Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 463
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285632

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Introduced Species , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Ecosystem , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 674-683, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153384

ABSTRACT

Abstract The principle and the techniques applied in DNA extraction play a pivotal role in the obtention of a purified genetic material. The present study investigates the efficiency of eight protocols in the DNA extraction of Hypostomus commersoni, an essential component of South American freshwater ichthyofauna. The quality of samples was assessed through spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis, and PCR-RAPD markers amplification. The efficiency of DNA extraction was influenced both by the method applied and the target-tissue of choice. Higher concentrations and yield of DNA were obtained from ocular tissue, with a positive spectrum of incubation in lysis buffer for up to 36 hours after sample collection, using fresh tissues and in the presence of a high concentration of Proteinase K (20 mg.ml-1). In these conditions, samples were successfully amplified. To date, there is no record of description for the parameters analyzed in this work, neither the description of RAPD markers for the species H. commersoni.


Resumo Os princípios e as técnicas aplicadas na extração de DNA desempenham um papel crucial na obtenção de material genético purificado. O presente estudo investiga a eficiência de oito protocolos na extração de DNA de Hypostomus commersoni, um importante componente ictiofaunístico de riachos da América do Sul. A qualidade das amostras foi avaliada por espectrofotometria, eletroforese em gel e amplificação por marcadores de PCR-RAPD. A eficiência da extração de DNA foi influenciada tanto pelo método aplicado quanto pelo tecido-alvo de escolha. Maiores concentrações e rendimento de DNA foram obtidos a partir do tecido ocular, com um espectro positivo de incubação em tampão de lise por até 36 horas após a coleta da amostra, utilizando tecidos frescos e na presença de alta concentração de proteinase K (20 mg.ml-1). Nestas condições, as amostras foram amplificadas com sucesso. Até o momento, não há registro de descrição para os parâmetros analisados neste trabalho, nem a descrição de marcadores RAPD para a espécie H. commersoni.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/genetics , DNA/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Genomics
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 351-360, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153372

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common infection among hospitalized patients, associated with increased levels of morbidity, mortality and attributable health care costs. Increased resistant Pseudomonas worldwide has been quite meaningful to patients, especially in intensive care unit (ICUs). Different species of Pseudomonas exhibit different genetic profile and varied drug resistance. The present study determines the molecular epidemiology through DNA fingerprinting method and drug resistance of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with LTRIs admitted in ICU. A total of 79 P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU were characterized by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Repetitive Extrapalindromic PCR (REP-PCR). Antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay while MDR genes, viz, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 137 Pseudomonas sp isolated from ICU patients, 57.7% of the isolates were reported to be P. aeruginosa. The overall prevalence of P. aeruginosa among the all included patients was 34.5%. The RAPD analysis yielded 45 different patterns with 72 clusters with 57% to 100% similarity level. The RFLP analysis yielded 8 different patterns with 14 clusters with 76% to 100% similarity level. The REP PCR analysis yielded 37 different patterns with 65 clusters with 56% to 100% similarity level. There was no correlation among the different DNA patterns observed between the three different methods. Predominant of the isolates (46.8%) were resistant to amikacin. Of the 79 isolates, 60.8% were positive for blaTEM gene and 39.2% were positive for blaOXA gene. P. aeruginosa was predominantly isolated from patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU. The difference in the similarity level observed between the three DNA fingerprinting methods indicates that there is high inter-strain variability. The high genetic variability and resistance patterns indicates that we should continuously monitor the trend in the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa especially in patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU.


