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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353095

ABSTRACT

A Hemiplegia Alternante da Infância é um distúrbio neurológico grave e uma doença rara (1 em cada 100.000 recém-nascidos), caracterizado por ataques repetidos transitórios de hemiplegia episódica ou tetraplegia que podem durar minutos a horas, acompanhados por outros sintomas paroxísticos como anormalidades oculomotoras e autonômicas, distúrbios do movimento como ataxia, comprometimento cognitivo progressivo, convulsões, distonia e coreia. Os tratamentos atuais são amplamente sintomáticos. Neste relato de caso, apresentamos paciente do sexo feminino, 18 anos, na qual aos 10 meses apresentou o primeiro episódio aparente de crise convulsiva com versão ocular. O eletroencefalograma e tomografia computadorizada não revelaram anormalidades e foram administradas diversas medicações como fenobarbital, carbamazepina, valproato de sódio, topiramato, dicloridrato de flunarizina, clonazepam, cipro-heptadina e pizotifeno, todos sem resultado. Devidos aos sintomas extrapiramidais, paciente passou a utilizar biperideno, apresentando não só melhora da distonia, mas também no número de crises hemiplégicas. Aos 13 anos, ela foi diagnosticada com Hemiplegia Alternante da Infância na mutação patogênica missense de novo c.2415C G (p.Asp805Glu) no gene ATP1A3 apresentando boa resposta ao tratamento com cloridrato de biperideno. (AU)


Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a severe neurological disorder and a rare disease (1 in 100,000 newborns), characterized by repeated transient attacks of episodic hemiplegia or tetraplegia that can last minutes to hours, accompanied by other paroxysmal symptoms such as oculomotor and autonomic abnormalities, movement disorders such as ataxia, progressive cognitive impairment, seizures, dystonia, and chorea. Current treatments are largely symptomatic. In this case report, we present a female patient, 18 years old, who presented the first apparent episode of seizure with ocular version at ten months of age. The electroencephalogram and CT scan revealed no abnormalities, and several medications such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, topiramate, flunarizine dihydrochloride, clonazepam, cyproheptadine and pizotifen were administered, all without result. Due to the extrapyramidal symptoms, the patient started using biperidene, showing improvement in dystonia and the number of hemiplegic seizures. At age 13, she was diagnosed with Alternating hemiplegia of Childhood in the pathogenic missense de novo mutation c.2415C>G (p.Asp805Glu) in the ATP1A3 gene showing a good response to treatment with biperidene hydrochloride. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ataxia , Seizures , Biperiden , Rare Diseases , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hemiplegia
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(11): 5547-5560, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350459

ABSTRACT

Resumo Descrever o perfil de solicitações de incorporação de medicamentos para doenças raras (DR) enviadas à Comissão Nacional de Incorporação de Tecnologias no SUS (CONITEC) e suas recomendações, comparando critérios usados para incorporação com outras agências de avaliações de tecnologias em saúde (ATS) no mundo. Para tanto, foram avaliadas as solicitações submetidas à CONITEC e suas recomendações ao SUS, de julho de 2012 a junho de 2019, para tratamento de DR. A seguir, foi feita comparação dos critérios utilizados pela CONITEC e por outras agências de ATS para incorporação destes medicamentos. Houve 60 solicitações de incorporação para 30 DR à CONITEC. A maioria das solicitações (66%) foi feita por indústrias farmacêuticas. Análises de impacto orçamentário foram apresentadas em 85% das solicitações e análises econômicas de tecnologias em saúde em 68% delas. Trinta e duas (52%) do total de avaliações foram incorporadas ao SUS. As justificativas da CONITEC para a não incorporação foram ausência de evidência clínica, tecnologias não custo-efetivas e modestos benefícios clínicos que não justificam o preço. Agências de ATS internacionais (UK, FR, CAN, AUS) usam critérios diferenciados para avaliações de DR. Os dados apontam que a maioria dos medicamentos avaliados foi incorporada ao SUS e que a adoção de critérios diferenciados para avaliação da incorporação de medicamentos para DR possivelmente trará robustez à tomada de decisão.


