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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 31(3): 234-242, 30-diciembre-2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352468

ABSTRACT

Se define carcinoma de cabeza y cuello (CCC) de primario desconocido al cuadro de adenopatía cervical en que, luego de examen físico, estudios de imágenes y panendoscopía con biopsias, no se encuentra el tumor primario pero sí la confirmación de malignidad de la adenomegalia. Son infrecuentes, por lo que estudios prospectivos que arrojen resultados estadísticamente significativos no están disponibles actualmente, y el tratamiento definitivo es aún motivo de controversia. Al ser la radioterapia un tratamiento dirigido es imprescindible definir adecuadamente los volúmenes blanco de tratamiento; es ideal el hallazgo del tumor primario, pero en muchos casos a pesar de un estudio escalonado, exhaustivo y multidisciplinar esto no se logra. Esto motiva el debate de qué regiones tratar, dosis, fraccionamiento y modalidad (exclusiva, adyuvante, en concurrencia). Hasta el momento el tratamiento de ganglios cervicales y mucosa de alto riesgo parece ser la estrategia con mejor control locorregional.


Head and neck carcinoma (HNC) of unknown primary is a clinical condition defined as a cervical adenopathy for which, after physical examination, imaging studies and panendoscopy with biopsies, the primary tumor is not found, but there is confirmed malignancy of the adenomegaly. It is infrequent, so prospective studies that yield statistically significant results are not currently available, and definitive treatment is still controversial. Since radiation therapy is a targeted treatment, it is essential to adequately define treatment target volumes; the discovery of the primary tumor is ideal, but in many cases, despite a phased, exhaustive and multidisciplinary study, this is not achieved. This motivates the debate on which regions to treat, dose, fractionation and modality (exclusive, adjuvant, concurrent). Until now, the treatment of high-risk cervical nodes and mucosa seems to be the strategy with the best locoregional control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Radiotherapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Lymphadenopathy
2.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 31(60): 23-26, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284468

ABSTRACT

Las neoplasias malignas de la cavidad oral en gran medida (90%) consisten en carcinoma de células escamosas que surgen de la mucosa de revestimiento. El 10% restantes de neoplasias malignas orales de un grupo heterogéneo de tumores de diferente etiología. Presentamos dos casos de patología oncohematológica: Mieloma Múltiple (AU)


Malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity largely (90%) consist of squamous cell carcinoma arising from the lining mucosa. e remaining 10% of oral malignancies from a heterogeneous group of tumors of different etiology. We present two cases of oncohematological pathology: Multiple Myeloma (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmacytoma/diagnosis , Plasmacytoma/pathology , Plasmacytoma/diagnostic imaging , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Radiotherapy , Biopsy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Multiple Myeloma
3.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hipofraccionamiento moderado (hRt) en cáncer de próstata, consisten en dismi-nuir el tiempo total de tratamiento con radioterapia, lo que mejora la adherencia terapéutica y opti-miza recursos tecnológicos. En cáncer de próstata, existe evidencia robusta con datos maduros a 5 años de seguimiento, donde se evidenció que hRtno es inferior al tratamiento con fraccionamiento estándar en control oncológico, con menor o igual toxicidad aguda y tardía. Se hace una revisión de la evidencia, dosis de tolerancia, contorneo de volúmenes objetivo (GTV-CTV-PTV) / órganos de ries-go, planificación y reproducibilidad del hRt en cáncer de próstata localizado.


Introduction: Moderate hypofractionation (hRt) in prostate cancer consists of reducing the total time of treatment with radiotherapy, which improves therapeutic adherence and optimizes technolog-ical resources. In prostate cancer, there is robust evidence with mature data at 5 years of follow-up, where it was evidenced that hRt is not inferior to treatment with standard fractionation in oncological control, with less or equal acute and late toxicity. A review of the evidence, tolerance dose, contouring of target volumes (GTV-CTV-PTV) / organs at risk, planning and reproducibility of hRt in localized prostate cancer is made.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Radiation , Dosage
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-9, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151572

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento con radioterapia, consiste en irradiar de forma homogénea el tumor, evitando irradiar los órganos cercanos. El desarrollo de la tecnología en el campo de la medicina, ha permitido que se cumpla este principio, con buenos resultados de respuesta objetiva, que se traduce en el control de la enfermedad de los pacientes con cáncer. La Tomografía axial computarizada por emisión de positrones (PET-CT) consigue una mayor precisión en el delineado del volumen blanco o tumoral. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la influencia del uso del PET-CT en el delineado de volúmenes a tratar en la planificación del tratamiento con radiaciones.Se diseñó un estudio piloto con dos pacientes preparados para radioterapia por neoplasias malignas, a los cuáles se les realizó un TAC simple y un PET-CT y observadores independientes realizaron la delimitación del tumor. Se examinó la consistencia entre los observadores y las mediciones en las imágenes.El uso del PET-CT favoreció la delimitación del volumen a irradiar lo que disminuye el riesgo para los órganos vecinos.


