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1.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 224-233, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353522

ABSTRACT

Las evaluaciones rápidas de biodiversidad son la fuente de información más común sobre biodiversidad en el noroccidente amazónico en Colombia debido a que los recursos y la logística son limitados. Estas evaluaciones son esenciales para tomar decisiones ambientales en esta área que ha sido impactada por la transformación de sus ecosistemas naturales. Diferentes evaluaciones locales rápidas con cámaras trampa de mamíferos medianos y grandes (MMG) se han realizado en el noroccidente Amazónico en Colombia, pero estas son difícilmente comparables. Nosotros recolectamos la información de 16 evaluaciones rápidas de MMG para proporcionar la primera lista de MMG del noroccidente amazónico en Colombia. Adicionalmente, evaluamos la precisión de cuatro estimadores (ICE, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 y Jackknife 2) y el esfuerzo mínimo de muestreo para la estimación de la riqueza de MMG en estudios locales en esa región. Reportamos 26 especies de MMG para la Amazonía colombiana (entre cinco y 13 especies por localidad), lo que es uns subestimación de la riqueza de MMG en la región. El mejor estimador para este tipo de estudios fue Jackknife 1, debido a su precisión y la baja influencia de singletons. Recomendamos un esfuerzo mínimo de muestreo de 350 cámaras trampa-día. Aunque las evaluaciones rápidas no proveen una estimación robusta de la riqueza de MMG, estas evaluaciones registran las especies más comunes (especies core) y la variación en su abundancia por localidad. Es necesario un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo para evaluar el efecto de la transformación del hábitat sobre los MMG, en especial sobre los parámetros poblacionales de las especies raras. (AU)


Subject(s)
Rainforest , Mammals
2.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 91-101, jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353303

ABSTRACT

Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) é um arbusto que produz frutos com altas concentrações de ácido ascórbico (1380 a 1490 mg 100 g-1 na polpa e 2050 mg 100 g-1 na casca), 20 vezes mais que a acerola e 100 vezes mais que o limão. Nativo da região amazônica, ocorre naturalmente em ambientes sazonalmente inundados, nas margens de lagos e rios, mas também é cultivado comercialmente em terra firme. Neste estudo, observações fenológicas e avaliação da produtividade de frutos foram realizadas em uma população natural de camu-camu em ambiente inundável e em uma plantação em terra firme, na Amazônia central. Visitas quinzenais foram feitas durante um ano para coleta de dados sobre floração, frutificação e fenologia foliar. No auge da floração, os botões florais foram marcados e acompanhados até a maturação dos frutos, que foram colhidos para biometria e contagem das sementes. Os frutos variaram de 1,01 a 2,73 cm em diâmetro e 1,14 a 10,87 g em peso, com maior produção de frutos em ambiente natural. A fenologia diferiu entre os habitats e a sincronia das fenofases foi maior na população natural. Apesar de ser nativo de florestas inundáveis, a produção de frutos em terra firme ocorreu ao longo do ano, sugerindo que há poucas restrições para o desenvolvimento de frutos em cultivo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Flowers , Rainforest , Fruit
3.
Acta amaz ; 51(1): 1-9, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352826

ABSTRACT

In the Amazon region, agroforestry systems (AFSs) are recommended as a sustainable production alternative for local communities. A common component in Amazonian AFSs are tropical fruit trees, which can form the canopy or grow in the understory. In this study, we evaluated the effect of high radiation on photosynthesis, growth and seedling survival of four Amazonian fruit-tree species: Theobroma cacao, Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis and Psidium guajava. Growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, and leaf pigments were measured in seedlings of each species grown for 12 months inside shade houses with low (8%), medium (30%) and high relative illumination (100%). Eugenia stipitata and T. cacao had the lowest acclimation capacity to high solar radiation, followed by I. edulis. Therefore, these species must be grown under intermediate light levels in early growth stages, to protect them from direct sunlight. In contrast, P. guajava seedlings demonstrated high tolerance to elevated radiation, therefore, this species can be planted under full sunlight. (AU)


Subject(s)
Carotenoids , Chloroplasts , Photosystem II Protein Complex , Rainforest , Acclimatization
4.
Acta amaz ; 51(1): 42-51, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353179