Infecções do trato respiratório inferior (ITRIs) são as infecções mais comuns entre pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Pseudomonas aeruginosa é a causa mais comum de ITRIs e está associada ao aumento da mortalidade. Diferentes espécies de Pseudomonas exibem diferentes perfis genéticos e resistência variada as drogas. O presente estudo determina a epidemiologia molecular através do método de fingerprinting de DNA e resistência as drogas de P. aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes com LTRIs internados em UTI. Um total de 79 P. aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI foram caracterizados por Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos de Restrição (RFLP), DNA Polimórfico Amplificado ao Acaso (RAPD) e PCR Extrapalindrômico Repetitivo (REP-PCR). A resistência aos antibióticos foram determinadas pelos ensaios de concentrações inibitória mínima (MIC), enquanto os genes MDR, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 foram detectados pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Das 137 Pseudomonas sp isoladas de pacientes de UTI, 57,7% dos isolados foram relatados como P. aeruginosa. A prevalência geral de P. aeruginosa entre os pacientes incluídos foram de 34,5%. A análise RAPD renderam 45 padrões diferentes com 72 clusters com nível de similaridade de 57% a 100%. A análise RFLP renderam 8 padrões diferentes com 14 clusters com 76% a 100% de similaridade. A análise de PCR do REP produziram 37 padrões diferentes com 65 clusters com nível de similaridade de 56% a 100%. Não houveram correlações entre os diferentes padrões de DNA observados entre os três diferentes métodos. Predominantes dos isolados (46,8%) eram resistentes à amicacina. Dos 79 isolados, 60,8% foram positivos para o gene blaTEM e 39,2% foram positivos para o gene blaOXA. P. aeruginosa foi predominantemente isolado de pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI. A diferença no nível de similaridade observado entre os três métodos de fingerprinting do DNA indica que há alta variabilidade inter-strain. A alta variabilidade genética e os padrões de resistência indicam que devemos monitorar continuamente a tendência na prevalência e resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa, especialmente em pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory System/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Epidemiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Intensive Care Units
4.
Biol. Res ; 53: 37, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soil salinity causes huge economic losses to agriculture productivity in arid and semiarid areas world-wide. The affected plants face disturbances in osmotic adjustment, nutrient transport, ionic toxicity and reduced photosynthesis. Conventional breeding approaches produce little success in combating various stresses in plants. However, non-conventional approaches, such as in vitro tissue culturing, produce genetic variability in the development of salt-tolerant plants, particularly in woody trees. RESULTS: Embryogenic callus cultures of the date palm cultivar Khalas were subjected to various salt levels ranging from 0 to 300 mM in eight subcultures. The regenerants obtained from the salt-treated cultures were regenerated and evaluated using the same concentration of NaCl with which the calli were treated. All the salt-adapted (SA) regenerants showed improved growth characteristics, physiological performance, ion concentrations and K+/Na+ ratios than the salt non-adapted (SNA) regenerants and the control. Regression between the leaf Na+ concentration and net photosynthesis revealed an inverse nonlinear correlation in the SNA regenerants. Leaf K+ contents and stomatal conductance showed a strong linear relationship in SA regenerants compared with the inverse linear correlation, and a very poor coefficient of determination in SNA regenerants. The genetic fidelity of the selected SA regenerants was also tested using 36 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, of which 26 produced scorable bands. The primers generated 1-10 bands, with an average of 5.4 bands per RAPD primer; there was no variation between SA regenerants and the negative control. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the variants generated from salt-stressed cultures and their potential adaptation to salinity in date palm cv. Khalas. The massive production of salt stress-adapted date palm plants may be much easier using the salt adaptation approach. Such plants can perform better during exposure to salt stress compared to the non-treated date palm plants.


Subject(s)
Salt Tolerance/genetics , Phoeniceae/genetics , Acclimatization , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Salinity
5.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 5(2): 14-24, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146847

ABSTRACT

Justificación:El estudio de los polimorfismos de las regiones hipervariables I y II (HVI y HVII) del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt) se ha convertido en una herramienta invaluable para la ciencia forense, ya que enalgunas ocasionesun determinadoindividuopuedepresentar más de un tipo de ADNmitocondrial,este fenómeno es conocido como Heteroplasmia. Lacoexistencia de dos o más poblaciones de ADNmt puedeocurrir enuna sola mitocondria, célula oindividuo, lo que puede aumentar la complejidad en la interpretación de los resultados de las experticias forenses. Objetivos:Analizar la frecuencia de la heteroplasmia en las regiones HVI y HVII del genoma mitocondrialen una muestra de la población de Maracaibo. Metodología:Seseleccionaron al azar 50 muestras de ADN de la población de Maracaibo, las regiones hipervariables se amplificaron mediantereacción en cadena de la polimerasa, posteriormente se secuenciaron mediante método de Sanger y los fragmentos se separaron por electroforesis capilar, se reportaron las diferencias con respecto a la secuencia de referencia de Cambridge. Resultados: El 26% de las muestras presentaron heteroplasmia en la región HVI, el 52%en la región HVII.Conclusiones:El hecho deaparecer laheteroplas-miaen una determinadasecuencianoinválida el uso del análisis del ADN mitocondrial con fines forenses, dependiendo de la complejidad del caso a peritar,la heteroplasmia puede ser de gran ayuda...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , DNA, Mitochondrial , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Forensic Genetics/methods
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812034

