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1.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 45-50, ene.-mar. 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395758

ABSTRACT

Radiation absorbed doses to organs outside the radiation therapy treatment beam can be significant and therefore of clinical interest. Two sets of out-of-beam measurements were performed measuring the leak dose and the scattered dose, at 5 points within the accelerator components (accelerator tube and collimator) and at 21 points on the equipment and surroundings based on a positioning scheme. For this purpose, 52 Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeters were used in a latest generation helical linear accelerator. Of the 200 cGy fired at a cheese-like phantom, 0.332% of the out-of-beam dose contribution was found to come from the leak and 0.784% was transformed into scattering. For these dose values, estimates of the risk of second tumors in long-term survivors indicate a reduced probability of acquiring a second secondary radiation malignancy, based on information from the 1990 BEIR Committee report.


La dosis absorbida de radiación a órganos fuera del haz de tratamiento de radioterapia puede ser significativa y, por lo tanto, de interés clínico. Se realizaron dos sets de mediciones fuera del haz para determinar la dosis de fuga y la dosis dispersa, en 5 puntos dentro de los componentes del acelerador (tubo de aceleración y colimador) y 21 puntos en el equipo y alrededores basado en un esquema de posicionamiento. Para este fin se utilizaron 52 dosímetros de luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, Optically Stimulated Luminescence), en un acelerador lineal helicoidal de última generación. De los 200 cGy disparados a un maniquí tipo queso, se encontró que el 0.332% de la contribución de dosis fuera del haz provenía de la fuga y 0.784% se transforma en dispersión. Para estos valores de dosis, las estimaciones del riesgo de segundos tumores en los supervivientes a largo plazo indican una reducida probabilidad de contraer una segunda malignidad por radiación secundaria, según la información del informe del Comité BEIR de 1990.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimetry , Radiometry/instrumentation , Thermoluminescent Dosimetry , Calibration , Luminescence , Luminescent Measurements
2.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(4): 231-238, oct.-dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391707

ABSTRACT

To ensure a reliable verification of a radiation detector, the right parameters for this response verification must be determined and a specific characterization on the detectors of interest must be performed. These were the main pillars of this study, where four Geiger-Müller at the University of Costa Rica's Cyclotron Facilities' main laboratories were studied and characterized using a 137Cs source. First, a verification of the inverse-square law was performed to corroborate the correct measurement by the detectors as the distance from a 137Cs source to the detectors was varied using a new design for a positioner support to ensure repeatability. This verification yielded a potential fit curve with and equation D=670635 x-1.961 (error percentage of 1.95%) and an R2 value of 0.9836. Then, using combinations of copper plates of widths 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm as attenuators between the source and the detectors, the mass attenuation coefficient for copper was obtained only as a reference value for future calibrations of the detectors. The result for this value was 0.040 cm2 /g. The results obtained in this study and the method developed to achieve these results will serve as a base for calibrations of the detectors at these facilities, which will ensure the safety of the patients and personnel in this building.


Para asegurar respuesta correcta de un detector de radiación, se deben determinar los parámetros correctos para esta verificación y debe realizarse una caracterización específica de los detectores de interés. Estos fueron los pilares principales de este estudio, donde se estudiaron y caracterizaron 4 detectores Geiger-Müller en los laboratorios principales del Ciclotrón de la Universidad de Costa Rica utilizando una fuente radiactiva de 137Cs. Primero, se realizó una verificación de la ley del inverso-cuadrado para corroborar la medición correcta de los detectores según se varía la distancia entre la fuente de 137Cs al detector utilizando un diseño nuevo de un soporte posicionador para la fuente que asegura la repetibilidad entre experimentos. Esta verificación resultó en una curva de ajuste potencial de ecuación D=670635x-1,961 (porcentaje de error de 1,95%) y un valor de R2 de 0,9836. Luego, utilizando combinaciones de placas de cobre de espesores 1,0 mm y 2,0 mm como atenuadores entre la fuente y los detectores, se obtuvo el coeficiente de atenuación másico para el cobre como un valor de referencia para futuras calibraciones de los detectores. Este resultado fue de 0,040 cm2/g. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación y el método desarrollado para lograr estos resultados servirán como una base para una futura confirmación metrológica calibraciones de los detectores en estos laboratorios, lo cual colaborará con la seguridad y protección radiológica de pacientes y trabajadores en este edificio.