ABSTRACT

As comunidades naturais são sistemas dinâmicos no tempo e no espaço. A distribuição espacial de plantas e animais coincide com a disponibilidade dos recursos necessários para a sobrevivência e reprodução de cada espécie. Clareiras naturais oferecem vários recursos que influenciam a distribuição de aves na floresta. Comparamos a assembleia de aves de sub-bosque de clareiras naturais (15 clareiras) com a encontrada na floresta adjacente (15 pontos) na Reserva Florestal Humaitá, no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira. Amostramos aves com redes de neblina e contabilizamos 700 capturas de 105 espécies. A riqueza de espécies, o número de indivíduos e a composição de espécies foram semelhantes entre clareiras e floresta, mas seis espécies foram mais associadas com as clareiras e nove com a floresta. Os nectarívoros preferiram significativamente clareiras à floresta, enquanto os insetívoros e frugívoros se distribuíram igualmente entre clareiras e floresta. A altura e a densidade da vegetação variaram significativamente entre clareiras e floresta e influenciaram a distribuição das espécies nos dois ambientes. A disponibilidade de frutos foi correlacionada positivamente com a abundância de frugívoros nas clareiras. Em geral, 33,3% das aves associadas às clareiras são espécies de sub-dossel e as demais de sub-bosque. Mostramos que o uso de clareiras pelas aves em uma paisagem fragmentada da Amazônia contribui para a heterogeneidade ambiental e a dinâmica de sucessão após eventos naturais de perturbação do habitat. (AU)


Subject(s)
Amazonian Ecosystem , Rainforest
5.
Acta amaz ; 51(1): 63-66, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353184

ABSTRACT

Planicapritermes Emerson, 1949 é um gênero de cupins da América do Sul com duas espécies nominais: Planicapritermes planiceps (Emerson, 1925) e Planicapritermes longilabrum Constantino, 1998. Os soldados deste gênero são caracterizados por ter mandíbulas fortemente assimétricas. Planicapritermes planiceps foi descrita com base em soldados e operários, e P. longilabrum somente em soldados. Aqui nós descrevemos e ilustramos os operários de P. longilabrum com base em espécimes coletados em Rondônia, Brasil. Também comparamos operários e soldados de P. planiceps e P. longilabrum, e descrevemos o ninho de P. planiceps.(AU)


Subject(s)
Classification , Isoptera , Rainforest
6.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 263-272, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118857

ABSTRACT

Frugivores and zoocoric trees represent an important proportion of tropical rainforest biodiversity. As niche differences favor species coexistence, we aimed to evaluate morphological and temporal niche segregation mechanisms among zoochoric trees and canopy frugivores in a tropical rainforest in the northeastern extreme of the Brazilian Amazon. We tested the effects of fruit morphology, tree size, frugivore body size and time of day on fruit consumption. We recorded the frugivore species that fed on 72 trees (44 species, 22 genera) and whether these frugivores swallowed the seeds. We monitored trees only once from 07:00 to 17:00 h between January and September 2017. We observed fruit consumption in 20 of the 72 trees. Seventy-three frugivore individuals from 22 species visited the trees. Heavier fruits were consumed by larger frugivores, while seed size was inversely correlated with frugivore size. Narrower fruits and fruits with smaller seeds had greater probability of having their seeds ingested, and larger frugivores were more prone to ingest seeds. Trees bearing fruits with smaller seeds were visited by a greater number of frugivores. Taxonomic groups differed in the time of arrival at fruiting trees. None of the evaluated variables (fruit weight and size, and seed size) affected the richness of frugivores that visited the trees. We concluded that, in the studied forest, fruit morphology (weight, size and seed size) is a niche segregation mechanism among zoochoric trees, while body size and time of day are niche segregation mechanisms among frugivores. (AU)


Subject(s)
Seed Dispersal , Rainforest , Fruit
7.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 119-123, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118269

ABSTRACT

Lophostoma carrikeri has been mostly recorded within the Amazon biome. There are scarce records in the northern Brazilian Amazon, but also records outside this biome, which were neglected in literature. The aim of this study was to update and extend the distribution of L. carrikeri. Seven new localities in Brazil were provided, including the first records for the states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, filling a large gap in the species distribution, and three additional records for the state of Pará. Our results reinforce the notion that L. carrikeri is widely distributed in the Amazon, but is also present in other biomes in Brazil, such as Caatinga, Cerrado, and transitional areas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Amazonian Ecosystem , Grassland , Rainforest
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 591-601, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146425