The treatment with radiotherapy consists on irradiating in a homogeneous way the tumor, avoiding to irradiate the near organs. The development of the technology in the field of the medicine, it has allowed that this principle is completed, with good results of objective answer what allows the control of the illness of the patients with cancer. The computerized axial tomography by positrons emission (PET-CT) it gets a bigger precision in the one delineated of the white volume or tumoral. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the use of the PET-CT in the one delineated of volumes to try in the planning of the treatment with radiations.A study pilot was designed with two prepared patients for radiotherapy for malignant diseases, to those which they were carried out a simple TAC and a PET-CT and independent observers carried out the delimitation of the tumor. The consistency was examined between the observers and the mensuration in the images.The use of the PET-CT favors the delimitation of the volume to irradiate what diminishes the risk for the neighboring organs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Radiotherapy/methods , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Radiation Oncology/methods , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 22-27, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248381

ABSTRACT

La Asociación Americana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons [AAOMS]): define el concepto de osteonecrosis maxilar asociada a drogas antirresortivas (MRONJ) como: «área ósea necrótica expuesta al medio bucal con más de ocho semanas de permanencia, en presencia de tratamiento crónico con bifosfonatos en ausencia de radioterapia en cabeza y cuello¼. El objetivo de este artículo es asociar la enfermedad oncológica en relación con las drogas antirresortivas consumidas por pacientes, la prescripción de dichas drogas y el depósito de ellas en el organismo. Al mismo tiempo, la interacción médico-odontológico debe implementarse en favor de la salud de nuestros pacientes (AU)


American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons AAOMS defined Medication Related of the Jaw (MRONJ) as «necrotic bone area exposed to the oral environment with more than eight weeks of permanence, in the presence of chronic treatment with BPs, in the absence of radiation therapy to the head and neck¼. The objective of this article is associate oncology antiresorptives treatments prescribed by physicians, their prescription and body accumulation in patients whose are treated with them. Interdisciplinary dental and physician clinical treatments must be implemented in patient favours (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors , Diphosphonates/pharmacokinetics , Interprofessional Relations
6.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(2): 55-68, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247488

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar los efectos secundarios de las terapias oncológicas en pacientes con cáncer de cérvix en una unidad oncológica de Neiva Huila, durante el 2017. Metodología: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo de corte transversal, basado en la revisión de fuentes secundarias, como son las historias clínicas de las pacientes con cáncer de cér-vix que estuvieron en tratamiento oncológico y que desarrollaron efectos secundarios a las terapias oncológicas. La muestra se conformó con 75 pacientes, la cual se obtuvo a través un muestreo no proba¬bilístico por conveniencia, previo al cumplimiento de criterios de inclusión y exclusión definidos para el estudio. Resultados: Durante el periodo de estudio, se identificaron 75 pacientes que desarrollaron efectos secundarios atribuidos a las terapias oncológicas. La edad en promedio fue de 49 años. En el grupo de 35-54 años, se presentó el mayor número de los casos con un 53,3% (IC 95%: 42,1-64,1). La radioterapia concomitante con quimioterapéuticos ocupó el primer lugar entre las terapias oncológicas con mayores efectos secundarios en el 63% (IC 95%: 51,3-72,7) de las pacientes. El sistema gastroin-testinal presentó mayores efectos secundarios en el 95% (IC 95%: 87,0-97,9) de los casos. Conclusiones: Durante las consultas de seguimiento a riesgos, se identificó que las pacientes manifestaron sensaciones molestas a nivel gastrointestinal como: náuseas, emesis y diarrea, dado que la mucosa intestinal es más susceptible a las alteraciones generadas por la radiación y los quimioterapéuticos, por el alto recambio celular presentado en estos órganos.


Objective: Determine the side effects of cancer therapies in cervical cancer patients in an oncology unit of Neiva Huila during 2017. Methodology: Observational, retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study, based on the revision of secondary sources, such as the medical records of cervical cancer patients who were in cancer treatment and who de-veloped adverse effects on cancer therapies. The sample consisted of 75 patients, which were obtained through non-probabilistic sampling for convenience, prior to compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria defined for the study. Results: During the study pe-riod, 75 patients who developed side effects attributed to oncology therapies were iden-tified, the age on average was 49 years. In the 35­54-year group, the highest number of cases was presented with 53.3% (95% CI: 42.1-64.1). Concomitant radiation therapy with chemotherapeutics took the first place among cancer therapies with the greatest side ef-fects in 63% (95% CI: 51.3-72.7) of patients. The gastrointestinal system had the greatest side effects in 95% (95% CI: 87.0-97.9) of cases. Conclusions: During follow-up visits to risks, patients were identified as showing bothersome sensations at the gastrointestinal level such as: nausea, emesis and diarrhea, since the intestinal mucosa is more suscepti-ble to alterations generated by radiation and chemotherapeutics, by the high cell replace-ment presented in these organs. Cancer treatments should point to greater tumor control.


Objetivo: determinar os efeitos colaterais das terapias oncológicas em pacientes com câncer do colo do útero numa unidade oncológica de Neiva-Huila, durante 2017. Materiais e méto-dos: estudo observacional, retrospectivo, descritivo, transversal, baseado na revisão de fontes secundarias como prontuários médicos das pacientes com câncer do colo do útero que esti-veram em tratamento oncológico e que desenvolveram efeitos colaterais a terapias oncológi-cas. A amostra foi de 75 mulheres, estudadas de forma não probabilística por conveniência, prévio cumprimento dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão definidos para o estudo. Resultados: foram estudadas 75 pacientes que desenvolveram efeitos colaterais em decorrência de tera-pias oncológicas. A media da idade foi de 49 anos. No grupo de 35-54 anos apresentaram-se o maior número dos casos (53,3%; IC95%: 42,1-64,1). A radioterapia conjuntamente ad-ministrada com quimioterápicos ocupou o primeiro lugar entre as terapias oncológicas com maiores efeitos colaterais nas pacientes (63%; IC 95%: 51,3-72,7). O trato gastrointestinal apresentou a maior frequência dos efeitos com sintomas e sinais como: enjoo, vômitos e diar-reia, principalmente pela mucosa intestinal ser a mais susceptível às alterações geradas pela radiação e quimioterápicos, pelo alta atividade celular desses órgãos