Subject(s)
Radiation Monitoring/instrumentation , Radiation Monitoring/methods , Radiometry/instrumentation , Radiometry/methods , Universities , Calibration , Cesium Radioisotopes , Cyclotrons , Radiation Exposure/analysis , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Costa Rica
3.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(3): 177-182, jul.-sept. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381661

ABSTRACT

Radiosurgery is a high-precision technique for delivering, in most cases, a single highly conformal dose to a stereotactically localized target. It can be indicated for small intracranial injury treatment, using either multiple sources of 60Co (γ rays) or high energy photon beams produced by linear accelerators. In order to minimize the impact of inaccurate localization of the target or dose delivery, a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program must be enforced, which should include an independent auditing system. This work proposes a simple and reliable postal QA phantom to be used as an independent evaluation. In it two important parameters were verified such as, the dosimetric precision of the planning system, by comparing the absorbed doses measured in the target volume using different dosimeters (ionization chamber, films, thermoluminescent dosimeters and L-alanine dosimeters) all calibrated against a small volume ion chamber. The exact positioning of the target volume was localized using air spaces and small steel spheres to find the appropriate target coordinates. The head phantom and the instruction sheets were extensively tested and sent by mail to selected institutions. The overall results were very encouraging and suggest that the proposed phantom may be used as a postal system as part of an independent QA tool in radiosurgery.


La radiocirugía es una técnica de alta precisión para administrar, en la mayoría de los casos, una sola dosis altamente conformada en un objetivo localizado estereotípicamente. Puede estar indicado para el tratamiento de pequeñas lesiones intracraneales, utilizando múltiples fuentes de 60Co (rayos γ) o haces de fotones de alta energía producidos por aceleradores lineales. Con el fin de minimizar el impacto de la ubicación inexacta de la administración de la meta o de la dosis, se debe aplicar un riguroso programa de control de calidad (QA), que debe incluir un sistema de auditoría independiente. Este documento propone un fantoma postal de control de calidad simple y fiable que se utilizará como evaluación independiente. Se verificó dos parámetros importantes, como la precisión dosimétrica del sistema de planificación, comparando las dosis absorbidas medidas en el volumen objetivo mediante diferentes dosis (cámara de ionización, películas, dosímetros Termoluminiscentes y dosímetros de L-alanina) todos calibrados con una pequeña cámara de iones de volumen. El posicionamiento exacto del volumen objetivo se localizó utilizando espacios aéreos y pequeñas esferas de acero para encontrar las coordenadas de destino adecuadas. El fantoma principal y las hojas de instrucciones fueron ampliamente probados y enviados por correo a instituciones seleccionadas. Los resultados generales fueron muy alentadores y sugieren que el fantoma propuesto puede utilizarse como sistema postal como parte de una herramienta independiente de control de calidad en radiocirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/therapy , Radiosurgery/methods , Postal Service , Quality Control , Radiometry , Radiosurgery/adverse effects
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the feasibility of ArcCHECK-3DVH system in dosimetric verification for stereotactic body radiaotherapy (SBRT) with flattening filter free (FFF) model.@*METHODS@#SBRT treatment plans for 57 patients were introduced into ArcCHECK phantom and recalculated. The calculated dose distribution of treatment planning system and the measured dose distribution of ArcCHECK phantom were compared by γ analysis. Then the 3 dimensional dose distribution of target and organs at risk was reconstructed by 3DVH software. The reconstructed dose and calculated dose with treatment planning system (TPS) were compared, and the dose volume γ pass rate and deviation of dose volume parameters to the target and organs at risk were quantitatively valuated.@*RESULTS@#Based on the threshold criteria (3%, 3 mm, 10%), namely the deviation of measuring points between the planned value and the measured value was less than 3%, and the proportion of points with similar values in the plane or sphere with the center of the point and the radius of 3 mm was 10%, the relative and absolute dose pass rates of SBRT treatment plans in ArcCHECK system via γ analysis were greater than 95%. Based on the stricter threshold criteria (2%, 2 mm, 10%), the relative and absolute dose pass rates of SBRT treatment plan in ArcCHECK system via γ analysis were about 93%. In 3DVH dose verification, the γ pass rate of target and organs at risk was exceed 97%, and the deviations in 3DVH of the target and organs at risk were less than ±5%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ArcCHECK-3DVH system in dose verification can provide more comprehensive dose distribution information to reasonably evaluate the SBRT plan, with more significance for guiding clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phantoms, Imaging , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Radiometry , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879262