ABSTRACT

Understanding the influence of fragmentation on the behavior of forest essential elements in different vegetation formations is fundamental for the definition of conservation strategies. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the influence of the edge environment on the phytosociological structure of a fragment of Open Ombrophylous Forest, in Rio Largo, Alagoas. Five transects of 10.0 x 100.0 m were subdivided into ten 10.0 x 10.0 m plots to collect the data. All tree individuals with Chest Height Circumference ≥ 15 cm were sampled, measured and later identified in the herbarium of the Institute of the Environment of Alagoas. For the analysis, the phytosociological parameters Shannon-Wiener diversity (H'), Pielou equability (J') were calculated after defined the successional classes and dispersion syndromes of the species sampled. The edge effect was analyzed by comparing the richness, diversity, equability and number of individuals in the interior and at the edge of the fragment, using the Venn diagram technique. There were 581 arboreal individuals, of which 434 were identified as belonging to 20 families, 24 genera and 30 morphospecies. Among the raised species, there were higher occurrences of early secondary (46.67%) and late (23.33%), as well as those of zoocoric dispersion (53.33%). The diversity was 2.89 nats/ind., and the Pielou (J') equability was 0.8497. The edge environment did not influence the establishment of species. This may have occurred due to the environmental characteristics of the open ombrophylous forest.


Compreender a influência da fragmentação sobre o comportamento das essências florestais em diferentes formações vegetacionais é fundamental para que se possa definir estratégias de conservação. Neste trabalho,objetivou-se de avaliar a influência do ambiente de borda sobre estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, em Rio Largo, Alagoas. Para a coleta dos dados foram alocados cinco transectos de 10,0 x 100,0 m, subdivididos em dez parcelas de 10,0 x 10,0 m. Foram amostrados todos osindivíduos arbóreos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito ≥ 15 cm, que foram mensurados e posteriormente identificados no herbário do Instituto do Meio Ambiente de Alagoas. Para a análise foram calculados osparâmetros fitossociológicos, a diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H'), a equabilidade de Pielou (J'), definidas as classes sucessionais e síndromes de dispersão das espécies amostradas. O efeito de borda foi analisado por meio de comparação da riqueza, diversidade, equabilidade e número de indivíduos no interior e na borda do fragmento, empregando-se a técnica diagrama de Venn. Foram registrados 581 indivíduos arbóreos, dos quais 434 foram identificados como pertencentes a 20 famílias, 24 gêneros e 30 morfoespécies. Entre as espécies levantadas, houve maior ocorrência de secundárias iniciais (46,67%) e tardias (23,33%), assim como de dispersão zoocórica (53,33%). A diversidade foi de 2,89 nats/ind., e a equabilidade de Pielou (J') foi de 0,8497. O ambiente de borda não influenciou no estabelecimento de espécies. Isso pode ter ocorrido em virtude das características da floresta ombrófila aberta.


Subject(s)
Brazil , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Rainforest , Trees , Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Plant Development
9.
Acta amaz ; 50(1): 12-23, jan. - mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118550

ABSTRACT

Rainfall is one of the most influential factors driving insect seasonality in the Amazon region. However, few studies have analyzed the temporal dynamics of fruit-feeding butterflies in the Brazilian Amazon, specially in its eastern portion. Here, we evaluated the diversity patterns and temporal distribution of fruit-feeding butterflies in a remnant of eastern Amazon forest in the Baixada Maranhense, northeastern Brazil. Specifically, we tested whether fruit-feeding butterflies are temporally structured and whether rainfall influences species richness and abundance. Butterflies were collected with baited traps in both the rainy and dry seasons for two consecutive years. In total, we captured 493 butterflies belonging to 28 species, 15 genera and eight tribes. Three species comprised about half of the overall abundance, and Satyrinae was the most representative subfamily. The fruit-feeding butterfly assemblage showed a strong temporal structure during the second year of sampling, but not during the first year. Species composition and richness did not differ between rainy and dry seasons, and neither abundance nor richness was influenced by rainfall. Our results indicate that seasonality is not a strong environmental filter in this region, and that other biotic and abiotic factors are probably driving the community structure. The predominance of palms in the Baixada Maranhense, which are used as host plants by larvae of several lepidopteran species (specially satyrines) and are available year-round, might have contributed to the observed patterns of temporal diversity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Seasons , Butterflies , Amazonian Ecosystem , Rainforest
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e022419, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092691