Subject(s)
Uterine Neoplasms , Long Term Adverse Effects , Radiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances
7.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-071133, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223054

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diversos efeitos colaterais podem acometer a pele e seus anexos durante o tratamento oncológico de mulheres com câncer de mama, comprometendo a terapia. Objetivo: Identificar a ocorrência de alterações dermatológicas durante o tratamento oncológico de mulheres com câncer de mama. Método: Estudo documental e retrospectivo, de cunho quantitativo, com uso de dados secundários obtidos por meio de 190 prontuários clínicos (n=190) de um serviço privado de oncologia. Resultados: As participantes apresentaram média de idade de 53 anos (±11,2), com diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinoma ductal invasivo (85,8%). Todas foram submetidas à quimioterapia, 65,3% à mastectomia radical e 34,2% à radioterapia. As alterações dermatológicas identificadas e as ocorrências verificadas na amostra foram alopecia (94,2%), hiperpigmentação (48,4%), prurido (36,3%), eritema (6,8%), descamação (25,8%) e alterações ungueais (77,9%). Ao todo, foram identificadas 550 alterações dermatológicas, resultando em uma média de 2,9 (±1,3) por paciente. A radioterapia esteve associada a uma maior ocorrência de eritema (p<0,001) e mulheres expostas a taxanos apresentaram maior probabilidade de manifestar de alterações dermatológicas do que as não expostas (p<0,001), bem como fatores sociodemográficos não estiveram associados. Conclusão: A ocorrência de alterações dermatológicas identificadas nas participantes foi significativa, reforçando que essas manifestações podem ser frequentes em mulheres com câncer de mama durante o tratamento oncológico, requerendo medidas de prevenção e tratamento.


Introduction: Several side effects can affect the skin and its attachments during cancer treatment of women with breast cancer, compromising the therapy. Objective: To identify the occurrence of dermatological changes during cancer treatment of women with breast cancer. Method:Quantitative approach, documentary and retrospective study, using secondary data obtained from 190 clinical records (n=190) from a private oncology service. Results: The participants had a mean age of 53 years (±11.2), with histopathological diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (85.8%). All participants were exposed to chemotherapy, 65.3% to radical mastectomy and 34.2% to radiotherapy. The dermatological alterations identified, and the occurrences verified in the sample were alopecia (94.2%), hyperpigmentation (48.4%), pruritus (36.3%), erythema (6.8%), desquamation (25.8%) and nail alterations (77.9%). In all, 550 dermatological alterations were identified, resulting in an average of 2.9 (±1.3) changes per patient. Radiotherapy was associated with a higher occurrence of erythema (p<0.001) and women exposed to taxanes were more likely to manifest dermatological alterations than those unexposed (p<0.001), sociodemographic factors were not associated. Conclusion: The occurrence of dermatological alterations identified in the participants was significant, reinforcing that these manifestations may be frequent in women with breast cancer during oncological treatment, requiring prevention and treatment actions.


Introducción: Varios efectos secundarios pueden afectar la piel y sus uniones durante el tratamiento del cáncer de mujeres con cáncer de mama, comprometiendo la terapia. Objetivo: Identificar la aparición de alteraciones dermatológicas durante el tratamiento del cáncer de mujeres con cáncer de mama. Método: Estudio documental y retrospectivo, de carácter cuantitativo, utilizando datos secundarios obtenidos de 190 registros clínicos (n=190) de un servicio oncológico privado. Resultados: Los participantes tenían una edad media de 53 años (±11,2), con diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinoma ductal invasivo (85,8%). Todas fueran sometidas a quimioterapia, el 65,3% a mastectomía radical y el 34,2% a radioterapia. Las alteraciones dermatológicas identificadas y las ocurrencias verificadas en la muestra fueron alopecia (94,2%), hiperpigmentación (48,4%), prurito (36,3%), eritema (6,8%), descamación (25,8%) y alteraciones en las uñas (77,9%). En total, se identificaron 550 alteraciones dermatológicas, lo que resultó en un promedio de 2,9 (±1,3) por paciente. En total, se identificaron 550 cambios dermatológicos, lo que resultó en un promedio de 2,9 (±1,3) alteraciones por paciente. La radioterapia se asoció con una mayor incidencia de eritema (p<0,001) y las mujeres expuestas a taxanos tienen más probabilidades de manifestar alteraciones dermatológicas que las no expuestas (p<0,001), además de que no se asociaron factores sociodemográficos. Conclusión: La ocurrencia de alteraciones dermatológicas identificadas en las participantes fue significativa, reforzando que estas manifestaciones pueden ser frecuentes en mujeres con cáncer de mama durante el tratamiento oncológico, requiriendo acciones de prevención y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Skin Diseases , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/radiotherapy
8.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e20200476, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1287904