ABSTRACT

Image-guided radiation therapy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new technology that has been widely studied and developed in recent years. The technology combines the advantages of MRI imaging, and can offer online real-time tracking of tumor and adjacent organs at risk, as well as real-time optimization of radiotherapy plan. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of this technology, and to grasp the international development and trends in this field, this paper reviews and summarizes related researches, so as to make the researchers and clinical personnel in this field to understand recent status of this technology, and carry out corresponding researches. This paper summarizes the advantages of MRI and the research progress of MRI linear accelerator (MR-Linac), online guidance, adaptive optimization, and dosimetry-related research. Possible development direction of these technologies in the future is also discussed. It is expected that this review can provide a certain reference value for clinician and related researchers to understand the research progress in the field.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Particle Accelerators , Radiometry , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942710

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the lack of quantitative evaluation methods in clinical diagnosis of lung cancer, a classification and prediction model of lung cancer based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) was constructed by using radiomics method. Firstly, the definition and processing flow of radiomics were introduced. The experimental samples were selected from 816 lung cancer patients on LIDC. Firstly, ROI was extracted by central pooling convolution neural network segmentation method. Then, Pyradiomics and FSelector feature selection models were used to extract features and reduce dimension. Finally, SVM was used to construct the classification and prediction model of lung tumors. The predictive accuracy of the model is 80.4% for the classification of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules larger than 5 mm, and the value of the area under the curve (AUC) is 0.792. This indicates that the SVM classifier model can accurately distinguish benign and malignant pulmonary nodules larger than 5 mm.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Radiometry , Support Vector Machine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 397-403, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011558

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study measured and compared exitance irradiance and power of 4 commercial dental light-curing units (LCU) (Elipar S10, Elipar DeepCure-S, Corded VALO and Bluephase Style) using different types of radiometers. The devices used to analyze the LCU were classified as either handheld analog (Henry Schein, Spring, Demetron 100A, Demetron 100B and Demetron 200), handheld digital (Bluephase 1, Bluephase II, Coltolux, CureRite and Hilux), or laboratory instruments (Thermopile and Integrating Sphere). The laboratory instruments and the Bluephase II radiometer were also used to measure the LCU's power (mW). The LCU's were activated for 20 s (n=5). Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (a=0.05). Among the LCU, the laboratory instruments presented different irradiance values, except for Corded VALO. The Coltolux and Hilux radiometers measured greater irradiance values compared to the laboratory instruments for the four LCUs tested. Within a given LCU, handheld analog units measured lower irradiance values, compared to handheld digital and laboratory instruments, except using the Spring radiometer for the Elipar S10 LCU. None of the handheld radiometers were able to measure similar irradiance values compared to laboratory instruments, except for Elipar S10 when comparing Bluephase 1 and Thermopile. Regarding power measurement, Bluephase II always presented the lowest values compared to the laboratory instruments. These findings suggest that the handheld radiometers utilized by practitioners (analog or digital) exhibit a wide range of irradiance values and may show lower outcomes compared to laboratory based instruments.