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of diseases transmitted by Amblyomma ovale in 61 dogs monitored for three years through collections of ticks and blood, interviews, telemetry and camera traps in three areas of Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil. Blood samples were used to investigate infection by Rangelia vitalii by real-time TaqMan PCR and Rickettsia parkeri by IIFA. The collected ticks were submitted to conventional PCR to investigate the presence of R. parkeri . These data were compared with the monitoring results and interviews with the owners. Dogs considered as companion presented a risk of infection by R. parkeri strain Mata Atlantica 5.4 times higher than those not considered as companion (p = 0.009). Dogs that had at least one A. ovale collected during the campaigns had a 10 times higher risk of infection by R. parkeri strain Mata Atlantica than those who did not (p = 0.009). One dog positive for R. vitalii by real-time TaqMan PCR was parasitized by A. ovale frequently during monitoring. Sequenced ompaA - positive DNA samples had 100% identity of R. parkeri strain Mata Atlantica clone As106. From the findings, it is urgent to control domestic dogs around rainforests to reduce zoonoses transmission.


Resumo A ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por Amblyomma ovale em 61 cães monitorados por três anos através de coletas de carrapatos, sangue, entrevistas, telemetria e armadilhas fotográficas foi avaliada em três áreas do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - SP. Amostras de sangue foram utilizadas para investigação de Rangelia vitalii através de PCR TaqMan em tempo real e Rickettsia parkeri através da RIFI. Carrapatos coletados foram submetidos à PCR convencional para investigação de R. parkeri . Estes dados foram comparados considerando os resultados do monitoramento e entrevistas. Cães de companhia apresentaram risco de infecção pela R. parkeri cepa Mata Atlântica 5,4 vezes maior que os não considerados como de companhia (p = 0,009). Cães que tiveram pelo menos um A. ovale coletado apresentaram risco de infecção por R. parkeri cepa Mata Atlântica 10 vezes maior do que aqueles que não tiveram (p = 0,009). Um cão positivo para R. vitalii através de PCR TaqMan em tempo real foi parasitado por A. ovale durante o monitoramento. Amostras positivas para o gene ompaA possuíam 100% de identidade do clone As106 de R. parkeri cepa de Mata Atlântica. Assim, é urgente o controle de cães na Mata Atlântica para redução dos riscos de zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Ixodidae/microbiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Rickettsia/classification , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Telemetry , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Rainforest
11.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 316-323, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118962

ABSTRACT

Overexploitation is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss and local extinction. In the Brazilian Amazon, the intensive use of high-value timber species is leading to a decline in their populations. When in decline, these species can be replaced by less valuable and more common ones that are more feasible to exploit. We conducted interviews with residents of two communities in a sustainable development reserve in central Amazonia, and used free lists and the cognitive salience index (S) to assess the perceptions of residents regarding the occurrence and purpose of timber exploitation, and to identify possible endangered species in white-sand and terra-firme forests. In addition, to infer possible consequences of logging, we assessed the current population status of timber species cited by residents in forest-plot inventories carried out within the reserve. S-index values and interviewee reports suggested an intensive use of terra-firme timber species and an apparently recent increase in the exploitation of white-sand species, which did not use to be exploited because of their relatively low commercial value. The inventories showed that the white-sand timber species have high relative densities and low S values in contrast to the terra-firme species, which mostly have low relative densities and high S values. Our results highlight the need to identify and monitor relevant timber species in both terra-firme and white-sand forests, and to increase the involvement of the local community in the development of logging management practices. (AU)


Subject(s)
Lumber Industry/adverse effects , Amazonian Ecosystem , Natural Resources Exploitation , Rainforest
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 521-526, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the foundation of the Malacological Center in 1980, Universidad Centro Americana (UCA), Managua-Nicaragua, has been monitoring and collecting the marine, terrestrial, fluvial and lake mollusk population of the country. Many specimens have been photographed by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), and in one of these, observation of the hairy periostracum reveals a seemingly thriving population of minute protists in possible symbiosis with their host. Adequate magnification and comparison with previous studies allowed the determination of these hosts as diatoms, testaceous amoebae, yeast, phacus, spores and other undetermined organisms which occur in tropical forests on rocks, trees and leaves. Here illustrated are diatoms and other organisms detected for the first time on the periostracum of a tropical rainforest mollusk.