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify whether there is an association between spirituality/religiosity and quality of life of women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Method: Cross-sectional, quantitative study performed between May and July 2019 in an Oncology Hospital of Porto Alegre state, Brazil. A sociodemographic questionnaire and the instruments EORTC-QLQ-C30 and WHOQOL-SRPB were applied. The data were verified through Shapiro-Wilk test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Spearman. Results: The sample comprised 108 women with a mean age of 56, predominantly white, married, and with incomplete primary education. A positive correlation between "Overall quality of life score" with all facets of spirituality, as well as a negative correlation for the symptoms "Fatigue", "Insomnia", and "Diarrhea" with some aspects of spirituality, such as "Faith", were observed. Conclusion: The statistical significance of the correlation has positively associated spirituality/religiosity and quality of life in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Understanding spirituality as a preponderant factor in quality of life contributes to positive nursing care interference, with individualized orientation and care to each woman.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Verificar si hay asociación entre la espiritualidad/religiosidad y la calidad de vida en mujeres con cáncer de mama en tratamiento radioterápico. Método: Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, conducido de mayo a julio de 2019 en un Hospital Oncológico de la ciudad de Porto Alegre, en Brasil. Se aplicaron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y los instrumentos EORTC-QLQ-C30 y WHOQOL-SRPB. Los datos se verificaron por medio de la prueba de Shapiro-Wilk, el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson y Spearman. Resultados: La muestra tenía 108 mujeres con edad media de 56 años, predominantemente blancas, casadas y con educación primaria incompleta. Se observó una correlación positiva entre la "Puntuación de calidad de vida global" con las facetas de la espiritualidad, así como una correlación negativa para para los síntomas "Fatiga", "Insomnio" y "Diarrea" con algunas facetas de la espiritualidad, como la "Fe". Conclusión: La significancia estadística en la correlación asoció positivamente la espiritualidad/religiosidad a la calidad de vida de las mujeres con cáncer de mama en tratamiento radioterápico. Comprender la espiritualidad como un factor preponderante en la calidad de vida contribuye a una interferencia positiva de la asistencia de enfermería, con orientaciones y cuidados individualizados a cada mujer.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se há associação entre a espiritualidade/religiosidade e a qualidade de vida de mulheres com câncer de mama em tratamento radioterápico. Método: Estudo transversal de caráter quantitativo, realizado no período de maio a julho de 2019, em um Hospital Oncológico de Porto Alegre. Aplicou-se um questionário sociodemográfico e os instrumentos EORTC-QLQ-C30 e WHOQOL-SRPB. Os dados foram verificados pelo teste Shapiro-Wilk, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e Spearman. Resultados: A amostra foi de 108 mulheres, com idade média de 56 anos, predominantemente brancas, casadas, com ensino fundamental incompleto. Observou-se correlação positiva entre o "Escore de qualidade de vida global" com todas as facetas da espiritualidade, bem como uma correlação negativa para os sintomas "Fadiga", "Insônia" e "Diarreia" com algumas facetas da espiritualidade, como "Fé". Conclusão: A significância estatística na correlação associou positivamente a espiritualidade/religiosidade e a qualidade de vida nas mulheres com câncer de mama em tratamento radioterápico. Entender a espiritualidade como fator preponderante na qualidade de vida contribui para a interferência positiva da assistência de enfermagem, com orientações e cuidados individualizados a cada mulher.


Subject(s)
Oncology Nursing , Breast Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Women , Spirituality
9.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e03697, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1250727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of nursing interventions in radiotherapy patient care and to summarize the evidence on the experience and acceptability of interventions reported by health professionals involved in the prevention and treatment of side effects. Method: A mixed-method systematic review. Quantitative and qualitative studies are presented. Results: Twelve studies published between 2013 and 2017 were included. Most interventions found focused on skin care, oral care, nausea and vomiting and nursing consultation. In accordance with high level of evidence and recommendation grade of the studies, the use of Calendula officinalis and thyme honey were considered effective for preventing and treating radiodermatitis and mucositis, respectively. Conclusion: The quality of evidence of nursing interventions is weak. Although there are studies with a strong design and a high level of evidence, publication of nursing interventions is not enough and does not present a high quality to support practice to plan an effective patient-centered care.


RESUMO Objetivo: Sintetizar as melhores evidências disponíveis sobre a efetividade de intervenções de enfermagem no cuidado do paciente de radioterapia e sumarizar as evidências das experiências e aceitabilidade das intervenções reportadas pelos profissionais da saúde envolvidos na prevenção e tratamento dos efeitos colaterais. Método: Revisão sistemática de métodos mistos. São apresentadas pesquisas quantitativas e qualitativas. Resultados: 12 estudos publicados nos últimos cinco anos foram incluídos. A maioria das intervenções encontradas focaram em cuidados com a pele, cuidados orais, náuseas e vômitos relacionados às consultas de enfermagem. De acordo com um alto nível de evidência e grau de recomendação dos estudos, o uso da Calendula officinalis e mel de tomilho foram considerados eficientes na prevenção e no tratamento da radiodermatite e da mucosite, respectivamente. Conclusão: A qualidade das evidências de intervenções de enfermagem é fraca. Mesmo que existam estudos com um desenvolvimento forte e um alto grau de evidência, as publicações sobre intervenções de enfermagem não são suficientes e com alta qualidade para dar suporte ao planejamento de cuidado centrado no paciente de forma eficaz.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Sintetizar la mejor evidencia disponible sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones de enfermería en la atención de pacientes en radioterapia y resumir la evidencia de las experiencias y aceptabilidad de las intervenciones reportadas por los profesionales de la salud involucrados en la prevención y tratamiento de efectos colaterales. Método: Revisión sistemática de métodos mixtos. Se presentan investigaciones cuantitativas y cualitativas. Resultados: se incluyeron 12 estudios publicados en los últimos cinco años. La mayoría de las intervenciones encontradas se centraron en cuidados de la piel, cuidados bucales, náuseas y vómitos relacionados con las consultas de enfermería. Según un alto nivel de evidencia y grado de recomendación de los estudios, el uso de Calendula officinalis y miel de tomillo se consideró eficaz en la prevención y el tratamiento de la radiodermatitis y la mucositis, respectivamente. Conclusión: La calidad de la evidencia de las intervenciones de enfermería es pobre. Si bien existen estudios con fuerte desarrollo y alto grado de evidencia, las publicaciones sobre intervenciones de enfermería no son suficientes y de alta calidad para respaldar una planificación de la atención centrada en el paciente de manera eficaz.