Resumo Esse estudo mensurou e comparou a irradiância e a energia de quatro fotopolimerizadores comerciais (Elipar S10, Elipar DeepCure-S, Corded VALO e Bluephase Style) utilizando diferentes tipos de radiômetros. Os dispositivos utilizados para analisar os fotopolimerizadores foram classificados em portáteis analógicos (Henry Schein, Spring, Demetron 100A, Demetron 100B e Demetron 200), portáteis digitais (Bluephase 1, Bluephase II, Coltolux, CureRite e Hilux), ou instrumentos laboratoriais (Thermopile e Integrating Sphere). Os instrumentos laboratoriais e o radiômetro Bluephase II também foram utilizados para medir a energia dos fotopolimerizadores (mW). Os fotopolimerizadores foram ativados por 20 s (n=5). Os dados foram analisados utilizando Kruskal-Wallis e teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (a=0,05). Dentre os fotopolimerizadores, os instrumentos laboratoriais apresentaram diferentes valores de irradiância, exceto para o Corded VALO. O Coltolux e o Hilux mensuraram uma irradiância maior comparado aos instrumentos de laboratório para os quatro fotopolimerizadores testados. Para o mesmo fotopolimerizador, os radiômetros analógicos portáteis mensuraram menores valores de irradiância quando comparados aos digitais portáteis ou aos instrumentos laboratoriais, exceto quando utilizado o Spring para o Elipar S10. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os instrumentos laboratoriais na irradiância do Corded VALO. Para a medição da energia, nenhuma diferença foi observada usando Thermopile e a Integrating Sphere para o Corded VALO. Para os outros fotopolimerizadores, cada instrumento indicou uma energia diferente. Esses achados sugerem que radiômetros portáteis utilizados pelos cirurgiões-dentistas (analógico ou digital) exibem uma ampla gama de valores de irradiância e podem mostrar medidas inferiores comparados aos instrumentos de laboratório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiometry , Curing Lights, Dental , Materials Testing , Composite Resins
8.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(2): 104-107, abr. 30, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145300

ABSTRACT

Current evidence indicates that the minimum light intensity of photo curing units required to polymerize in a reliable way a composite resin, in increments of 2mm, is 300mW/cm2. The recent introduction of new generations of composite resin materials for large volume increments, partially contrasts with ISO 4049 (2009), calling for the use of light intensity of 1,000mW/cm2. Therefore, it is considered relevant to carry out periodic measurements of the emission intensity of light-curing units of clinical use. The aim of this study was to test the intensity [mW/cm2] of a representative sample of tungsten-halogen and LED photopolymerization units used in private and public health service in different areas of the Valparaíso Region in Chile. This was achieved through the use of dental radiometers, without considering the variables of intensity modification over time (either spontaneously, by undesirable inherent characteristics of the device, or by programs of intensity modification in time), or the density of accumulated power needed. This in vitro diagnostic test, evaluated a sample of 507 units, 107 halogen and 400 LED, for a period of around one month, using two radiometers as measuring instruments. For LED units the Bluephase Meter® radiometer, from Ivoclar-VivadentTM was used, and for halogen units we used the Coltolux® from ColténeTM. As a result, 85% of the LED and halogen units achieved the minimum requirements of intensity needed for the polymerization of conventional dental biomaterials. However, only 25% from the tested units achieved a power density of 1,000mW/cm2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology, Dental/instrumentation , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Dental Equipment , Radiometry , Chile , Halogens , Light
9.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 5(1): 7-14, Ene-Mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151804

ABSTRACT

En esta investigación se planteó como objetivo la verificación del comportamiento dosimétrico del Sistema de Planificación de Tratamiento (TPS) de Radioterapia mediante las curvas de calibración de Densidades Electrónicas Relativas (DER). Este estudio se realizó en el Hospital de la Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA) Núcleo Loja, usando un fantoma antropomorfo CIRS 062M y un tomógrafo Toshiba Activion 16. Para determinar la nueva curva de calibración DER se tomaron los valores de densidades electrónicas especificadas en el manual del fantoma y las Unidades Hounsfield de la imagen tomográfica. Se realizó controles de calidad dosimétricos y verificación dosimétrica en tres casos clínicos: tórax, pelvis y cráneo; para realizar las pruebas dosimétricas se utilizó un acelerador CLINAC CX, cámara de ionización PTW tipo Farmer con volumen sensible de 0,6 cm3 y un electrómetro PTW UNIDOS E. Los resultados mostraron que las medidas para cada inserto del fantoma en ningún caso excedieron los límites establecidos de ± 20 UH, para el tomógrafo y el TPS; las pruebas de control de calidad no superaron el límite máximo de desviaciones en el cálculo de dosis absorbida por el TPS y la obtenida por medición de ± 4 % establecida por la IAEA y las verificaciones dosimétricas en tórax, pelvis y cráneo, determinaron que las desviaciones en el cálculo de la dosis absorbida por el TPS y la obtenida por medición no superaban la tolerancia del ± 5 % establecida por la ICRU.