Resumo Desde a fundação do Centro Malacológico em 1980, a Universidad Central Americana (UCA), Manágua-Nicarágua, vem acompanhando e coletando a população de moluscos marinhos, terrestres, fluviais e lagoas do país. Muitos espécimes foram fotografados pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura (SEM) e, em um deles, a observação do periostracum peludo revela uma população aparentemente próspera de protistas de minuto em possível simbiose com o hospedeiro. A ampliação adequada e a comparação com estudos anteriores permitem a determinação dessas diatomáceas, amebas testaceas, leveduras, phacus, esporos e outros organismos indeterminados que ocorrem em florestas tropicais em rochas, árvores e folhas. Aqui estão as diatomeas e outros organismos pela primeira vez detectados no periostracum de um molusco tropical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/physiology , Symbiosis , Diatoms/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Diatoms/classification , Rainforest , Nicaragua
13.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0232019, 2019. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1024605

ABSTRACT

Rust, caused by the biotrophic fungus Olivea neotectonae, stands out as an important disease in teak plantations in Brazil. Considering the current importance of this rust and the need to obtain additional basic information about its causal agent to better disease management, the present study aimed to analyze the morphology of O. neotectonae using light microscopy and demonstrate the infection process in teak leaves using scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). The morphological characteristics observed using light microscopy were similar to those described in the literature for this species. SEM revealed that the infection structures of the pathogen penetrated the teak leaf through the stomata complex. This study provides the first microscopic evidence of the infection process of Olivea neotectonae in leaves of teak plants.(AU)


A ferrugem, causada pelo fungo biotrófico Olivea neotectonae, destaca-se como uma doença importante nas plantações de teca no Brasil. Considerando a importância atual dessa ferrugem e a necessidade de obter informações básicas adicionais sobre seu agente causal para melhor manejo da doença, o presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a morfologia da O. neotectonae utilizando microscopia de luz e demonstrar o processo de infecção em folhas de teca por meio de técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). As características morfológicas observadas em microscopia de luz foram semelhantes às descritas na literatura para essa espécie. A MEV revelou que as estruturas de infecção do patógeno penetraram na folha de teca através do complexo estomático. Este estudo fornece a primeira evidência microscópica do processo de infecção de Olivea neotectonae em folhas de plantas de teca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control , Rainforest , Fungi , Plant Diseases , Microscopy, Electron/methods
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 420-422, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Espírito Santo state (southeastern Brazil) is considered an endemic area for spotted fever group rickettsioses. In February 2017, we received in our laboratory seven unfed Amblyomma ovale adult ticks collected by a farmer from his clothes and body (not attached) during a working day in the rural area of Ibiraçu municipality, Espírito Santo state. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial genes, the DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 6/7 (85.7%) A. ovale. In all cases, DNA sequencing of PCR products revealed that consensus sequences of both genes were 100% identical to gltA and ompA corresponding sequences of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest retrieved from GenBank. This study reports the first molecular detection of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale ticks from Espírito Santo state. Our findings indicate a new Brazilian state in the southeast region at risk of human infection with this tick-borne emerging rickettsial agent.


Resumo O estado do Espírito Santo (Sudeste do Brasil) é considerado área endêmica para riquetsioses do Grupo Febre Maculosa. Em fevereiro de 2017, recebemos em nosso laboratório sete carrapatos adultos Amblyomma ovale não ingurgitados, coletados por um fazendeiro nas suas roupas e corpo (não fixadas) durante um dia de trabalho, em área rural do municipio de Ibiraçu, estado do Espírito Santo. Por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), amplificando os genes riquetsiais gltA e ompA , foi detectado ADN de Rickettsia em 6/7 (85,7%) dos A. ovale . O sequenciamento dos produtos de PCR indicou que as sequências consenso de ambos genes foram 100% idênticos às sequências correspondentes dos genes gltA e ompA da Rickettsia sp. cepa Mata Atlântica recuperadas do GenBank. Este estudo relata a primeira detecção molecular da Rickettsia sp. cepa Mata Atlântica em carrapatos A. ovale do estado do Espírito Santo. Nossos resultados apontam um novo estado brasileiro da região Sudeste com risco de infecção humana por este agente rickettsial emergente transmitido por carrapatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rickettsia/genetics , Ticks/microbiology , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rickettsia Infections/transmission , Rural Population , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Rainforest
15.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(2): 200-209, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959211

