Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763758

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 597-603, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762102

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material that is formed as the decay product of uranium and thorium, and is estimated to contribute to approximately half of the average annual natural background radiation. When inhaled, it damages the lungs during radioactive decay and affects the human body. Through many epidemiological studies regarding occupational exposure among miners and residential exposure among the general population, radon has been scientifically proven to cause lung cancer, and radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. However, it is unclear whether radon exposure causes diseases other than lung cancer. Media reports have often dealt with radon exposure in relation to health problems, although public attention has been limited to a one-off period. However, recently in Korea, social interest and concern about radon exposure and its health effects have increased greatly due to mass media reports of high concentrations of radon being released from various close-to-life products, such as mattresses and beauty masks. Accordingly, this review article is intended to provide comprehensive scientific information regarding the health effects of radon exposure.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beauty , Beds , Epidemiologic Studies , Human Body , Inhalation Exposure , Korea , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Masks , Mass Media , Miners , Occupational Exposure , Radon , Smoking , Thorium , Uranium
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766601

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material classified as a carcinogen by the World Health Organization, and is known to be the factor with the second-greatest impact on lung cancer after smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has consistently been reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and residents of homes with indoor radon exposure. However, associations between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer, have yet to be confirmed due to a lack of consistent research findings and biological relevance. Such associations are unlikely because there is a very low likelihood that organs other than the lungs are exposed to radon upon inhalation due to the short half-life of radon and its progeny and the low permeability of alpha rays. In spring 2018, the radon bed mattress incident occurred, leading to a spike of concern and interest among the public regarding the health effects of radiation exposure. This paper presents a description of radon exposure and its health effects based on the current literature and provides practical information based on health consultations experienced following the 2018 radon mattress incident.


Subject(s)
Alpha Particles , Epidemiologic Studies , Half-Life , Inhalation , Leukemia , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Permeability , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Referral and Consultation , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Neoplasms , World Health Organization
4.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785782

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
5.
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 233-243, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785504

ABSTRACT

Since the Compton camera was fi rst introduced, various types of conical Radon transforms have been examined. Here, we derive the inversion formula for the conical Radon transform, where the cone of integration moves along a curve in three-dimensional space such as a helix. Along this three-dimensional curve, a detailed inversion formula for helical movement will be treated for Compton imaging in this paper. The inversion formula includes Hilbert transform and Radon transform. For the inversion of Compton imaging with helical movement, it is necessary to invert Hilbert transform with respect to the inner product between the vertex and the central axis of the cone of the Compton camera. However, the inner product function is not monotone. Thus, we should replace the Hilbert transform by the Riemann–Stieltjes integral over a certain monotone function related with the inner product function. We represent the Riemann–Stieltjes integral as a conventional Riemann integral over a countable union of disjoint intervals, whose end points can be computed using the Newton method. For the inversion of Radon transform, three dimensional fi ltered backprojection is used. For the numerical implementation, we analytically compute the Hilbert transform and Radon transform of the characteristic function of fi nite balls. Numerical test is given, when the density function is given by a characteristic function of a ball or three overlapping balls.


Subject(s)
Methods , Radon
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713220

ABSTRACT

Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking. In order to develop a model, indoor radon concentrations were measured at 196 ground floor residences using passive alpha-track detectors between January and April 2016. The arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) means of indoor radon concentrations were 117.86±72.03 and 95.13±2.02 Bq/m³, respectively. Questionnaires were administered to assess the characteristics of each residence, the environment around the measuring equipment, and lifestyles of the residents. Also, national data on indoor radon concentrations at 7643 detached houses for 2011-2014 were reviewed to determine radon concentrations in the soil, and meteorological data on temperature and wind speed were utilized to approximate ventilation rates. The estimated ventilation rates and radon exhalation rates from the soil varied from 0.18 to 0.98/hr (AM, 0.59±0.17/hr) and 326.33 to 1392.77 Bq/m²/hr (AM, 777.45±257.39; GM, 735.67±1.40 Bq/m²/hr), respectively. With these results, the developed model was applied to estimate indoor radon concentrations for 157 residences (80% of all 196 residences), which were randomly sampled. The results were in better agreement for Gyeonggi and Seoul than for other regions of Korea. Overall, the actual and estimated radon concentrations were in better agreement, except for a few low-concentration residences.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Exhalation , Korea , Life Style , Lung Neoplasms , Methods , Models, Theoretical , Radon , Seoul , Smoke , Smoking , Soil , Ventilation , Wind
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1013-1014, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718041