In this research, the aim was to verify the dosimetric behavior of the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (TPS) using the Relative Electron Density (DER) calibration curves. This study was carried out at the SOLCA (Society of Fight Against Cancer) hospital in Loja, using an CIRS model 062M anthropomorphic phantom and a Toshiba Activion 16 tomograph. To determine the new DER calibration curve, the values of the electron densities specified in the manual of the phantom and the Hounsfield Units of the tomographic image were taken. Dosimetric quality controls were made in the location of three clinical cases: thorax pelvis and skull; used a CLINAC CX accelerator was used to perform the dosimetric tests, PTW ionization chamber type Farmer with sensitive volume of 0.6 cm3 and a PTW UNIDOS E electrometer. The results showed that the measurements for each insert of the phantom in no case exceeded the established limits of ± 20 UH, for the tomograph and the TPS; the quality control tests did not exceed the maximum limit of deviations in the calculation of dose absorbed by the TPS and the one obtained by measurement of ± 4% established by the IAEA and the clinical planning in the thorax, pelvis and skull, determine that the deviations in the calculation of the dose absorbed by the TPS and that obtained by measurement, they do not exceed the tolerance of ± 5% established by the ICR.


Subject(s)
Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods , Electrons , Radiation Dosage , Radiometry , Radiotherapy Dosage , Bone Density/physiology , Phantoms, Imaging , Ecuador , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods
10.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 5(1): 67-73, Ene-Mar. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151928

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la relación entre la dosis de radiación recibida y la práctica en intervención médica. Se estudiaron estadísticamente los reportes dosimétricos de profesionales que han laborado en intervencionismo con un Arco en C en el Hospital José Carrasco Arteaga de la ciudad de Cuenca, Ecuador. Estos informes se basan en lecturas bimensuales de los dosímetros TLD utilizados por el personal para seguridad radiológica. En total, se analizaron 124 personas que trabajaron en el período de noviembre de 2013 a marzo de 2018, es decir, 24 informes. La dosis promedio anual para las enfermeras de quirófanos es de 1,32 mSv, 1,59 mSv para el personal de Urología, 1,74 mSv para el personal de Gastroenterología, 1,78 mSv para el personal de Hemodinamia y 2,33 mSv para el personal de Traumatología. Se concluyó que la dosis promedio para cada práctica no excede la dosis de restricción de 1/3 de la dosis permitida para trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos. Intervencionismo en Traumatología resulta ser la práctica con mayor dosis recibida y la más baja perteneció al personal de Enfermería de Quirófanos. Estos resultados son de gran utilidad para saber qué nivel va acorde con cada práctica médica.


The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between the radiation dose received and the practice in medical intervention. The dosimetric reports of professionals who have worked in intervention with a C-Arm at the José Carrasco Arteaga Hospital in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador, were studied statistically. These reports are based on bi-monthly readings of the TLD dosimeters used by the staff for radiological safety. In total, 124 professionals who worked in the period from November 2013 to March 2018 were analyzed, that is, 24 reports. The average annual dose for operating room nurses is 1.32 mSv, 1.59 mSv for urology staff, 1.74 mSv for gastroenterology staff, 1.78 mSv for hemodynamic staff and 2.33 mSv for trauma staff. It is concluded that the average dose for each practice does not exceed the restriction dose of 1/3 of the dose allowed for occupationally exposed workers. Traumatology is the practice with the highest dose received and the lowest belongs to the operating room nursing staff. These results are very useful to know which level is consistent with each medical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiometry/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiology, Interventional/trends , Health Personnel , Ecuador , Research Report , Radiation Dosimeters/standards
11.
Clinics ; 74: e835, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011902