ABSTRACT

Objective: The harmful use of psychoactive substances represents one of today's largest public health problems. Yet, in spite of its global relevance, current treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) is still not entirely successful. The purpose of this study was to investigate alternative treatments and conceptions from traditional Amazonian medicine adapted to SUDs. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 practicing experts at a well-established addiction treatment center in the Peruvian Amazon and performed qualitative content analysis on the collected data. Main categories were deductively defined and corresponding subcategories inductively developed. Results: Our findings revealed characteristic features and consequences, causes and antecedents, and treatment methods of SUDs as the main categories. Overall, concepts of disease etiology bore resemblance with contemporary biopsychosocial models of SUDs. The Amazonian therapeutic means however differed markedly from current Western ones. The main methods involved dietary retreats, healing ceremonies, and purging rituals. The integral application of Amazonian methods, as well as their traditional implementation according to prescribed ritual protocols, were emphasized by the experts as crucial for efficacy and safety of treatment delivery. Conclusion: We suggest further scientific attention to these therapies, including clinical studies, for which our results provide conceptual underpinnings. Findings from this research expand the cross-cultural understanding of SUDs and, in the long run, may enhance its treatment options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Peru , Plants, Medicinal , Complementary Therapies , Interviews as Topic , Rainforest
16.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 9-20, jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904961

ABSTRACT

Chilean temperate rainforests have unique climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions, constituting pre-industrial blueprint ecosystems. Mycorrhizal associations play a central role in the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems´ functioning. Baseline forest ecology studies are necessary in order to better understand diversity patterns, specifically regarding mycorrhizal symbiosis. Therefore, here we describe the vegetation characteristics and the mycorrhizal relationships of vascular plants in a Nothofagus pumilio forest. We also describe, via morphological methods, the ectomycorrhizal diversity present in this forest. Additionally, we determined whether ectomycorrhizal inoculation confers positive growth effects on N. pumilio seedlings. We found that from 46 vascular plant species identified in this study, 42 (91%) were mycorrhizal and of these 33 (72%) were associated with arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), two (the dominant trees N. pumilio and N. dombeyi) were forming ectomycorrhizae (EM), five were associated with ericoid mycorrhizae, two with orchid mycorrhizae, and four were nonmycorrhizal. Additionally, 26 EM species were detected of which 15 belong to Cortinarius. Finally, there were clear differences in the growth of N. pumilio seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata compared to noninoculated plants. We suggest that mycorrhizal fungi play a key role in seedling colonization of harsh environments such as the Andean treeline.


Los bosques templados lluviosos de Chile tienen condiciones climáticas, edáficas y bióticas únicas, constituyendo ecosistemas preindustriales modelo. Las asociaciones micorrízicas juegan un rol central en los procesos biogeoquímicos del funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas. Por lo tanto, en este estudio describimos las características de la vegetación y las relaciones micorrízicas de las plantas vasculares de un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio. También describimos, vía métodos morfológicos, la diversidad ectomicorrízica presente en este bosque. Adicionalmente, determinamos si inoculaciones ectomicorrízicas confieren efectos de crecimiento positivos a semilleros de N. pumilio. Encontramos que, de 46 especies de plantas vasculares identificadas en este estudio, 42 (91%) son micorrízicas, y de estas, 33 (72%) están formando micorrizas arbusculares (AM), dos (los árboles dominantes N. pumilio y N. dombeyi) están asociados con ectomicorrizas (EM), cinco están asociadas con micorrizas ericoides, dos con micorrizas orquioides, y cuatro fueron nomicorrizadas. Adicionalmente, 26 especies de EM fueron detectadas, de las cuales 15 pertenecen a Cortinarius. Finalmente, hubo claras diferencias en el crecimiento de los semilleros de N. pumilio inoculados con el hongo ectomicorrízico Laccaria laccata, comparados a plantas no inoculadas. Sugerimos que los hongos micorrízicos juegan un rol clave en la colonización de ambientes severos por juveniles, como en el límite altitudinal andino.