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Radon
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1123-1130, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Exposure to indoor radon is associated with lung cancer. This study aimed to estimate the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure, its burden of disease, and the effects of radon mitigation in Korea in 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung cancer deaths due to indoor radon exposure were estimated using exposure-response relations reported in previous studies. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated to quantify disease burden in relation to premature deaths. Mitigation effects were examined under scenarios in which all homes with indoor radon concentrations above a specified level were remediated below the level. RESULTS: The estimated number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure ranged from 1946 to 3863, accounting for 12.5–24.7% of 15623 total lung cancer deaths in 2010. YLLs due to premature deaths were estimated at 43140–101855 years (90–212 years per 100000 population). If all homes with radon levels above 148 Bq/m3 are effectively remediated, 502–732 lung cancer deaths and 10972–18479 YLLs could be prevented. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that indoor radon exposure contributes considerably to lung cancer, and that reducing indoor radon concentration would be helpful for decreasing the disease burden from lung cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mortality, Premature , Radon
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residential radon exposure is known to be an important risk factor for the development of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to calculate the disease burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure in Korea. METHODS: We calculated the national exposure level using Korean national radon survey data from 2011 to 2014, and house structure distribution data from each administrative region. Using the exposure-risk function, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated and applied to calculate the disease burden for lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure. RESULTS: Residential radon exposure levels were the highest, at 116.4 ± 50.4 Bq/m3 (annual mean radon concentration ± standard deviation) in detached houses, followed by 74.1 ± 30.0 Bq/m3 in the multi-family dwellings, and 55.9 ± 21.1 Bq/m3 in apartments. The PAF for lung cancer, due to long-term radon exposure in Korean homes, was 6.6% and 4.7% in men and women, respectively. The total disease burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure was 14,866 years of life lost (YLL) and 1,586 years lost due to disability (YLD) in 2013. Overall, 1,039 deaths occurred due to residential radon exposure, of which 828 were in men and 211 in women. CONCLUSION: The smoking rate of men in Korea exceeded 70% in the 1990s, and is still near 40%. Although the size of the effect varies depending on the estimation method, it is a critical aspect as a risk factor of lung cancer because of the synergistic relationship between smoking and radon exposure. Because the Korean society is rapidly aging, population who were formerly heavy-smokers are entering a high-risk age of lung cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to inform the public about the health benefits of reduced radon exposure and to strengthen the risk communication.


Subject(s)
Aging , Female , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Methods , Radon , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715778

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Radon
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) differs etiologically and clinically from lung cancer attributed to smoking. After smoking, radon exposure is the second leading cause and the primary risk factor of lung cancer among never smokers. Exposure to radon can lead to genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor genomes affecting genes and pathways involved in lung cancer development. The present study sought to explore genetic alterations associated with LCINS exposed to radon gas indoors. METHODS: Genetic associations were assessed via a case-control study of LCINS (39 cases and 30 controls) using next generation sequencing. Associations between genetic mutations and high exposure to radon were investigated by OncoPrint and heatmap graphs. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted using various tools. According radon exposure levels, we divided subjects in two groups of cases and controls. RESULTS: We found that ABL2 rs117218074, SMARCA4 rs2288845, PIK3R2 rs142933317, MAPK1 rs1803545, and androgen receptor (AR) rs66766400 were associated with LCINS exposed to high radon levels. Among these, Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) rs74790047, TSC2 rs2121870, and AR rs66766408 were identified as common exonic mutations in both lung cancer patients and normal individuals exposed to high levels of radon indoor. CONCLUSION: We identified that CHD4 rs74790047, TSC2 rs2121870, and AR rs66766408 are found to be common exonic mutations in both lung cancer patients and normal individuals exposed to radon indoors. Further analysis is needed to determine whether these genes are completely responsible for LCINS exposed to residential radon.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Computational Biology , Epigenomics , Exons , Genetic Variation , Genome , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Radon , Receptors, Androgen , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the possible association between radon exposure and kidney cancer.@*METHODS@#We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis based on random effect models to provide a pooled association measure.@*RESULTS@#We subjected 8 studies (overall relative risks and 95% confidence intervals: 1.01, 0.72 to 1.43, I2 = 64.4%) to meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed a marginally significant association between radon exposure and kidney cancer in studies conducted in Europe. Two population-based studies provided no evidence for the increased risk of kidney cancer in the general population.@*CONCLUSION@#The association between radon and kidney cancer remains unclear but cannot be excluded because of its biological plausibility and the limited number and quality of existing studies. Additional data from the general population and well-designed miner cohort studies are needed to reveal the real relationship between radon exposure and kidney cancer.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms , Radon , Toxicity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786742