ABSTRACT

"Wu zhu yu", which is obtained from the dried unripe fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Jussieu) T. G. Hartley, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of headaches, abdominal colic, and hypertension for thousands of years. The present study was designed to assess the molecular genetic diversity among 25 collected accessions of T. ruticarpum (Wu zhu yu in Chinese) from different areas of China, based on inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Thirteen ISSR primers generated 151 amplification bands, of which 130 were polymorphic. Out of 165 bands that were amplified using 10 iPBS primers, 152 were polymorphic. The iPBS markers displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci (PPL = 92.5%) than the ISSR markers (PPL = 84.9%). The results showed that T. ruticarpum possessed high loci polymorphism and genetic differentiation occurred in this plant. The combined data of iPBS and ISSR markers scored on 25 accessions produced five clusters that approximately matched the geographic distribution of the species. The results indicated that both iPBS and ISSR markers were reliable and effective tools for analyzing the genetic diversity in T. ruticarpum.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Binding Sites , DNA Fingerprinting , DNA Primers , Metabolism , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Evodia , Classification , Genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Terminal Repeat Sequences , Genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771681

ABSTRACT

Based on the literature data in CNKI, data mining and analysis technologies were used in this paper to describe the scientific research and development direction of Pharmacognosy in the last decade from the perspective of bibliometrics. The analysis of measured data revealed the core research institutions, excellent research teams, leading scholars, major research aspects and research progress in the field. Results showed that most of the scholars in the field were from colleges and institutions, accounting for 74.6% of the total research findings and forming a group of core scholars. In terms of frequency and timeliness of citation, pharmacognosy is a discipline in sustained growth and development since it mainly cites the literature in the other disciplines, absorbs and utilizes knowledge of the other disciplines. Over the last few years, molecular identification and genetic diversity have become the research hotspots in pharmacognosy, and the techniques and methods such as ISSR, RAPD, DNA barcoding and DNA molecular marker have been widely used.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , China , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Data Mining , Pharmacognosy , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Research
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773644

ABSTRACT

"Wu zhu yu", which is obtained from the dried unripe fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Jussieu) T. G. Hartley, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of headaches, abdominal colic, and hypertension for thousands of years. The present study was designed to assess the molecular genetic diversity among 25 collected accessions of T. ruticarpum (Wu zhu yu in Chinese) from different areas of China, based on inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Thirteen ISSR primers generated 151 amplification bands, of which 130 were polymorphic. Out of 165 bands that were amplified using 10 iPBS primers, 152 were polymorphic. The iPBS markers displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci (PPL = 92.5%) than the ISSR markers (PPL = 84.9%). The results showed that T. ruticarpum possessed high loci polymorphism and genetic differentiation occurred in this plant. The combined data of iPBS and ISSR markers scored on 25 accessions produced five clusters that approximately matched the geographic distribution of the species. The results indicated that both iPBS and ISSR markers were reliable and effective tools for analyzing the genetic diversity in T. ruticarpum.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Binding Sites , DNA Fingerprinting , DNA Primers , Metabolism , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Evodia , Classification , Genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Terminal Repeat Sequences , Genetics
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 6-11, nov. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021043

ABSTRACT

Background: Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plant, which has long been used for the prevention and treatment of hepatic diseases. This study aimed to genetically characterize the varieties of P. chinense from different geographic localities of China by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique and verified with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results: The P. chinense samples were collected from nine different geographic localities. Previously improved RAPD and ISSR markers were utilized for genetic analysis using DNA amplification. The genetic relationship dendrogram was obtained by conducting cluster analysis to the similarity coefficient of improved RAPD and ISSR markers. Improved RAPD yielded 185 scorable amplified products, of which 68.6% of the bands were polymorphic, with an average amplification of 9.25 bands per primer. The ISSR markers revealed 156 alleles with 7.8 bands per primers, where 59.7% bands were polymorphic. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient ranges of RAPD and ISSR markers were 0.71­0.91 and 0.66­0.89, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Magnoliopsida/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , China , DNA, Plant/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Microsatellite Repeats , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(2): 181-187, abr.- jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846978