Subject(s)
Oncology Nursing , Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Review , Patient-Centered Care
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 101-122, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342191

ABSTRACT

Humans when exposed to harmful ionising radiations suffer from various pathophysiological disorders including cancer. Radiotherapy is a treatment where these cancerous cells within a tumor aretargeted and killed by means of high energy waves. This therapy is very expensive and involves highly sophisticated instruments. In addition to this, most synthetic radioprotectors including Amifostine have been found to possess toxicity. This led researchers to develop a novel, economically viable, and efficient therapeutic alternative to radiation therapy. The last two decades have observed a major shift towards investigating natural products as radioprotectors, as these are immensely effective in terms of their potential bioequivalence relative to many of the established synthetic compounds available. Taking into account the limitations of radiation therapy, an approach 'Integrative Oncology' that involves a combination of both traditional and conventional medical treatment are used nowadays to treat patients suffering from cancer and associated mental and psychological disorders.


Los seres humanos, cuando se exponen a radiaciones ionizantes nocivas, sufren diversos trastornos fisiopatológicos, incluido el cáncer. La radioterapia es un tratamiento en el que estas células cancerosas dentro de un tumor son atacadas y destruidas por medio de ondas de alta energía. Esta terapia es muy cara e implica instrumentos muy sofisticados. Además de esto, se ha descubierto que la mayoría de los radioprotectores sintéticos, incluida la amifostina, poseen toxicidad. Esto llevó a los investigadores a desarrollar una novedosa, económicamente viable y eficiente alternativa terapéutica a la radioterapia. En las dos últimas décadas se ha observado un cambio importante hacia la investigación de productos naturales como radioprotectores, ya que son inmensamente eficaces en términos de su potencial bioequivalencia en relación con muchos de los compuestos sintéticos establecidos disponibles. Teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones de la radioterapia, hoy en día se utiliza un enfoque de "Oncología Integrativa" que implica una combinación de tratamiento médico tradicional y convencional para tratar a pacientes que padecen cáncer y trastornos mentales y psicológicos asociados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants/chemistry , Radiation-Protective Agents , Biological Products , Integrative Oncology/methods , Radiotherapy/methods , DNA Damage , Radiation Oncology/methods , Genomic Instability
11.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE01063, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1278064

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Analisar os preditores sociodemográficos, clínicos e terapêuticos e a qualidade de vida em pacientes com radiodermatite. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal, realizado com 196 pessoas que desenvolveram reações cutâneas como evento adverso ao tratamento radioterápico. Foi utilizado um formulário para caracterização e avaliação clínica e o instrumento European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 para mensuração da qualidade de vida em duas etapas. A análise dos dados foi constituída pelos testes Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis , considerando diferença estatisticamente significativa para p < 0,05. Resultados: A comparação entre os escores de qualidade de vida mostrou que a radiodermatite contribuiu para piora do estado global de saúde e da qualidade de vida, deterioração da capacidade funcional, dificuldade financeira e intensificação de reações emocionais e de sintomas físicos como ansiedade, depressão, dor, fadiga, insônia e falta de apetite. Fatores como sexo, renda, escolaridade, quimioterapia concomitante, localização anatômica da lesão e grau de destruição tecidual foram determinantes para o maior comprometimento dos escores globais. Diante disso, surge a necessidade de intervenções de enfermagem que favoreçam a identificação de preditores e que otimizem o cuidado a partir de diretrizes e recomendações clínicas. Conclusão: A radiodermatite influenciou negativamente a qualidade de vida dos pacientes, tendo alto impacto associado ao maior grau de destruição tecidual e como principais preditores destacaram-se os aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos. Estudos dessa natureza são imprescindíveis para formulação de políticas públicas efetivas, integradas, sustentáveis e baseadas em evidências voltadas para prevenção, controle e tratamento da lesão.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los predictores sociodemográficos, clínicos y terapéuticos y la calidad de vida en pacientes con radiodermatitis. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio longitudinal, realizado con 196 personas que presentaron reacciones cutáneas como evento adverso al tratamiento radioterápico. Se utilizó un formulario para la caracterización y evaluación clínica y el instrumento European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 para la medición de calidad de vida en dos etapas. El análisis de los datos se realizó a través de las pruebas Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney y Kruskal-Wallis , considerando una diferencia estadísticamente significativa de p < 0,05. Resultados: La comparación entre las puntuaciones de calidad de vida demostró que la radiodermatitis contribuyó con el empeoramiento del estado global de salud y de la calidad de vida, el deterioro de la capacidad funcional, la dificultad financiera y la intensificación de reacciones emocionales y de síntomas físicos como ansiedad, depresión, dolor, fatiga, insomnio y falta de apetito. Factores como sexo, ingresos, escolaridad, quimioterapia simultánea, ubicación anatómica de la lesión y nivel de destrucción tisular fueron determinantes para un mayor comprometimiento de la puntuación global. Ante esto, surge la necesidad de intervenciones de enfermería que favorezcan la identificación de predictores y que optimicen el cuidado a partir de directrices y recomendaciones clínicas. Conclusión: La radiodermatitis influyó negativamente en la calidad de vida de los pacientes, con un alto impacto relacionado con un mayor nivel de destrucción tisular, y como principales predictores se destacaron los aspectos clínicos y terapéuticos. Estudios de esta naturaleza son imprescindibles para la formulación de políticas públicas efectivas, integradas, sustentables y basadas en evidencias orientadas hacia la prevención, control y tratamiento de la lesión.