ABSTRACT

Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking. In order to develop a model, indoor radon concentrations were measured at 196 ground floor residences using passive alpha-track detectors between January and April 2016. The arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) means of indoor radon concentrations were 117.86±72.03 and 95.13±2.02 Bq/m³, respectively. Questionnaires were administered to assess the characteristics of each residence, the environment around the measuring equipment, and lifestyles of the residents. Also, national data on indoor radon concentrations at 7643 detached houses for 2011-2014 were reviewed to determine radon concentrations in the soil, and meteorological data on temperature and wind speed were utilized to approximate ventilation rates. The estimated ventilation rates and radon exhalation rates from the soil varied from 0.18 to 0.98/hr (AM, 0.59±0.17/hr) and 326.33 to 1392.77 Bq/m²/hr (AM, 777.45±257.39; GM, 735.67±1.40 Bq/m²/hr), respectively. With these results, the developed model was applied to estimate indoor radon concentrations for 157 residences (80% of all 196 residences), which were randomly sampled. The results were in better agreement for Gyeonggi and Seoul than for other regions of Korea. Overall, the actual and estimated radon concentrations were in better agreement, except for a few low-concentration residences.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Exhalation , Korea , Life Style , Lung Neoplasms , Methods , Models, Theoretical , Radon , Seoul , Smoke , Smoking , Soil , Ventilation , Wind
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, for which smoking is considered as the primary risk factor. The present study was conducted to determine whether genetic alterations induced by radon exposure are associated with the susceptible risk of lung cancer in never smokers. METHODS: To accurately identify mutations within individual tumors, next generation sequencing was conduct for 19 pairs of lung cancer tissue. The associations of germline and somatic variations with radon exposure were visualized using OncoPrint and heatmap graphs. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using various tools. RESULTS: Alterations in several genes were implicated in lung cancer resulting from exposure to radon indoors, namely those in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumor protein p53 (TP53), NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2.1), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7), discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2), lysine methyltransferase 2C (MLL3), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5), FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1), and dual specificity phosphatase 27 (putative) (DUSP27). CONCLUSIONS: While these genes might regulate the carcinogenic pathways of radioactivity, further analysis is needed to determine whether the genes are indeed completely responsible for causing lung cancer in never smokers exposed to residential radon.


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins , Dual-Specificity Phosphatases , Genes, Homeobox , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lysine , Radioactivity , Radon , ErbB Receptors , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , TYK2 Kinase
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(6): e00189415, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889678

ABSTRACT

Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8) for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study), the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.


Los estudios de casos y controles muestran una asociación entre el radón residencial y el cáncer de pulmón. El objetivo del artículo fue investigar esa asociación a través de un estudio de cohorte. Proyectamos un estudio de cohorte ambispectivo, utilizando el mapa de radón de Galicia, España, con los controles obtenidos de un estudio anterior de casos y controles. Los individuos fueron reclutados entre 2002 y 2009. Los datos fueron verificados para confirmar la incidencia de cáncer de pulmón y después analizados con un modelo de regresión de Cox. Participaron un total de 2.127 individuos; se identificaron 24 casos de cáncer de pulmón; un 76,6% de los individuos fueron obtenidos a través del mapa de radón. El hazard ratio ajustado era 1,2 (IC95%: 0,5-2,8) para la categoría de individuos expuestos a 50Bq/m3 o más. El riesgo aumentó cuando los individuos del estudio de casos y controles fueron analizados separadamente. En conclusión, no se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre exposición al radón residencial y cáncer de pulmón; sin embargo, parece que con una muestra con una media de edad más elevada (tales como los participantes del estudio de casos y controles), el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón habría sido más alto.