ABSTRACT

Finding association between molecular markers and agronomic traits provide an excellent tool for indirect selection of a trait of interest in the population. In this study, stepwise regression analysis was used to estimate associations between ISSR and RAPD markers with some agronomic traits in lemon balm ecotypes. The analysis of results revealed significant associations between the traits and some of the studied loci. For all the traits, more than one informative marker was detected. Totally,90informative markers, including 48 ISSR loci and 42 RAPD loci, were identified. The SA-R-10, UBC826-1, UBC812-9, UBC813-10, UBC825-4, OPA-01-15, OPC-04-7 and CS-56-8 markers or fragment showed a significant correlation with Essential oil percentage and controlled 99.8% of the phenotypic variation. These markers are relatively more reliable. Among the RAPD primers, special attention should be drawn to primer SA-R, which had the highest associated fragments with the traits including days for 50% flowering, number of branches per plant, fresh weight and dry weight. Some of ISSR and RAPD markers were associated with more than one trait in multiple regression analysis that may be due to pleiotropic effect of the linked quantitative trait locus on different traits or its linkage to different genes. These primers have been found useful for improved lemon balm.


Encontrar associação entre marcadores moleculares e traços agronômicos é uma excelente ferramenta para seleção indireta de um traço de interesse na população. Neste estudo, foi utilizada a análise de regressão stepwise para estimar associações entre marcadores ISSR e RAPD com algumas características agronômicas em ecótipos de erva cidreira. A análise dos resultados revelou associações significativas entre os traços e alguns dos loci estudados. Para todos os traços mais de um marcador informativo foi detectado. Foram identificados 90 marcadores informativos, incluindo 48 loci ISSR e 42 loci RAPD. Os marcadoresou fragmentos SA-R-10, UBC826-1, UBC812-9, UBC813-10, UBC825-4, OPA-01-15, OPC-04-7 e CS-56-8 mostraram uma correlação significativa com a percentagem de óleo essencial e controlaram 99,8% da variação fenotípica. Estes marcadores são considerados relativamente mais confiáveis. Entre os primers RAPD, destaca-se o primer SA-R, que apresentou os maiores fragmentos associados com as características, incluindo dias para 50% de floração, número de ramos por planta, peso fresco e peso seco. Alguns dos marcadores ISSR e RAPD foram associados a mais de um traço na análise de regressão múltipla que pode ser devido ao efeito pleiotrópico do locus de traço quantitativo ligado em diferentes traços ou sua ligação a diferentes genes. Estes iniciadores provaram ser úteis para o melhoramento da erva cidreira.


Subject(s)
Agronomy , Melissa , Plants, Medicinal , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 305-319, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897543

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe Ceratozamianorstogii complex from Southern Mexico is made up of four closely related taxa and occurs in similar habitats (Quercus forest). All have linear-lanceolate leaflets with great similarity between them, especially in juvenile stages, but differentiate with age. There has been debate regarding delimitation of species due to character loss in herbarium specimens. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variation, and to measure genetic similarity between the four taxa. We studied populations in Cintalapa (Chiapas) for C. alvarezii and C. norstogii; the Sierra Atravesada (Oaxaca) for C. chimalapensis, and Villa Flores (Chiapas) for C. mirandae. One population for each taxon was sampled (only one population is known for C. alvarezii) 11-15 randomly chosen adult individuals were sampled. Twenty-eight primers were tested of which five were polymorphic using the RAPD'S technique. The data were analyzed using Bayesian methods. Results revealed low genetic diversity, and a differentiation was found between species, suggesting a recent divergence. A previous morphological and anatomical study on the complex has found the taxa to be distinct. However, the results of this study have shown that the C. norstogii species complex is in a divergence process, probably through genetic drift and founder effects. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 305-319. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenLos cuatro taxa que componen el complejo Ceratozamia norstogii de especies en el sur de México están estrechamente relacionados y se dan en hábitats similares (bosque de Quercus). Todos tienen folíolos linear-lanceolados con gran similitud entre ellos, sobre todo en las etapas juveniles, pero se diferencian con la edad. Ha habido un debate en relación con la delimitación de especies debido a la pérdida de caracteres en especímenes de herbario. Los objetivos de este estudio son determinar la variación genética y medir la similitud genética entre los cuatro taxones en el complejo. Las poblaciones estudiadas están en; Cintalapa, Chiapas para C. alvarezii y C. norstogii, la Sierra Atravesada, Oaxaca para C. chimalapensis y Villa Flores, Chiapas para C. mirandae. Se tomaron muestras de una población de cada taxón (sólo una población es conocida para C. alvarezii) 11-15 individuos adultos elegidos al azar fueron muestreados. Veintiocho primers fueron probados, de los cuales cinco fueron polimórficos mediante la técnica RAPD's. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando métodos bayesianos. Los resultados revelaron baja diversidad genética y la diferenciación encontrada entre las especies sugiere una divergencia reciente. Un estudio morfológico y anatómico anterior en el complejo encontró que los taxa son distintos. Sin embargo, los resultados del presente estudio han demostrado que el complejo C. norstogii aun se encuentra en un proceso de divergencia, probablemente a través de deriva genética y efectos de fundador.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Zamiaceae/genetics , Plant Dispersal , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Genetic Markers , Bayes Theorem , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Biodiversity , Mexico
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1505-1518, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958230