Abstract Objective: To analyze sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic predictors and quality of life in patients with radiodermatitis. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted with 196 participants who developed skin reactions as an adverse event to radiotherapy treatment. A form was used for clinical characterization and evaluation, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 instrument was used for measuring the quality of life in two stages. Data analysis consisted of the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, considering a statistically significant difference for p<0.05. Results: The comparison between scores of the quality of life showed that radiodermatitis contributed to the worsening of overall health status and quality of life, deterioration of functional capacity, financial difficulty and intensification of emotional reactions and physical symptoms such as anxiety, depression, pain, fatigue, insomnia and appetite loss. Factors such as sex, income, educational level, concomitant chemotherapy, anatomical location of the injury and degre of tissue destruction were determinant for the greater impairment of global scores. Thus, the need for nursing interventions that favor the identification of predictors and care optimization based on clinical guidelines and recommendations. Conclusion: Radiodermatitis negatively influenced the quality of life of patients, had a high impact associated with a greater degree of tissue destruction and the main predictors were clinical and therapeutic aspects. Studies of this nature are essential for the formulation of effective, integrated, sustainable and evidence-based public policies aimed at preventing, controlling and treating the injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Radiodermatitis/prevention & control , Radiodermatitis/drug therapy , Radiodermatitis/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy , Radiodermatitis/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Nursing Care
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020219, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142398

ABSTRACT

Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SpSCC) is a rare biphasic malignant neoplasm, uncommonly affecting the oral cavity. The SpSCC diagnosis is difficult, especially when it exhibits inconspicuous morphology, inadequate tissue sampling, or association with an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Post-radiotherapy recurrent SpSCC occurring at the same site of conventional SCC is a rare phenomenon. A 59-year-old man was complained of "painful injury on the tongue" with 20 days of duration. He reported smoking and alcohol consumption. Medical history revealed conventional SCC on the tongue treated with surgery and radiotherapy 10 years ago. Intraoral examination showed a polypoid lesion with ulcerated areas, measuring 3 cm in diameter, on the tongue and floor of the mouth, at the same site of previous conventional SCC. The microscopical analysis showed small foci of carcinomatous component admixed with an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Immunohistochemistry highlighted the sarcomatoid component. Both malignant components were positive for EMA, CD138, p40 (deltaNp63), p63, and p53. Moreover, CK AE1/AE3 evidenced the carcinomatous component, whereas vimentin stained the sarcomatoid component. The Ki-67 was >10%. The current case emphasizes the importance of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of SpSCC from mimics and documents a rare complication of Ionizing Radiation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Immunohistochemistry , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Radiotherapy , Diagnosis, Differential
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293236

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old Nigerian woman was admitted on account of cervical carcinoma Stage IV and was requested to undergo radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Six weeks after commencing this treatment she starting passing feces involuntarily through the vagina. Imaging studies revealed a high sited, medium sized, and rectovaginal fistula (RVF). RVFs have been documented as a late complication of radiotherapy for any gynecological malignancy but it occurred earlier in this patient. A preliminary surgical procedure, a sigmoid-ostomy, was performed successfully and a definitive surgery, a sigmoido-rectal anastomosis, was planned to be done in 18 months after the diagnosis of the RVF but the patient died shortly after the first procedure. The present case indicates that a RVF can occur as an early complication of radiotherapy even when it presents with mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Rectovaginal Fistula , Radiotherapy , Nigeria
14.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)


Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphates , Potassium , Radiotherapy , Breast Neoplasms , Nucleic Acids , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/physiopathology , Drug Therapy , Drug Prescriptions , Critical Care , Hematology , Internal Medicine , Medical Oncology
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(4): 358-364, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150502

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores de la región pineal constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de lesiones localizadas en la porción posterior del tercer ventrículo bajo el esplenio del cuerpo calloso y encima de la lámina cuadrigémina. Dentro de estos, los tumores del parénquima pineal constituyen un grupo frecuente. En estas lesiones no existe actualmente un protocolo establecido debido a la ausencia de grandes series. Se sugiere una combinación de cirugía y radioterapia con o sin quimioterapia. El tratamiento de elección es la resección total, sin embargo, muchas veces no es posible por dificultades técnicas. En este contexto, la cirugía con visualización endoscópica puede contribuir a lograr este objetivo. Descripción del caso: Se presenta un paciente masculino de 22 años de edad con lesión de región pineal e hidrocefalia obstructiva triventricular al que se le practicó una tercerventriculostomía endoscópica y un abordaje infratentorial supracerebeloso con total visualización endoscópica. Se describe la técnica quirúrgica y se realiza un análisis crítico de la literatura actualizada. Conclusiones: Los tumores de la región pineal constituyen un reto terapéutico. La resección total es el principal objetivo en lesiones de grado intermedio o bajo de malignidad. El abordaje infratentorial supracerebeloso con total visualización endoscópica es efectivo en la resección quirúrgica de estas lesiones al mejorar la visualización y minimizar la retracción cerebelosa


Introduction: Pineal region tumors are a variable group of lesions located in the posterior wall of the third ventricle under the corpus callous splenium and above the tectal plate. Pineal gland tumors are frequent. There is not a standard protocol in these lesions due the lack of large series. A combination of surgery and chemo therapy or radiotherapy are recommended. The complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. However, usually it is not possible to accomplished this goal due to technical limitations. In this scenario, the endoscopic visualization could contribute to archive the goal. Patient characteristics: A 22 years old young male patient with a pineal region lesion and obstructive hydrocephalus is presented. A third ventriculostomy was performed and an infratentorial supracerebelous approach with fully endoscopic visualization. The surgical technique is described and a critical review of literature is performed. Conclusions: Pineal region tumors represents a therapeutic challenge. Total removal is the most important objective in intermediate or low-grade lesions. The infratentorial supracerebelous approach with full endoscopic visualization is effective and improve the visualization while reducing the cerebellar retraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pinealoma , Radiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Endoscopy , Hydrocephalus , Neoplasms
16.
Femina ; 48(12): 747-752, 20201231. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141185

ABSTRACT

A qualidade de vida sexual é frequentemente afetada após tratamento oncológico em ginecologia. Reportamos a qualidade de vida sexual de pacientes em seguimento no serviço de Oncologia Ginecológica da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, por meio da aplicação do questionário validado FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index), comparando pacientes diagnosticadas com câncer de colo uterino que receberam tratamento radioterápico com aquelas que foram submetidas a tratamento para câncer de colo uterino no qual não foi necessária a realização de radioterapia. Foi realizada análise estatística utilizando os testes D'Agostino-Pearson e o teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney. Concluiu-se que a diminuição do desejo e da excitação foi mais frequente nas mulheres tratadas com radioterapia e que não houve diferença significativa entre as pacientes a respeito de lubrificação, orgasmo, satisfação e dispareunia.(AU)


Quality of sexual life is often affected after oncological treatment in gynecology. We report the quality of sexual life of patients in a follow-up at the Gynecological Oncology service of the Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, through the application of a questionnaire validated in the Portuguese language. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer patients diagnosed who received radiotherapy with those who have been submitted to treatment for cervical cancer in which it was not necessary to perform radiotherapy. Decreased desire and arousal were more frequent in women treated with radiotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed using the D'Agostino-Pearson tests and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. It was concluded that decreased desire and arousal were more frequent in women treated with radiotherapy, and that there was no significant difference between patients regarding lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and dyspareunia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/physiopathology , Sexuality , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric
17.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 30(3): 215-228, Diciembre 30, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145724

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo inicial del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT) usualmente comprende la cirugía que puede acompañarse según el riesgo de recurrencia de la administración del yodo radioactivo (I-131); sin embargo, existe un pequeño grupo de pacientes que se catalogan como refractarios al I131, lo cual incide directamente en su pronóstico y expectativa de vida, siendo necesario evaluar opciones locales de tratamiento antes de avanzar a las terapias sistémicas y en estas condiciones la radioterapia (RTP) representa una opción local con fines de tratamiento primario o paliativo Métodos:Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, retrospectivo, de centro único, que involucra a 49 pacientes con CDT e indicación de radioterapia. Resultados:En el 80% de los casos la edad fue mayor de 45 años, con predominio 74% en el sexo femenino, todos con diagnóstico de CDT sometidos a cirugía, 88%con variante no agresiva, 57% con un tamaño tumoral entre 1 a 4cm, 71% con extensión extratiroidea, 71% con metástasis ganglionares cervicales, 45% estadio TNM I y el 71% con alto riesgo de recurrencia. El 96% recibió I-131, con necesidad de reintervenciones quirúrgicas hasta por 5 o más ocasiones (8%). Recibieron RTP 57%con fines curativos y 43% paliativos. La técnica de radioterapia utilizada en el 69% de los pacientes fue IMRT/VMAT, y la dosis más frecuentemente empleada fue ≥ 60Gy en región cervical (61%). De los 49 pacientes, el 90% tiene respuesta estructural incompleta y 12% falleció por CDT. Conclusiones:La radioterapia debe considerarse en enfermedad avanzada localmente con extensión extratiroidea, enfermedad residual macroscópica y tumor irresecable o recurrente que falla a la terapia convencional del CDT. Palabras clave:Neoplasias de la Tiroides, Carcinoma Anaplásico de Tiroides, Tiroidectomía, Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia, recurrencia, /radioterapia


Introduction:The initial management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually includes surgery that can be accompanied according to the risk of recurrence of the administration of radioactive iodine (I-131). However, there is a small group of patients who are classified as refractory to I-131, which directly affects their prognosis and life expectancy, making it necessary to evaluate local treatment options before advancing to systemic therapies and, in these conditions, radiotherapy (RTP) represents a local option for primary or palliative treatment purposes. Methods:An epidemiological, descriptive, retrospective, single-center study was carried out, involving 49 patients with DTC and indication for radiotherapy. Results:In 80% of the cases the age was over 45 years, with a 74% predominance in the female sex, all with a diagnosis of DTC undergoing surgery, 88% with a non-aggressive variant, 57% with a tumor size between 1 at 4cm, 71% with extrathyroid extension, 71% with cervical lymph node metastases, 45% TNM stage I, and 71% with a high risk of recurrence. 96% received I-131, requiring reoperations for up to 5 or more occasions (8%). 57% received RTP for curative purposes and 43% palliative. The radiotherapy techniqueused in 69% of the patients was IMRT / VMAT, and the most frequently used dose was ≥60Gy in the cervical region (61%). Of the 49 patients, 90% had an incomplete structural response and 12% died from DTC. Conclusions:Radiation therapy should be consideredin locally advanced disease with extrathyroid extension, macroscopic residual disease and unresectable or recurrent tumor that fails conventional therapy for DTC. Keywords:Thyroid Neoplasms; Thyroid Carcinoma,Anaplastic;Thyroidectomy;Neoplasm Recurrence, Local;/radiotherapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
18.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(2): 165-168, 20200800.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119717

ABSTRACT

La enteritis por radiación o enteritis actínica es una complicación secundaria al uso de radioterapia para tratamiento de tumores pélvicos, que puede afectar con mayor frecuencia al intestino delgado (principalmente íleon) y al colon. La cirugía en pacientes con enteritis por radiación crónica debe reservarse ante la presencia de complicaciones, ya que está relacionada con una alta morbilidad y estancia hospitalaria prolongadas, así como posibilidad de re operación. Exponemos el caso de una paciente con oclusión intestinal secundaria a enteritis por radiación que desarrolló años después de la conclusión de su tratamiento por cáncer de cuello uterino, con el objetivo de que esta enfermedad sea sospechada en pacientes con antecedentes de radiación.