Subject(s)
Mycorrhizae/cytology , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Rainforest , Chile , Cortinarius , Symbiosis , Temperate Climate
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 17-30, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886891

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Associating description of unrecorded tropical tree community structure to sampling approaches that can help determine mechanisms behind floristic variation is important to further the comprehension of how plant species coexist at tropical forests. Thus, this study had the goals of (i) evaluating tree community structure on the continental island of Marambaia (23°4'37.09"S; 43°59'2.15"W) and (ii) testing the prediction that there are local scale changes in a tropical tree community structure between slopes facing different geographic orientation and with distinct human interference history. We established 60 (0.6 ha) sampling units in three different slope sites with distinct predominant geographic orientation and human interference. We sampled all woody trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 5 cm. We found a total of 1.170 individuals representing 220 species, 120 genera and 50 families. The overall tree community structure and structural descriptors (abundance of individuals, basal area, species richness and diversity) varied extensively between the sites. The evidence presented here supports that local scale topography variations and human interference history can be important factors contributing to the known floristic heterogeneity of the Atlantic Rainforest. Future work on the study area should focus on disentangling effects from distinct causal factors over tree community variation and species occurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trees/classification , Biodiversity , Rainforest , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Population Density , Biomass
18.
Acta amaz ; 48(1): 10-17, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885982

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Planting of forest species of timber interest helps to reduce the deforestation pressure on the Amazon forest, promotes sustainable development of the producing region and generates ecological benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival rate and growth of four native (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia) and one exotic (Acacia mangium) species in monospecific plantations (spacing of 2 x 2 m) established on areas previously used for grazing, in Itacoatiara, State of Amazonas, Brazil. When the trees were four years old, we collected biometric data [height at 1.30 m (DBH, cm), crown projection area (CPA, m2), total height (Ht, m), commercial cylinder volume (Vcyl, m3 ha-1)], and qualitative data from visual diagnosis [survival rate (S, %), nutritional status (NS, G = good, D = deficient, %), and phytosanitary status (PS, S = satisfactory, N = non-satisfactory, %)]. Three plots of 128 m2, with 32 plants each, were evaluated for each species. Jacaranda copaia, followed by Dipteryx odorata and Parkia decussata, were the recommended species for planting in areas with edaphoclimatic conditions similar to those of the present work, due to their better performance according to most of the variables.


RESUMO Plantios de espécies florestais de interesse madeireiro contribuem para diminuir a pressão sobre a floresta amazônica, proporcionam o desenvolvimento sustentável na região e geram benefícios ecológicos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento de quatro espécies nativas (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata e Jacaranda copaia) e uma exótica (Acacia mangium), em plantios monoespecíficos (espaçamento de 2 x 2 m) estabelecidos em áreas anteriormente ocupadas por pastagem, em Itacoatiara, Amazonas. Aos quatro anos de idade, foram obtidos dados biométricos [diâmetro à altura de 1,30 m do solo (DBH, cm), área de projeção de copa (CPA, m2), altura total (Ht, m), volume comercial do cilindro (Vcyl, m3 ha-1)], e dados qualitativos obtidos por diagnose visual [taxa de sobrevivência (S; %), estado nutricional (NS, G: bom; D: deficiente; %) e estado fitossanitário (PS, S: satisfatório; NS: não-satisfatório; %). Para cada espécie considerou-se três parcelas de 128 m2, cada uma com 32 plantas. Jacaranda copaia, seguida de Dipteryx odorata e Parkia decussata, foram as espécies mais recomendadas para o plantio em áreas com condições edafoclimáticas semelhantes às do presente trabalho, devido ao seu melhor desempenho para a maioria das variáveis.


Subject(s)
Rainforest , Forestry
19.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 35(3): e0068, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990755

ABSTRACT

Resumo Na Amazônia brasileira, as dinâmicas de urbanização e conversão florestal possuem lógicas complexas, dependentes de fatores e agentes atuando em diferentes escalas. Este artigo explora a evolução espacial e temporal da urbanização e da conversão florestal na Amazônia, a partir de elementos mensuráveis presentes nestes processos: a expansão urbana, dimensão observável dos processos de urbanização; e o desmatamento, uma medida dos processos de conversão florestal. A identificação de padrões espaço-temporais similares, avaliados quanto às tendências de evolução temporal do grau de urbanização e incremento de desmatamento em 2000, 2010 e 2014, foi base para a proposta de uma tipologia das relações entre expansão urbana e desmatamento para os estados da Amazônia Legal e municípios do Pará. O estudo explorou também as relações entre expansão urbana e desmatamento, com uso de regressões geograficamente ponderadas (GWR), observando duas unidades espaciais de análise para o estado do Pará: os limites municipais e uma grade celular (20x20km). Esta abordagem multiescalar evidenciou a dificuldade de se estabelecerem relações conclusivas quanto à co-ocorrência, ou concordância, da evolução dos processos de urbanização e conversão florestal. Os resultados contribuem para o estabelecimento de uma agenda sobre modelos de desenvolvimento regional que retome o urbano como essencial para uma Amazônia socialmente justa e ambientalmente responsável.


Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, dynamics of urbanization and forest conversion have complex logics, and are dependent on factors and agents operating at different levels. This article explores the spatial and temporal evolution of urbanization and forest conversion in the Amazon region from measurable elements present in these processes: urban expansion, observable dimensions of urbanization processes, and deforestation, a measure of forest conversion processes. The identification of similar spatiotemporal patterns, evaluated according to trends in the evolution of the degree of urbanization and the increase of deforestation in the years 2000, 2010 and 2014, was the basis for proposing a typology of relation between urban expansion and deforestation for the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon and municipalities of Pará State. The study also explored the relation between urban expansion and deforestation, using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), observing two spatial units of analysis for Pará State: the municipal boundaries and a regular grid (20x20km). This multiscale approach evidenced the difficulty in establishing conclusive relationships regarding co-occurrence, or agreement, between the evolution of urbanization and forest conversion processes. Our results aim to establish an agenda on regional development models which take the urban phenomenon as essential for a socially just and environmentally responsible Amazon.


Resumen En la Amazonia brasileña las dinámicas de urbanización y conversión selvática poseen lógicas complejas que dependen de factores y agentes que actúan en diferentes escalas. Este artículo explora la evolución espacial y temporal de la urbanización y la conversión selvática en la Amazonia a partir de elementos mensurables presentes en estos procesos: la expansión urbana, dimensión observable de los procesos de urbanización, y la deforestación, una medida de los procesos de conversión selvática. La identificación de patrones espaciotemporales similares, evaluados en cuanto a las tendencias de evolución temporal del grado de urbanización y del incremento de deforestación en los años 2000, 2010 y 2014 fueron la base para la propuesta de una tipología de las relaciones entre expansión urbana y deforestación para los municipios del Pará. El estudio exploró también las relaciones entre expansión urbana y deforestación, mediante el uso de la regresión geográficamente ponderada (GWR), observando dos unidades espaciales de análisis para el Pará: los límites municipales y una rejilla con celdas (20x20km). Este enfoque multiescalar evidenció la dificultad para establecer relaciones concluyentes en cuanto a la coocurrencia, o la concordancia, entre los procesos de urbanización y conversión selvática. Los resultados contribuyen al establecimiento de una agenda sobre modelos de desarrollo regional que retome lo urbano como esencial para una Amazonia socialmente justa y ambientalmente responsable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urbanization , Forests , Amazonian Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources , Spatial Analysis , Brazil , Demography , Population Growth , Cities , Censuses , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Rainforest
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 610-611, Oct.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889168

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The strain BR 3351T (Bradyrhizobium manausense) was obtained from nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) growing in soil collected from Amazon rainforest. Furthermore, it was observed that the strain has high capacity to fix nitrogen symbiotically in symbioses with cowpea. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain BR 3351T. The information presented will be important for comparative analysis of nodulation and nitrogen fixation for diazotrophic bacteria. A draft genome with 9,145,311 bp and 62.9% of GC content was assembled in 127 scaffolds using 100 bp pair-end Illumina MiSeq system. The RAST annotation identified 8603 coding sequences, 51 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems.


Subject(s)
Bradyrhizobium/isolation & purification , Genome, Bacterial , Symbiosis , Vigna/microbiology , Base Composition , Bradyrhizobium/classification , Bradyrhizobium/genetics , Bradyrhizobium/physiology , Brazil , Rainforest , Root Nodules, Plant/microbiology
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