ABSTRACT

Abstract:The productivity of arid legumes, such as Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) and Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum), may remain stagnant over decades because of their high susceptibility to root diseases. Besides, there is a limitation on the information about molecular diagnosis and intraspecific genetic variability of root pathogens in arid legumes. To contribute in this field, we assessed a total of 52 isolates from 88 root samples that were found infected with fungal pathogens in Jodhpur, Jaipur and Bikaner Districts of Rajasthan. Diseased roots samples were analyzed following standard microbiological methods for fungus extraction and purification, and for genetic studies. Irrespective of the geographical location from where the diseased samples were collected, all pathogen isolates were clustered in RAPD dendrograms as per their respective genera. Phylogram, based on multiple sequence alignment, revealed that different genera (i.e. Fusarium, Neocosmospora and Syncephalastrum), separated from each other, and species within the same genera, clustered together with their reference sequences with apreciable bootstrap values. Out of 20 representative isolates representing each cluster and all outgroups sequenced, eight were molecularly identified as Neocosmospora vasinfecta, five as Fusarium solani, two as Neocosmospora striata, two as Fusarium acutatum, one as Syncephalastrum monosporum, one as Fusarium oxysporum and one as Fusarium species. The root pathogens of the arid legumes were found neither restricted to a geographical location nor were host specific in nature. Fusarium solani wilt in cowpea and seedling rot in moth bean, F. oxysporum wilt in moth bean, F. acutatum damping off in cowpea and Clusterbean, Fusarium sp. seedling rot in Clusterbean, Neocosmospora striata root rot in cowpea and wilt in Clusterbean and Syncephalastrum monosporum root rot in Clusterbean were molecularly identified as new fungal records as pathogens causing root diseases in arid legumes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1505-1518. Epub 2016 December 01.


Resumen:La producción de leguminosas resistentes a sequías como Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna aconitifolia y Macrotyloma uniflorum, puede permanecer inactiva durante décadas debido a su alta susceptibilidad a enfermedades en las raíces. Además, hay información limitada relacionada con el diagnóstico molecular y la variabilidad genética intraespecífica de patógenos de raíces en estas leguminosas resistentes a sequías. Para contribuir en esta área, evaluamos un total de 52 extractos de 88 raíces infectadas con patógenos fúngicos en los distritos de Jodhpur, Jaipur y Bikaner de Rajastán. Las muestras de raíces infectadas se analizaron siguiendo los métodos estándar de microbiología para extracción y purificación de hongos y para estudios genéticos. Independientemente del sitio donde se recolectaron las muestras contaminadas, todos los extractos patógenicos se agruparon en dendrogramas RAPD en cada uno de sus respectivos géneros. El filograma, basado en alineamiento de secuencias múltiples reveló que distintos géneros (Fusarium, Neocosmospora y Syncephalastrum) separados entre ellos y especies del mismo género se agrupan con sus secuencias de referencia con valores de bootstrap significativos. De cada 20 extractos representantes de cada agrupamiento y todos los grupos externos secuenciados, ocho fueron identificados molecularmente como Neocosmospora vasinfecta, dos como Fusarium acutatum, una como Syncephalastrum monosporum, una como Fusarium oxysporum y una como Fusarium. Los patógenos de estas leguminosas resistentes a sequías no están restringidos por la localidad ni por un hospedero específico. Fusarium solani que marchita el frijol de vaca y pudre la semilla de Vigna aconitifolia, F. oxysporum que marchita a Vigna aconitifolia, F. acutatum que marchita a Vigna unguiculata y Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Fusarium sp. que pudre la semilla de Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Neocosmospora striata que pudre la raíz de Vigna unguiculata y marchita a Cyamopsis tetragonoloba y, Syncephalastrum monosporum que pudre la raíz en Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, fueron identificados molecularmente como nuevos registros de patógenos fúngicos que causan daños en las raíces de leguminosas resistentes a sequías.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Vigna/microbiology , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Fabaceae/microbiology , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , DNA, Fungal , Plant Roots/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Vigna/genetics , Hypocreales/genetics , India , Fabaceae/genetics
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1472-1481, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840911