ABSTRACT

The efficacy and toxicity of radionuclide therapy are believed to be directly related to the radiation doses received by target tissues; however, nuclear medicine therapy continues to be based primarily on the administration of empirical activities to patients and less frequently on the use of internal dosimetry for individual therapeutic planning. This review aimed to critically describe the techniques and clinical evidence of dosimetry as a tool for therapeutic planning and the main limitations to its implementation in clinical practice. The present article is a nonsystematic review of voxel-based dosimetry. Clinical evidence pointing to a correlation between the radiation dose and therapeutic response in various diseases, such as thyroid carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer, is reviewed. Its limitations include technical aspects related to image acquisition and processing and the lack of randomized clinical trials demonstrating the impact of dosimetry on patient therapy. A more widespread use of dosimetry in therapeutic planning involves the development of user-friendly dosimetric protocols and confirmation that dose estimation implies good efficacy and low treatment-related toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Radiometry/methods , Radiotherapy/methods , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Time Factors , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772542

ABSTRACT

This study presents an electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) based on daily check tool for Linac that is usable for different cancer centers.Several images of open rectangle fields were acquired with EPID and the key items of daily Linac check were derived from the obtained images using an in-house developed automatic analysis software.The experiment results showed that each parameter calculated by this tool is as reliable as the corresponding result measured by the commercial quality assurance devices and its measuring efficiency is much higher.


Subject(s)
Electronics, Medical , Electrons , Particle Accelerators , Phantoms, Imaging , Radiometry , Software
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of image-guided radioactive 125I seed (IGRIS) implantation for pelvic recurrent cervical cancer (PRCC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and analyze the influence of clinical and dosimetric factors on efficacy. METHODS: From July 2005 to October 2015, 36 patients with PRCC received IGRIS. We evaluated local progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The median follow up was 11.5 months. The 1- and 2-year LPFS rate was 34.9% and 20%, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated recurrence site (central or pelvic wall) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.294; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.121–0.718), lesion volume (HR=2.898; 95% CI=1.139–7.372), D 90 (HR=0.332; 95% CI=0.130–0.850) were the independent factors affecting LPFS. The 1- and 2-year OS rate was 52.0% and 19.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis suggested pathological type (HR=9.713; 95% CI=2.136–44.176) and recurrence site (HR=0.358; 95% CI=0.136–0.940) were the independent factors affecting OS. The dosimetric parameters of 33 patients mainly included D 90 (128.5±47.4 Gy), D 100 (50.4±23.7 Gy) and V 100 (86.7%±12.9%). When D 90 ≥105 Gy or D 100 ≥55 Gy or V 100 ≥91%, LPFS was extended significantly, but no significant difference for OS. The 79.2% of 24 patients with local pain were suffering from pain downgraded after radioactive 125I seed implantation. CONCLUSION: IGRIS implantation could be a safe and effective salvage treatment for PRCC after EBRT, which could markedly release the pain. Recurrence site, tumor volume and dose were the main factors affected efficacy. Compared with central recurrence, it was more suitable for patients with pelvic wall recurrent cervical cancer after EBRT.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Radiometry , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Recurrence , Salvage Therapy , Tumor Burden , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the dose distribution of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) to left chest wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven patients were randomised for PMRT in 3DCRT group (n = 64) and IMRT group (n = 43). All patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) parameters—Dnear-max (D2), Dnear-min (D98), Dmean, V95, and V107—homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI) were compared. The mean doses of lung and heart, percentage volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 5 Gy (V5), 20 Gy (V20), and 55 Gy (V55) and that of heart receiving 5 Gy (V5), 25 Gy (V25), and 45 Gy (V45) were extracted from dose-volume histograms and compared. RESULTS: PTV parameters were comparable between the two groups. CI was significantly improved with IMRT (1.127 vs. 1.254, p < 0.001) but HI was similar (0.094 vs. 0.096, p = 0.83) compared to 3DCRT. IMRT in comparison to 3DCRT significantly reduced the high-dose volumes of lung (V20, 22.09% vs. 30.16%; V55, 5.16% vs. 10.27%; p < 0.001) and heart (V25, 4.59% vs. 9.19%; V45, 1.85% vs. 7.09%; p < 0.001); mean dose of lung and heart (11.39 vs. 14.22 Gy and 4.57 vs. 8.96 Gy, respectively; p < 0.001) but not the low-dose volume (V5 lung, 61.48% vs. 51.05%; V5 heart, 31.02% vs. 23.27%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: For left sided breast cancer, IMRT significantly improves the conformity of plan and reduce the mean dose and high-dose volumes of ipsilateral lung and heart compared to 3DCRT, but 3DCRT is superior in terms of low-dose volume.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Heart , Humans , Lung , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Radiometry , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Unilateral Breast Neoplasms
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy for breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery.@*METHODS@#Ten patients who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were selected. Eclipse planning system was used to design volumetric rotating intensity-modulated (2F-RapidArc) and two field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (2F-IMRT) planning for each patient. 2F-RapidArc plans were made using two partial arcs with gantry rotation from 287°-293° to 152°-162°, and 0° to 90 ° was avoidance sector. The gantry angle of 2F-IMRT were 301°-311° and 125°-135°. The prescription dose was 46 Gy/23 fractions. All plans required 95% of the target volume receiving the prescription dose. The dose distribution of the target, organs at risk, machine unit (MU) and treatment time were compared.@*RESULTS@#2F-RapidArc and 2F-IMRT plans' uniformity index was 1.12±0.02 and 1.11±0.03 (P=0.282), respectively; conformal index was 0.80±0.03 and 0.65±0.04 (P<0.001), respectively. V110 of plan target volume was 20.98%±14.47% and 10.43%±10.49% (P=0.030), respectively. Compared with the 2F-IMRT, 2F-RapidArc plans had a higher dosimetric parameters for left lung: V5 (48.06%±17.32% vs. 24.23%±6.56%,P=0.001), V10 (28.89±9.28 vs.17.07±4.78%,P=0.004), Dmean [(9.70±2.14) Gy vs. (6.86±1.77) Gy, P=0.002], increased the double lung: V5 (22.85%±7.55% vs. 11.01%± 2.95%,P=0.001), V10 (13.16%±4.33% vs. 7.76%± 2.16%, P=0.006), Dmean [(4.66±0.95) Gy vs. (3.17±0.82) Gy, P=0.001], reduced the left lung: V40 (3.58%±1.46% vs. 6.19%±3.04%, P=0.006), reduced the double lung: V40 (1.61%±0.64% vs. 2.81%± 1.39%,P=0.005), increased cardiac: V5 (39.3%±17.19% vs. 8.79%±4.24%, P<0.001), V10 (21.31%±13.8% vs. 5.73%±3.42%, P=0.002), V20 (7.80%±6.08% vs. 4.05%±2.85%,P=0.018), Dmean [(0.64±0.25) Gy vs. (0.29±1.39) Gy,P<0.001],reduced the heart: V40(0.50%±0.40% vs. 1.86%±1.94%,P=0.037),increased the contralateral breast Dmean [(1.63±1.26) Gy vs. (0.09±0.05) Gy, P=0.004]. Compared with 2F-IMRTplan, 2F-RapidArc increased the treatment time [(132.9±7.2) s vs. (140.3±11.6) s, P=0.030]. Both the machine units were almost the same [(467.0±30.4) MU vs. (494.7±44.9) MU, P=0.094].@*CONCLUSION@#Both 2F-RapidArc and 2F-IMRT plans could reach the clinical requirements. 2F-RapidArc had a better conformal index, reduced the high dose area, but increased the low dose regions of the lung, heart, body area, and increased the average dose of the contralateral breast. The treatment time of 2F-RapidArc was longer than that of 2F-IMRT, and the MU of 2F-RapidArc and 2F-IMRT plans were almost the same.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiometry , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714212

ABSTRACT

Head computed tomography (CT) is instrumental for managing patients of all ages. However, its low dose radiation may pose a low but non-zero risk of tumor induction in pediatric patients. Here, we present a systematic literature review on the estimated incidence of brain tumor induction from head CT exams performed on children and adolescents. MEDLINE was searched using an electronic protocol and bibliographic searches to identify articles related to CT, cancer, and epidemiology or risk assessment. Sixteen studies that predicted or measured head CT-related neoplasm incidence or mortality were identified and reviewed. Epidemiological studies consistently cited increased tumor incidence in pediatric patients (ages 0–18) exposed to head CTs. Excess relative risk of new brain tumor averaged 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.93) for pediatric patients exposed to one or more head CTs. Tumor incidence increased with number of pediatric head CTs in a dose-dependent manner, with measurable excess incidence even after a single scan. Converging evidence from epidemiological studies supported a small excess risk of brain tumor incidence after even a single CT exam in pediatric patients. However, refined epidemiological methods are needed to control for confounding variables that may contribute to reverse causation, such as patients with pre-existing cancer or cancer susceptibility. CT remains an invaluable technology that should be utilized so long as there is clinical indication for the study and the radiation dose is as small as reasonably achievable.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Child , Epidemiologic Methods , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Head , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Patient Safety , Pediatrics , Radiometry , Risk Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e16092, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839463

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to create and test a new mice 3D-voxel phantom named DM_BRA for mice and human first-estimation radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Previously, the article reviews the state-of-art in animal model development. Images from Digimouse CT database were used in the segmentation and on the generation of the voxelized phantom. Simulations for validation of the DM_BRA model was performed at 0.015, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 4 MeV photons with heart-source. Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAF) data were compared with literature data. The organ masses of DM_BRA correlated well with existing models based on the same dataset; however, few small organ masses hold significant variations. The SAF data in most simulated cases were statistically equal to a significant level of 0.01 to the reference data.


Subject(s)
Computer Literacy , Dosimetry/analysis , Mice/classification , Radiometry/methods
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311341

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to analyze the global research trend of radiation-responsive genes and identify the highly reproducible radiation-responsive genes. Bibliometric methods were applied to analyze the global research trend of radiation-responsive genes. We found 79 publications on radiation-responsive genes from 2000 to 2017. A total of 35 highly reproducible radiation-responsive genes were identified. Most genes are involved in response to DNA damage, cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and DNA repair. The p53 signal pathway was the top enriched pathway. The expression levels of 18 genes in human B lymphoblastoid cell line (AHH-1) cells were significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h after exposure to 0-5 Gy 60Co γ-ray irradiation. Our results indicate that developing a gene expression panel with the 35 high reproducibility radiation-responsive genes may be necessary for qualitative and quantitative assessment after exposure.


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Radiation Effects , Humans , Radiometry , Methods , Reproducibility of Results , Up-Regulation , Radiation Effects
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1093-1099, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266856

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>A novel radioactive 125I seed-loaded biliary stent has been used for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. However, the dosimetric characteristics of the stents remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to describe the dosimetry of the stents of different lengths - with different number as well as activities of 125I seeds.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The radiation dosimetry of three representative radioactive stent models was evaluated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In the process of TPS calculation and TLD measurement, two different water-equivalent phantoms were designed to obtain cumulative radial dose distribution. Calibration procedures using TLD in the designed phantom were also conducted. MC simulations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended version 2.5 general purpose code to calculate the radioactive stent's three-dimensional dose rate distribution in liquid water. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the factors influencing radial dose distribution of the radioactive stent.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The maximum reduction in cumulative radial dose was 26% when the seed activity changed from 0.5 mCi to 0.4 mCi for the same length of radioactive stents. The TLD's dose response in the range of 0-10 mGy irradiation by 137Cs γ-ray was linear: y = 182225x - 6651.9 (R2=0.99152; y is the irradiation dose in mGy, x is the TLDs' reading in nC). When TLDs were irradiated by different energy radiation sources to a dose of 1 mGy, reading of TLDs was different. Doses at a distance of 0.1 cm from the three stents' surface simulated by MC were 79, 93, and 97 Gy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TPS calculation, TLD measurement, and MC simulation were performed and were found to be in good agreement. Although the whole experiment was conducted in water-equivalent phantom, data in our evaluation may provide a theoretical basis for dosimetry for the clinical application.</p>


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Methods , Computer Simulation , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Radiometry , Methods , Thermoluminescent Dosimetry , Methods
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5848, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839264

ABSTRACT

This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1) and remained stable for long (constant) and short (repeatability) intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer). The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators) for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Radiation Dosage , Radiometry/instrumentation , Calibration , Equipment Design , Particle Accelerators , Radiometry/methods , X-Rays
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