Radiation enteritis or actinic enteritis is a complication secondary to the use of radiotherapy to treat pelvic tumors, which can more frequently affect the small intestine (mainly ileum) and the colon. Surgery in patients with chronic radiation enteritis should be reserved in the presence of complications, since it is related to high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay, as well as the possibility of reoperation. We present the case of a patient with intestinal occlusion secondary to radiation enteritis who developed years after the conclusion of her treatment due to cervical cancer, with the objective that this disease has to be suspected in patients with history of radiation.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Tract/radiation effects , Enteritis , Radiation , Radiotherapy/adverse effects
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 728-731, June 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136289

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Voluminous tumors represent a challenge in radiation oncology, particularly when surgical resection is not possible. Lattice radiotherapy (LTR) is a technique that may provide equivalent or superior clinical response in the management of large tumors while limiting toxicity to adjacent normal tissues. LRT can precisely deliver inhomogeneous high doses of radiation to different areas within the gross tumor volumes (GTV). The dosimetric characteristic of LTR is defined by the ratio of the valley dose (lower doses - cold spots) and the peak doses, also called vertex (higher doses - hot spots), or the valley-to-peak dose ratio. The valley-to-peak ratio thereby quantifies the degree of spatial fractionation. LRT delivers high doses of radiation without exceeding the tolerance of adjacent critical structures. Radiobiological experiments support the role of radiation-induced bystander effects, vascular alterations, and immunologic interactions in areas subject to low dose radiation. The technological advancements continue to expand in Radiation Oncology, bringing new safety opportunities of treatment for bulky lesions.


RESUMO Tumores volumosos representam um desafio para a radio-oncologia, em especial quando a ressecção cirúrgica não é possível. A radioterapia com técnica Latisse (LTR) pode gerar resposta clínica equivalente ou superior ao tratamento convencional de grandes tumores, limitando a toxicidade nos tecidos normais adjacentes. A LRT pode fornecer com precisão altas doses não homogêneas de radiação em diferentes áreas do volume tumoral (GTV). A característica dosimétrica da LTR é definida pela razão entre a dose na região do vale (doses mais baixas - pontos frios) e as doses de pico, também chamadas de vértice (doses mais altas - pontos quentes) ou a razão da dose vale/pico. Dessa forma, a razão vale/pico quantifica o grau de fracionamento espacial da entrega de dose. A LRT entrega, dessa forma, altas doses de radiação sem exceder a tolerância de estruturas críticas adjacentes. Experimentos radiobiológicos suportam o chamado "efeito espectador" induzido por radiação, o qual promove alterações vasculares e interações imunológicas, levando à resposta tumoral mesmo em áreas expostas a baixas doses de radiação. Os avanços tecnológicos continuam a se expandir na radio-oncologia, trazendo, por meio da LTR, uma nova oportunidade segura de tratamento para lesões volumosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Radiation Injuries , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Immunomodulation
20.
J. nurs. health ; 10(2): 20102009, mai.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1104137

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar e categorizar o método de uso e benefícios e principais considerações sobre uso do laser em lesões induzidas por radiação. Método: revisão sistemática desenvolvidas em Public Medline, Literatura Latino-Americana do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS e Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde. Resultados: analisou-se sete estudos. Observou-se em 86% (6) desses estudos uma conclusão positiva à terapêutica de laser de baixa intensidade, relatando: 43% (3) diminuição significativa e regressão da dor; 29% (2) redução significativa na duração e gravidade da mucosite e 29% (2) redução da inflamação e cicatrização. Conclusão: evidenciou-se melhora da cicatrização, da dor local e da capacidade anti-inflamatória. É necessário realizar mais pesquisas com amostras robustas que comparem os tipos de lasers, o comprimento das ondas e sua intensidade, para o seu uso como terapêutica.(AU)


Objective: to analyze and categorize the method of use and benefits and main considerations on the use of laser in radiation-induced injuries. Method: systematic review developed in the databases Public Medline, Latin American Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library. Results: seven studies were analyzed. A positive conclusion to low-level laser therapy was observed in 86% (6) of these studies, reporting: 43% (3) significant decrease and regression of pain; 29% (2) significant reduction in the duration and severity of mucositis and 29% (2) reduction in inflammation and healing. Conclusion: there was an improvement in healing, local pain and anti-inflammatory capacity. More research is needed with robust samples that compare the types of lasers, the length of the waves and their intensity, for their use as therapy.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar y clasificar el método de uso y los beneficios y las principales consideraciones sobre el uso del láser en lesiones inducidas por radiación. Método: revisión sistemática desarrollada en Public Medline, Literatura Latinoamericana del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, Índice acumulativo de literatura de enfermería y salud aliada, SCOPUS y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. Resultados: se analizaron siete estudios. Se observó una conclusión positiva de la terapia con láser de bajo nivel en el 86% (6) de estos estudios: 43% (3) disminución significativa y regresión del dolor; 29% (2) reducción significativa en la duración y gravedad de la mucositis y 29% (2) reducción en la inflamación y la curación. Conclusión: hubo una mejora en la curación, dolor local y capacidad antiinflamatoria. Se necesita investigación con muestras robustas que comparen los tipos de láser, la longitud de las ondas y su intensidad, para su uso como terapia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Radiation Effects , Radiodermatitis , Radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy
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