ABSTRACT

Echinococcus Granulosus (EG) is the major cause of cystic echinococcosis in humans and livestock in the world. In Chile is a zoonosis of great importance. The most frequently affected geographic areas are the Regions of Aysén, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Coquimbo and the Araucanía. Hence, it was discovered that in endemic areas of hydatidosis there could be several strains and genotypes of EG. In addition, there is evidence that some strains and genotypes are more infectious for human beings than others. This interesting phenomenon of the biology of EG has been studied using molecular biology techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis, which has made it possible to characterize the cestode species complex called EG sensu lato (s l) as being comprised of EG sensu stricto (s.s.) (Genotypes G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10), which present an important phenotypic variation detectable in characteristics of the biological cycle, specificity of the intermediate host, pattern of development, pathogenicity, antigenicity, transmission dynamics and, consequently, in the measures needed to control the disease. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the different genotypes of EG described in humans and different livestock host reported in the literature.


Echinococcus granulosus (EG) es la principal causa de equinococosis quística en humanos y ganado en el mundo. En Chile hay una zoonosis de gran importancia. Las zonas geográficas más afectadas son las Regiones de Aysén, Los Ríos, Los Lagos, Coquimbo y la Araucanía. Por lo tanto, se descubrió que en áreas endémicas de hidatidosis podría haber varias cepas y genotipos de EG. Además, hay pruebas de que algunas cepas y genotipos son más infecciosos para los seres humanos que otros. Este interesante fenómeno de la biología del EG ha sido estudiado utilizando técnicas de biología molecular basadas en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y análisis de secuencias de ADN, lo que ha permitido caracterizar el complejo de cestode llamado EG sensu lato (sl) EG (G3) y E. canadensis (G6-G10), que presentan una importante variación fenotípica detectable en las características del ciclo biológico, especificidad del huésped intermedio, patrón de desarrollo, patogenicidad, antigenicidad, dinámica de transmisión y, por consiguiente, en las medidas necesarias para el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue describir los diferentes genotipos de EG descritos en humanos y diferentes animales de ganado reportados en la literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/classification , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genotype , Livestock/parasitology , Molecular Typing , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Species Specificity
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(6): 1-8, Nov. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840306

ABSTRACT

Background: Memecylon species are commonly used in Indian ethnomedical practices. The accurate identification is vital to enhance the drug's efficacy and biosafety. In the present study, PCR based techniques like RAPD, ISSR and DNA barcoding regions, such as 5s, psbA-trnH, rpoC1, ndh and atpF-atpH, were used to authenticate and analyze the diversity of five Memecylon species collected from Western Ghats of India. Results: Phylogenetic analysis clearly distinguished Memecylon malabaricum from Memecylon wightii and Memecylon umbellatum from Memecylon edule and clades formed are in accordance with morphological keys. In the RAPD and ISSR analyses, 27 accessions representing five Memecylon species were distinctly separated into three different clades. M. malabaricum and M. wightii grouped together and M. umbellatum, M. edule and Memecylon talbotianum grouped in the same clade with high Jaccard dissimilarity coefficient and bootstrap support between each node, indicating that these grouped species are phylogenetically similar. Conclusion: Data from the present study reveals that chloroplast psbA-trnH region could be used as a potential candidate region for identifying Memecylon species, and ISSR marker system could be used for estimating genetic diversity since it has high percent polymorphism compared to RAPD marker.


Subject(s)
Melastomataceae/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Genetic Markers , Genetic Variation , India , Species Specificity
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(6): 479-484, jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792617

ABSTRACT

The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) has been described as a potential spreader of infectious agents to cattle herds. Among the agents transmitted by this fly, Escherichia coli has attracted attention due to its potential to cause gastrointestinal disorders as well as environmental mastitis in dairy cows. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and to assess the genetic diversity and the clonal relatedness among E. coli isolates from the milk of dairy mastitis and from stable flies anatomical sites by the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) technique. The molecular typing revealed a high degree of genetic polymorphism suggesting that these microorganisms have a non-clonal origin. Identical electrophoretic profiles were observed between E. coli isolates from different flies, different mammary quarters of the same cow and from cows on a single farm. These results reveal the circulation of the same bacterial lineages and suggest the role of the stable fly in bacterial dispersion. Considering the high pathogenic potential of this bacterial species, our findings alert to a more effective health surveillance.(AU)


A mosca dos estábulos Stomoxys calcitrans é descrita como um importante dispersor de agentes infecciosos aos bovinos. Dentre os agentes veiculados por esta mosca a bactéria Escherichia coli ganha relevância devido ao seu potencial em desenvolver alterações gastroentéricas, bem como mastite bovina ambiental. Desta forma, objetiva-se com este estudo isolar e acessar a diversidade genética e relação de clonalidade entre isolados de E. coli provenientes de casos de mastite e de moscas dos estábulos utilizando a técnica da Amplificação Randômica do DNA Polimórfico (RAPD). A tipagem molecular revelou elevado polimorfismo genético sugerindo que esses microrganismos têm origem não clonal. Perfis eletroforéticos idênticos entre si foram observados entre amostras isoladas de diferentes moscas, quartos mamários de uma mesma vaca, bem como de diferentes vacas dentro de uma mesma propriedade. Esses resultados revelam a circulação de uma mesma linhagem bacteriana e sugerem o papel da Stomoxys calcitrans na dispersão bacteriana. Considerando o elevado potencial patogênico dessa espécie bacteriana, nossos achados alertam para uma vigilância sanitária mais efetiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis , Milk/microbiology , Muscidae/microbiology , Cattle/microbiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/veterinary
16.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 185-191, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752603

ABSTRACT

Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC) of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5%) were C. albicans, 20 (31.7%) were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2%) C. tropicalis, four (6.4%) C. glabrata, four (6.4%) C. krusei, two (3.3%) C. kefyr, and one (1.6%) C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitro resistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker.


As infecções causadas por espécies de Candida são problema de grande impacto para a saúde pública, devido à alta incidência em pacientes hospitalizados e como causa de mortalidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência de Candida spp. isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados, assim como a sensibilidade aos antifúngicos e o polimorfismo genético por RAPD-PCR. Os microrganismos incluíram isolados de hemocultura, líquido abdominal e ponta de cateter venoso central de pacientes internados no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de julho de 2010-junho de 2011. Os testes de sensibilidade aos antifúngicos foram realizados por microdiluição em caldo e na análise por RAPD-PCR foram utilizados os oligonucleotídeos OPA09, OPB11, e OPE06. Dos 63 isolados, 18 (28,5%) foram C. albicans, 20 (31,7%) C. parapsilosis, 14 (22,2%) C. tropicalis, quatro (6,4%) C. glabrata, quatro (6,4%) C. krusei, dois (3,3%) C. kefyr, e um (1,6%) C. lusitaniae. Resistência in-vitro à anfotericina B foi observada em 12,7% dos isolados. Não foi observada resistência in-vitro aos azólicos, exceto para os isolados de C. krusei. Os oligonucleotídeos OPA09 e OPB11 possibilitaram distinguir diferentes espécies. Isolados de C. albicans apresentaram seis clusters e o complexo C. parapsilosis, cinco clusters, com o iniciador OPA09, por RAPD-PCR, mostrando a variabilidade genética daquelas espécies. Conclui-se que o complexo C. parapsilosis foi a espécie mais frequente, e a maioria dos isolados foi sensível in vitro aos antifúngicos testados. Alto polimorfismo genético foi observado para os isolados de C. albicans e complexo C. parapsilosis, principalmente com o oligonucleotídeo OPA09.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , DNA, Fungal , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/genetics , Candida/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Tertiary Healthcare
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 175-180, May 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750644

ABSTRACT

Background Enterococcus faecalis is considered to be one of most prevalent species in the oral cavity, particularly in endodontic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. faecalis in dental root canals, clonal diversity by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis, and the antibiotic susceptibility of E. faecalis isolates. Results Among the bacterial strains isolated from dental root canal specimens (n = 82), E. faecalis was determined to have the highest prevalence followed by Streptococcus viridians, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Cluster analysis of RAPD-PCR and RFLP patterns of the E. faecalis isolates discriminated five and six different genotypes, respectively. Among the tested strains, 43%, 52% and 5% were susceptible, intermediate resistant, and resistant to erythromycin, respectively. In addition, one strain (E-12) was intermediate resistant to linezolid, and one isolate (E-16) was resistant to tetracycline. Interestingly, many of the intermediate resistant/resistant strains were grouped in clusters 5 and 6, according RAPD and to RFLP, respectively. Conclusions E. faecalis demonstrated the highest prevalence in the tested dental root canal specimens collected from Saudi patients and were grouped into five to six different genotypes. Different levels of antimicrobial susceptibility were observed in the tested E. faecalis strains, which clearly indicated that although bacterial strains may be similar, point mutations can result in extreme susceptibility or resistance to various antibiotics. This phenomenon is a cause for concern for clinicians in the treatment of dental infections caused by E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Dental Pulp Diseases/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Genotype
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 202-209, May 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750648

ABSTRACT

Background Yeast strains are exposed to numerous environmental stresses during industrial alcoholic fermentation. High temperature accumulated acetic acid, enhanced the growth inhibition and decreased ethanol production. Results In this study the influence of high temperature on the cellular and mitochondrial membrane integrity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was investigated to understand the mechanisms of the high temperature fermentation process. However, increasing the temperature to 42°C resulted in a clear decrease in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in intracellular ROS formation. It was also determined that the different thermostability between YZ1 and YF31 strains had a clear correlation with the yeast's intracellular trehalose content of the cell. Finally, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to explore the genome differences between the YZ1 and YF31 strains. Conclusions Thus, the stability of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequently, the clearance ROS ability could be important factors for the viability of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Biofuels , Superoxide Dismutase , Yeasts , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Fermentation , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 164-169
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158408

ABSTRACT

Gardenia jasminoides is a common garden medicinal plant known for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombic, anti-fibrotic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, lung-protective, renal-protective, retina-protective and neuroprotective activities. It is found in several regions of the world, including China, but information about its genetic characteristics is limited. Here, we employed an improved method of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis (with increased RAMP time) to investigate the genetic link between G. jasminoides samples collected from six different regions of Southern China. Total 26 RAPD primers were selected randomly, among which 23 primers generated reproducible polymorphic amplification bands. A total of 174 bands were obtained, where each primer had amplified 5-13 bands with an average of 7.56 bands per primer. The band size ranged approximately 150-2200 bp. Cluster dendrogram was obtained based on the improved RAPD amplification profiles, which showed that the similarity coefficients among six varieties of G. jasminoides ranged 0.67-0.88. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of G. jasminoides using improved RAPD analysis, which may be useful for the preservation of genetic diversity and identification of Gardenia population.


Subject(s)
China , /genetics , /isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Gardenia/classification , Gardenia/genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Reproductive Isolation
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(2): 96-102, Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745576

ABSTRACT

Background Angelica sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant. We aimed to assess the genetic diversity and relationships in A. sinensis cultivars collected from different locations of China and also some other Angelica species. Results We employed an improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique for the amplification of DNA materials from ten Angelica cultivars, and the results were verified by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. Twenty six RAPD primers were used for RAPD, and the amplified bands were found highly polymorphic (96%). Each primer amplified 8-14 bands with an average of 10.25. The cluster dendrogram showed that the similarity coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0.92. The similarity coefficients were higher among different cultivars of A. sinensis, and lower among different species. Twenty ISSR primers were used for the amplification, and each primer generated 6-10 bands with an average of 7.2 bands per primer. The cluster dendrogram showed that the similarity coefficients ranged from 0.35 to 0.89. Conclusions This study genetically characterized the Angelica species, which might have a significant contribution to the genetic and ecological conservation of this important medicinal plant. Also, this study indicates that the improved RAPD and ISSR analyses are important and potent molecular tools for the study of genetic diversity and authentication of organisms.


Subject(s)
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Microsatellite Repeats , Angelica sinensis/genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , Cluster Analysis , China , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL