeído 2% e processado para análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Dentre os 10 casos sugestivos de lesão periapical, em apenas um caso foi confirmado diagnóstico de cisto, um caso de granuloma, e os outros oito casos confirmaram cicatriz fibrosa. Em nenhum dos casos foi detectada a presença de bactéria extrarradicular, somente infiltrado inflamatório e presença de células de defesa como linfócitos e neutrófilos, além de hemácias, tecido conjuntivo e colágeno. Pode-se concluir que a radiográfica convencional não constitui ponto conclusivo no diagnóstico de lesões periapicais.


Periapical fibrous scars may have similar radiographic appearance of periapical lesions that canresult in incorrect diagnosis. The aim of this study was a confrontation between the radiographic and histopathologic diagnosis of teeth that were endodontically treated and presented “persistent periapical lesions” detected radiographically after 18 months of treatment. Ten patients under going adequate endodontic treatment and presenting persistent radiolucent image at 18 months post-treatment, had surgery Para endodontic indicated. During surgery, the tissue around the apex was removed and immersedin 10% formalin solution for histological processing by HE staining. The apex oh the tooth was removed and immersed in 2% glutaral dehyde for scanning electron microscopy processing. Among the 10 radiographically suggestive cases of persistent periapical lesion, only 1 case was confirmed diagnosis of cyst, 1 case of granuloma, and the other 8 cases were fibrous scar. In neither case was observed the presence of bacteria, only inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of defense cells such as lymphocytes and neutrophils, red blood cells, connective tissue and collagen. It can be concluded that the conventional radiography is not conclusive point in the diagnosis of periapical lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cicatrix/classification , Cicatrix/complications , Cicatrix/diagnosis , Diagnosis , Radiography/methods , Radiography
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(3): 134-140, jul.-set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-788854

ABSTRACT

A prevalência da hipertensão pulmonar associada às cardiopatias congênitas(HAP-CCG) é estimada em 1,6-12,5 casos por um milhão de adultos, com 25-50% destes pacientes exibindo a forma mais séria da doença, a síndrome de Eisenmenger. Mais de 90% dos pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas com comunicações simples entre as circulações sistêmica e pulmonar são submetidos à correção cirúrgica ou percutânea dos defeitos ainda na infância. Entretanto 5 a 10% dos pacientes portadores destes defeitos não apresentam esse padrão, mesmo na presença de comunicações não restritivas, com risco maior de complicações graves no pós-operatório, incluindo falência ventricular direita e óbito. A avaliação e o manejo clínico dos pacientes com HAP-CCG devem ser individualizadas devido à grande multiplicidade de situações. Envolve uma ampla faixa etária, com formas de apresentação muito distintas e diferentes problemas a serem equacionados. Ainda hoje a literatura é escassa no que diz respeito ao manejo medicamentoso, principalmente dentro da faixa etária pediátrica. As perspectivas futuras são na direção de expansão do conhecimento fisiopatológico, incluindo aspectos genéticos, com o objetivo de melhora progressiva tanto na avaliação precoce quanto na conduta terapêutica para esses pacientes.


The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease(PHT-CHD) is estimated at 1.6-12.5 cases per million adults, with 25%-50% of these presenting the most serious form of the disease: Eisenmenger’s syndrome. More than 90% of patients with congenital heart disease with simple communications between the systemic and pulmonary circulations under go surgical or percutaneous correction of the defects while still in infancy. However, 5% to 10% of patients with these defects do not present this same pattern, even in the presence of non-restrictive communications, with a higher risk of severe postoperative complications, including right ventricular failure and death. The evaluation and clinical management of patients with PHT-CHD should be individualized , due to the great multiplicity of situations. It involves a wide age range, with very distinct forms of presentation and different problems to be resolved. The literature still lacks studieson drug management, particularly in pediatric patients. The future prospects are towards the expansion of physio-pathological knowledge, including genetic aspects, with the aim of gradually improving both early evaluation and therapeutic conduct for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Eisenmenger Complex/genetics , Eisenmenger Complex/therapy , Child , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Pulmonary Heart Disease/diagnosis , Pulmonary Heart Disease/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Risk Factors , Radiography/methods , Heart Ventricles
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