Estudos de casos e controles mostram uma associação entre radônio residencial e câncer de pulmão. O artigo teve como objetivo investigar essa associação através de um estudo de coorte. Projetamos um estudo ambispectivo coorte, utilizando o mapa de radônio da Galícia, Espanha, com os controles obtidos de um estudo anterior de casos e controles. Os indivíduos foram recrutados entre 2002 e 2009. Os dados foram verificados para confirmar a incidência de câncer de pulmão e depois analisados com um modelo de regressão de Cox. Participaram um total de 2.127 indivíduos; foram identificados 24 casos de câncer de pulmão; 76,6% dos indivíduos foram obtidos através do mapa de radônio. O hazard ratio ajustado era 1,2 (IC95%: 0,5-2,8) para a categoria de indivíduos expostos a 50Bq/m3 ou mais. O risco aumentou quando os indivíduos do estudo de casos e controles foram analisados separadamente. Em conclusão, não foi observada associação estatisticamente significativa entre exposição ao radônio residencial e câncer de pulmão; entretanto, parece que com uma amostra com mediana de idade mais elevada (tais como os participantes do estudo de casos e controles), o risco de câncer de pulmão teria sido mais alto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Radon , Air Pollutants, Radioactive/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology , Spain , Time Factors , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59537

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Smoking is definitely the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Radon (222Rn) is a natural gas produced from radium (226Ra) in the decay series of uranium (238U). Radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancer and the first risk factor for lung cancer in never-smokers. Case–control studies have provided epidemiological evidence of the causative relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer. Twenty-four case–control study papers were found by our search strategy from the PubMed database. Among them, seven studies showed that indoor radon has a statistically significant association with lung cancer. The studies performed in radon-prone areas showed a more positive association between radon and lung cancer. Reviewed papers had inconsistent results on the dose–response relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer risk. Further refined case–control studies will be required to evaluate the relationship between radon and lung cancer. Sufficient study sample size, proper interview methods, valid and precise indoor radon measurement, wide range of indoor radon, and appropriate control of confounders such as smoking status should be considered in further case–control studies.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Natural Gas , Radium , Radon , Risk Factors , Sample Size , Smoke , Smoking , Uranium
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8198

ABSTRACT

Radiation from natural sources is one of causes of the environmental diseases. Radon is the leading environmental cause of lung cancer next to smoking. To investigate the relationship between indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer, researchers must be able to estimate an individual’s cumulative level of indoor radon exposure and to do so, one must first be able to assess indoor radon concentrations. In this article, we outline factors affecting indoor radon concentrations and review related mathematical models based on the mass balance equation and the differential equations. Furthermore, we suggest the necessities of applying time-dependent functions for indoor radon concentrations and developing stochastic models.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Models, Theoretical , Radon , Smoke , Smoking
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8197

ABSTRACT

Exposure to radon gas is the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. A large number of studies have reported that exposure to indoor radon, even at low concentrations, is associated with lung cancer in the general population. This paper reviewed studies from several countries to assess the attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer death due to indoor radon exposure and the effect of radon mitigation thereon. Worldwide, 3–20 % of all lung cancer deaths are likely caused by indoor radon exposure. These values tend to be higher in countries reporting high radon concentrations, which can depend on the estimation method. The estimated number of lung cancer deaths due to radon exposure in several countries varied from 150 to 40,477 annually. In general, the percent ARs were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers, whereas much more lung cancer deaths attributable to radon occurred among ever-smokers because of the higher rate of lung cancers among smokers. Regardless of smoking status, the proportion of lung cancer deaths induced by radon was slightly higher among females than males. However, after stratifying populations according to smoking status, the percent ARs were similar between genders. If all homes with radon above 100 Bq/m3 were effectively remediated, studies in Germany and Canada found that 302 and 1704 lung cancer deaths could be prevented each year, respectively. These estimates, however, are subject to varying degrees of uncertainty related to the weakness of the models used and a number of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations.


Subject(s)
Canada , Female , Germany , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Methods , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Uncertainty
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8195

ABSTRACT

Eleven cohorts of miners occupationally exposed to relatively high concentrations of radon showed a statistically significantly high risk of lung cancer, while three cohorts from the general population showed a relatively low concentration, but the results were not statistically significant. However, the risk of lung cancer tended to increase with increased radon exposure. The risk is likely to have been underestimated due to low statistical power. Therefore, additional well-designed studies on the risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers in the general population with relatively low concentrations of radon exposure are needed in the future. In addition, country-specific preventive policies are needed in order to actively reduce radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in nonsmokers.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Miners , Occupations , Radon
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL