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1.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 21(3): 94-99, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771668

ABSTRACT

Because diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures represent one of the main sources of irradiation by ionizing radiation in the population, it has become a priority to become familiar with the quantities and units that account for patient dosimetry. There are countless documents and international recommendations on names, concepts, definitions and areas of application for various quantities and units used in patient dosimetry, in interventional and diagnostic radiology procedures. However, national legislation is not updated in this regard and does not provide, in any of its documents, an updated glossary that enables finding this type of information quickly and precisely. Therefore, this review paper presents in a didactic way and in plain language, the main quantities and units to be used in the dosimetry of patients undergoing diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures.


Debido a que los procedimientos de radiodiagnóstico e intervencionismo representan una de las principales fuentes de irradiación a la población por radiaciones ionizantes, se vuelve prioritario conocer las magnitudes y unidades que dan cuenta de la dosimetría a los pacientes. Existen innumerables documentos y recomendaciones internacionales sobre nombres, conceptos, definiciones y campos de aplicación para diversas magnitudes y unidades utilizadas en la dosimetría de pacientes en procedimientos de radiodiagnóstico e intervencionismo. Sin embargo, la legislación nacional no se encuentra actualizada en este sentido y no contempla en ninguno de sus documentos, un glosario actualizado que permita encontrar en forma rápida y precisa este tipo de información. Por lo anterior, este trabajo de revisión presenta de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, las principales magnitudes y unidades que se deben utilizar en la dosimetría de pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de radiodiagnóstico e intervencionismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Imaging/standards , Kerma , Radiography, Interventional/standards , Radiometry/standards
2.
Radiol. bras ; 45(2): 71-81, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624455

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma ferramenta de análise de dados que pode ser utilizada para proteção de pacientes e trabalhadores em áreas de uso de equipamentos móveis. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvida uma ferramenta, em planilha ativa Excel®, que utiliza medidas de exposição para gerar um banco de dados de fatores de forma e calcular o kerma no ar ao entorno de um leito. O banco de dados inicial foi coletado com três equipamentos móveis. Um espalhador não antropomórfico foi utilizado, sendo realizadas medidas de exposição em uma malha de (4,2 × 4,2) m², ao passo de 0,3 m. RESULTADOS: A ferramenta calcula o kerma no ar (associado à exposição de pacientes expostos e ao equivalente de dose ambiente) à radiação secundária. Para distâncias inferiores a 60,0 cm, valores acima do limite máximo de equivalente de dose ambiente definido para área livre (0,5 mSv/ano) foram verificados. Os dados coletados a 2,1 m foram sempre inferiores a 12% do referido limite. CONCLUSÃO: A ferramenta é capaz de auxiliar na proteção radiológica de pacientes e trabalhadores, quando associada à coleta de dados adequada, pois possibilita a determinação de áreas livres ao entorno de leitos em áreas onde equipamentos móveis geradores de radiação X são utilizados.


OBJECTIVE: To present a data analysis toolkit that may be utilized with the purpose of radiation protection of hospital inpatients and workers in areas where mobile apparatuses are used. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An Excel® ActiveSheet was utilized to develop a computational toolkit with exposure measurements to generate a database of shape factors and to calculate the air kerma around hospital beds. The initial database included data collected with three mobile apparatuses. A non-anthropomorphic phantom was utilized and exposure measurements were performed on a (4.2 × 4.2) m² mesh-grid at 0.3 m steps. RESULTS: The toolkit calculates the air kerma (associated with patients' radiation exposure and with ambient equivalent dose) under secondary radiation. For distances lower than 60.0 cm, values above the maximum ambient equivalent dose threshold defined for radiation free areas (0.5 mSv/year) were verified. Data collected at 2.1 m have always presented values lower than 12% of that threshold. CONCLUSION: The toolkit can aid in the radiological protection of patients and workers, provided it is combined with appropriate data collection, since it allows the determination of radiation free areas around beds in rooms where mobile X-ray apparatuses are utilized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kerma , Radiation Exposure , Radiation Protection , Radiology , Radiometry/standards , Software , Databases as Topic , Guidelines for Radiological Safety , Occupational Health , Patient Safety
3.
Radiol. bras ; 45(2): 83-86, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624456

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estimar a dose extracraniana nos olhos, tireoide, tórax e pelve em pacientes submetidos a radiocirurgia com acelerador linear de 6 MV. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 11 pacientes com tumores cerebrais primários (7 pacientes) e secundários (4 pacientes), sendo que dois destes apresentavam duas lesões. Para a estimativa da dose extracraniana, foram utilizados dosímetros termoluminescentes. Foram utilizados cones de 1,50 a 3,75 cm e as doses de radiação variaram de 1300 a 2000 cGy. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 52 anos, sendo 63,6% do sexo feminino e 36,4% do sexo masculino. As localizações das lesões foram: nervo acústico direito (1), frontal (2), parietal (5), occipital direito (1), cerebelar (2) e parassagitais (2). Os valores médios das doses recebidas na região entre os olhos foram de 5,1 cGy; no olho direito, de 4,8 cGy; no olho esquerdo, de 6,5 cGy; na tireoide, de 4,2 cGy; no tórax, de 1,65 cGy; e na pelve, de 0,45 cGy. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados mostram que embora as doses não ultrapassem os limites de tolerância para ocorrência da opacidade do cristalino, é importante que os médicos radioterapeutas considerem os riscos de dose de radiação nessas regiões durante o planejamento de procedimentos de radiocirurgia craniana.


OBJECTIVE: To estimate extracranial doses on eyes, thyroid, chest and pelvis in patients submitted to radiosurgery with 6 MV linear accelerator. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluated 11 patients, 7 of them with primary, and 4 with secondary brain tumors. In the latter group, 2 patients had two lesions. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were utilized to estimate the extracranial dose. Radiosurgery cones ranges between 1.50 and 3.75 cm and doses between 1300 and 2000 cGy. RESULTS: Mean patients' age was 52 years, and 63.6% of them were women and 36.4%, men. Lesion locations were the following: right acoustic nerve (1), frontal (2), parietal (5), right occipital (1), cerebellum (2) and parasagittal (2). Mean received doses were the following: 5.1 cGy between the eyes; 4.8 cGy in the right eye; 6.5 cGy in the left eye; 4.2 cGy in the thyroid; 1.65 cGy in the chest; and 0.45 cGy in the pelvis. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that that although the eye doses do not exceed the tolerance limits for occurrence of lens opacity, it is important that the risks associated with radiation doses are taken into consideration by radiotherapists in the planning of cranial radiosurgery procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiosurgery , Radiometry/standards , Radiotherapy/standards , Eye , Particle Accelerators , Pelvis , Thorax , Thyroid Gland
4.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2009. 162 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-566825

ABSTRACT

A utilização da braquiterapia com equipamentos de pós-carga remota com fonte de 192Ir de alta taxa de dose tem aumentado em todo o mundo e no Brasil que conta hoje com 60 equipamentos instalados em Serviços de Radioterapia. A necessidade de se garantir a rastreabilidade da grandeza dosimétrica associada às fontes radioativas à Rede Internacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes tornou-se evidente e urgente, pois doses altas são aplicadas em pouco tempo ao tumor e qualquer erro na determinação dessa dose pode acarretar muito dano aos pacientes. Na ausência de um padrão dosimétrico estabelecido para o espectro de energia do 192Ir, muitos trabalhos mostraram alternativas para a calibração de fontes de 192Ir de alta taxa de dose com câmaras de ionização tipo dedal e tipo poço. A câmara poço, por ser de uso mais simples e apresentar metodologia reprodutível no ambiente de um Serviço de Radioterapia, passou a ser recomendada por instituições internacionais. Os Serviços de Radioterapia do Brasil que possuem equipamentos de pós-carga remota com fonte de 192Ir de alta taxa de dose utilizam, atualmente, a câmara tipo poço para a dosimetria de suas fontes. Como a calibração desse instrumento ainda é restrita a alguns países do hemisfério norte e a fim de suprir a necessidade do Brasil, este trabalho propõe uma metodologia para a calibração das câmaras poço dos usuários com fonte de 192Ir de alta taxa de dose, rastreada à Rede Internacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes. No método proposto é utilizada uma câmara dedal, calibrada no LNMRI/IRD/CNEN (rastreado à Rede Internacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes) em feixe de raios X e 60Co com uma interpolação adequada para a energia do 192Ir. Utiliza-se um sistema de posicionamento dessa câmara e da fonte de 192Ir de um equipamento de pós-carga remota para determinar a grandeza taxa de kerma no ar de referência dessa fonte que é, então, utilizada para calibrar as câmaras tipo poço dos usuários...


The use of brachytherapy with after-loading equipment with remote source of high dose rate 192Ir has increased worldwide and in Brazil, which presents 60 facilities with this equipment nowadays. The need to ensure the traceability of the source dosimetric quantity to the International Ionizing Radiation Metrology Network has become evident and urgent, since high doses values are delivered in a short time to the tumor and any error in the determination of the dose can provoke much damage to patients. In the absence of an established dosimetric standard for the energy spectrum of 192Ir, many studies showed alternative calibration of sources of high dose rate 192Ir, with the ionization thimble or well chamber type. The well type chamber is now recommended by international organisms, because of its simplicity to use and to its reproductibility. Nowadays, it is adopted by all radiotherapy services in Brazil using after-loading equipment with high dose rate 192Ir source. As the calibration of this instrument is still limited to some countries in the northerm hemisphere, in order to enhance the growth of the use of this instrument in Brazil, this paper proposes a methodology for calibration of well chambers of users of high dose rate 192Ir sources, traceable to the International Ionizing Radiation Metrology Network. In the proposed method a thimble chamber is used, calibrated in LNMRI/IRD/CNEN (traceable to the International Ionizing Radiation Metrology Network) in X-ray and 60Co beams with an interpolation for the 192Ir energy. Using a positioning system to hold the chamber and a high dose rate 192Ir source, the quantity reference air kerma rate is determined. This radioactive source is then used to calibrate the user's chambers. The proposed methodology was tested in various radiotherapy services of the country and was also compared to the existing methodology in University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UWADCL)...


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy/instrumentation , Brachytherapy/standards , Calibration , Radiation Dosage , Ions , Iridium Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Radiometry/instrumentation , Radiometry/methods , Radiometry/standards , Technology, Radiologic , Brazil , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Radiotherapy Dosage
5.
Rev. med. nucl. Alasbimn j ; 11(42)oct. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-504083

ABSTRACT

Un programa de control de calidad en medicina nuclear incluye la verificación de la eficiencia de equipos utilizados para el diagnóstico y tratamiento, hasta la formación. En este estudio se evaluaron las medidas de actividad realizada por los usuarios que trabajan en los servicios de medicina nuclear en Sergipe, Brazil. En las medidas de actividad se estableció uno y se caracteriza entre las medidas de fuentes radiactivas selladas de actividad normal, 133Ba y 57Co, llevada a cabo por distintos profesionales, con el fin de comprobar la reproducibilidad de estas medidas cuando se compara con el valor por defecto de la actividad de cada fuente. Los resultados de inter-medidas en estado satisfactorio y pueden ser utilizados como parámetros en el evaluación futuro de los servicios de medicina nuclear.


A program of quality control program in nuclear medicine includes the verification of the efficiency of any equipment used for diagnosis and treatment, until the personal training. In this study were evaluated measures of activity undertaken by users who work in nuclear medicine services in Sergipe, Brazil. In measures of activity was established and characterized an inter measures of activity sealed radioactive sources standard, 133Ba and 57Co, carried out by different professionals, aiming to verify the reproducibility of these measures when compared with the default value of the activity of each source. The results of inter-measures were in satisfactory and can be used as parameters in future evaluation services in nuclear medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nuclear Medicine/standards , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Radiometry/standards , Brazil , Calibration/standards , Quality Control , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
6.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2007 Jan-Mar; 3(1): 23-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111380

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to analyze the positional accuracy, kinetic properties of the dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) and dosimetric evaluation of fractional dose delivery for the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for step and shoot and sliding window (dynamic) techniques of Varian multileaf collimator millennium 80. Various quality assurance tests such as accuracy in leaf positioning and speed, stability of dynamic MLC output, inter and intra leaf transmission, dosimetric leaf separation and multiple carriage field verification were performed. Evaluation of standard field patterns as pyramid, peaks, wedge, chair, garden fence test, picket fence test and sweeping gap output was done. Patient dose quality assurance procedure consists of an absolute dose measurement for all fields at 5 cm depth on solid water phantom using 0.6 cc water proof ion chamber and relative dose verification using Kodak EDR-2 films for all treatment fields along transverse and coronal direction using IMRT phantom. The relative dose verification was performed using Omni Pro IMRT film verification software. The tests performed showed acceptable results for commissioning the millennium 80 MLC and Clinac DHX for dynamic and step and shoot IMRT treatments.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design/standards , Humans , Kinetics , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Radiometry/standards , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/standards , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/standards
7.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 13(4): 213-217, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-512395

ABSTRACT

A radiometric study was carried out in two Radiodiagnostic Units, with seven rooms being assessed. Methodology of the Radiodiagnostics Quality Control Protocol ARCAL XLIX (Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used. From radiation protection viewpoint, effective dose rates on surface for different relevant positions were calculated.The eigthy-five percent (85 percent) of assessed positions showed effective dose rates within limit values established in the ARCAL XLIX Protocol. Nevertheless, occupationally-exposed personnel (OEP) placed at position A (controlled area) -one meter distant from the phantom- was found to be exceeding by 7 the ARCAL XLIX advised values.


Se realizó un Levantamiento Radiométrico en dos servicios de imaginología con un total de 7 salas de radiodiagnóstico evaluadas. Se utilizó metodología del Protocolo de Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnóstico ARCAL (Acuerdo de Cooperación Regional para la promoción de la ciencia nuclear y tecnología en América Latina y el Caribe) XLIX del Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA). Se calcularon las tasas de dosis efectiva en superficie en diferentes posiciones de interés desde el punto de vista de la protección radiológica. El 85 por ciento de las posiciones evaluadas presentan tasas de dosis efectivas que cumplen con los valores límites establecidos en el protocolo ARCAL XLIX. No obstante el personal ocupacionalmente expuesto (POE) ubicado a un metro del simulador (área controlada) supera hasta en un factor 7 el límite propuesto en ARCAL XLIX.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiometry/standards , Radiology Department, Hospital , Quality Control , Radiation Dosage , Reference Standards , Health Personnel , Guidelines as Topic
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 72(1): 5-10, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627345

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar la dosimetría en braquiterapia ginecólogica para el dispositivo Fletcher-Suit-Delclos con alta tasa de dosis, mediante placas radiográficas ortogonales (anteroposterior y lateral) versus tomografía axial computada (TAC). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se compararon dosimetrías de 4 implantes, realizadas con placas ortogonales y TAC pélvico en la Unidad de Braquiterapia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer durante el mes de febrero del año 2006. Se prescribieron dosis de 8 Gy/fracción a punto H y se evaluó dosis a vejiga, recto y vagina según norma internacional. RESULTADOS: Las dosimetrías por TAC mostraron puntos calientes superiores a las placas ortogonales, para recto un 133% y para vejiga un 260% más aproximadamente. El porcentaje de volumen blanco incluido es subestimado con la dosimetría efectuada por placas ortogonales. CONCLUSIONES: La dosimetría por placas ortogonales muestra menor exactitud que el TAC. Los volúmenes blanco no son satisfactoriamente cubiertos por la curva de isodosis prescrita. La dosis acumulada, probablemente, sea más relevante que la dosis fracción.


OBJECTIVE: We analyze the gynecologycal high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry using the Fletcher-Suit-Delclos device, comparing orthogonal films (anteroposterior and lateral) versus axial computarized tomography. METHODS: 4 implants were analized with orthogonal films and axial computarized tomography in the Brachyhterapy Unit of the National Cancer Institute on February 2006. The dose/fraction was 8 Gy to the H point. The bladder, rectal and vaginal dose point were evaluated according to international specifications. RESULTS: Axial computarized tomography reveals hot points higher than orthogonal films dosimetries (133% and 260% for bladder and rectum respectively). The target volumen included was underestimated with the classical orthogonal film dosimetry. CONCLUSIONS: The orthogonal film dosimetry shows smaller accuracy than axial computarized tomography. The target volumens were not satisfactorily covered by the prescribed isodosis curve. The dose accumulated could, probably, be more prominent than the dose/fraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Radiotherapy Dosage , Brachytherapy/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiometry/standards , Rectum/radiation effects , Urinary Bladder/radiation effects , Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted
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