Abstract This study aims to describe the profile for the requested incorporation of rare disease drugs submitted to CONITEC and its recommendations, comparing the incorporation criteria employed by other HTA agencies globally. To this end, requests for the treatment of rare diseases submitted to CONITEC from July 2012 to June 2019 and its recommendations to the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) were included in this study. Subsequently, we compared the criteria used by CONITEC and other HTA agencies to incorporate these drugs. Sixty medicine incorporation requests to treat thirty rare diseases were submitted to CONITEC. Pharmaceutical companies made the most requests (66%). Budget impact analyses were presented in 85% of the requests and HT economic analyses in 68%. A total of 52% of the requests were incorporated into the SUS. CONITEC's justifications for the non-incorporation were the lack of quality clinical evidence, non-cost-effective technologies, and modest clinical benefits that do not justify the high prices. International HTA agencies (CAN, UK, FR, AUS) use different criteria for rare diseases assessments. The data indicate that most of the evaluated drugs were incorporated into the SUS, and adopting different criteria to assess the incorporation of rare diseases medicines will possibly strengthen decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Rare Diseases/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Brazil , Government Programs
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(11): 5533-5546, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350452

ABSTRACT

Resumo A avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS), enquanto prática científica e tecnológica é, ao mesmo tempo, um desafio, a fim de determinar o valor das tecnologias a serem incorporadas. Este estudo teve como objetivo explorar e comparar os resultados e elementos técnicos das avaliações emitidas para doenças raras, entre a agência inglesa (NICE) e a brasileira (CONITEC). A primeira etapa do estudo envolveu a busca sistemática das avaliações no período de 2013 a 2019. Na segunda etapa, os relatórios foram analisados com base em: (i) revisão narrativa descritiva e (ii) cálculo da frequência absoluta e relativa de acordo com cada domínio e componente (elemento) aplicado do modelo da rede Europeia de ATS. O total de 24 medicamentos foram distintamente avaliados no período do estudo. Por meio de 126 questões (elementos) distribuídas entre nove domínios, a análise revelou que 67 (53,2%) e 44 (35,0%) estavam descritas nos relatórios, 42 (33,3%) e 59 (47,0%) foram consideradas apenas parcialmente e 17 (13,5%) e 23 (18,0%) não foram consideradas nos relatórios do NICE e da CONITEC, respectivamente. Foi constatado uma concordância relativamente baixa da agência brasileira em relação à inglesa nos relatórios emitidos para doenças raras. Permanece indeterminado se as agências são capazes de capturar os diversos valores desses medicamentos, bem como gerenciar as incertezas nas avaliações.


Abstract As a scientific and technological practice, the evaluation of health technologies (HTA) is, at the same time, a challenge to determine the value of the technologies to be incorporated. This study aimed to explore and compare the results and technical elements of the evaluations issued for rare diseases between the English (NICE) and the Brazilian agency (CONITEC). The first part of the study involved the systematic search for evaluations from 2013 to 2019. In the second stage, the reports were analyzed based on: (i) descriptive narrative review; and (ii) calculation of the absolute and relative frequency according to each domain and component (element) applied in the European HTA network model. Twenty-four medicines were distinctly assessed during the study period. Through 126 questions (elements) distributed among nine domains, the analysis revealed that 67 (53.2%) and 44 (35.0%) were described in the reports, 42 (33.3%) and 59 (47.0 %) were only considered partially, and 17 (13.5%) and 23 (18.0%) were not considered in the NICE and CONITEC reports, respectively. We identified a relatively low agreement between the Brazilian agency with the English agency in the reports issued for rare diseases. It remains to be seen whether the agencies are able to capture the various values ​​of these medicines, as well as manage uncertainties in the evaluations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Rare Diseases/therapy , Brazil , Uncertainty
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(11): 5441-5452, nov. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350446

ABSTRACT

Resumen En este estudio se analizaron las solicitudes de importación de Medicamentos vitales no disponibles (MVND) presentadas al INVIMA y los registros de solicitudes de recobros presentados en la ADRES por MVND, en el periodo 2016-2017. De las 2321 solicitudes de importación de MVND, el 76% fueron autorizadas. Se identificaron 88 solicitantes, 73 subgrupos terapéuticos y 195 principios activos, así como 368 diagnósticos. El 66% de los pacientes registrados en las solicitudes de importación se encuentran vinculados al régimen contributivo, en menor proporción al régimen subsidiado y al régimen especial o excepcional. En solicitudes de recobros asociados a MVND por vía judicial, se observó que, el monto solicitado por recobro fue de USD 8.577.583, equivalentes a 38483 UPCs. Los resultados mostraron que la implementación del decreto 481 de 2004 ha sido útil para garantizar el acceso a medicamentos para enfermedades raras, aunque no es ajena a la inequidad estructural de acceso a servicios de salud y medicamentos del SGSSS y que generan impacto, no solo en la salud pública, si no en el presupuesto asignado, bien sea por el alto costo que implica su importación o por la falta de regulación de estos dentro del mercado nacional.


Abstract This study analyzed the import applications for unavailable vital medicines (MVND) submitted to INVIMA and the records of MVND reimbursement requests submitted to the ADRES in the 2016-2017 period. Approximately 76% of the 2,321 MVND import applications were authorized. Eighty-eight applicants, 73 therapeutic subgroups, 195 active ingredients, and 368 diagnoses were identified. Most of the patients registered in the import applications (66%) are linked to the contributory regime, to a lesser extent to the subsidized regime and the Special or exceptional regimes. The total value of the reimbursement requests related to MVND granted by lawsuits, was USD 8,577,583, equivalent to 38,483 UPCs. The results showed that the implementation of Decree N° 481/2004 has ensured access to medicines for rare diseases. However, it is not alien to the structural inequality of access to health services and medicines of the Colombian Health System, which impacts public health and the allocated budget, either because of the high cost of importing MVND or because of the lack of MVND regulation within the national market.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rare Diseases , Government Programs , Colombia
5.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare disease with multi-systemic involvement, predominantly neurological. Little evidence exists about the anesthetic management of patients with this disorder, particularly in pregnant women. This article discusses a case of a patient with TSC admitted to our hospital for the delivery of a twin gestation. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the patient presented left-side facial-brachial hypoesthesia and headache. A brain CT revealed a right frontal cortical bleeding tumor, which was diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. The patient was discharged 15 days after admission and a neurosurgical approach was suggested.


Resumen La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad poco frecuente asociada con compromiso multisistémico, principalmente neurológico. Es poca la evidencia sobre el manejo anestésico de los pacientes con este trastorno, en particular las mujeres embarazadas. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente con esclerosis tuberosa ingresada en nuestro hospital para el parto de una gestación gemelar. Veinticuatro horas después de la cirugía, la paciente presentó hipoestesia facial y braquial izquierda y cefalea. La tomografía cerebral mostró un tumor cortical sangrante en el lóbulo frontal derecho, diagnosticado como glioblastoma multiforme. La paciente fue dada de alta 15 días después de su ingreso y, con recomendación de manejo por neurocirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Glioblastoma , Headache , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthetics , Neurosurgery , Tuberous Sclerosis , Brain , Rare Diseases , Parturition , Hemorrhage , Hospitals , Hypesthesia , Neoplasms , Nervous System Diseases
7.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 171-174, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341279

ABSTRACT

Resumen En este reporte se llama la atención de los colegas ante la posibilidad de encontrar un caso de enfermedad de Fabry entre múltiples pacientes que consultan. Se exponen las condiciones clínicas de estos pacientes que los hacen únicos, a causa de una enfermedad huérfana. Es posible que muchas de estas condiciones clínicas hayan pasado inadvertidas y al no tenerlas presentes no se tenga un grado de sospecha que lleve al diagnóstico.


Abstract In this report is call the attention of our colleagues the possibility of finding a case of Fabry's disease within the multitude of patients in our practice. It is expose the clinical conditions of these patients which make them unique, due to a disease denominated as orphan. It is possible that many of these clinical conditions have gone unnoticed and by not having them present prevent/impide us from having a high degree of suspicion which would lead to a diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Fabry Disease , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis
8.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e258, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289387

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los feocromocitomas son tumores que se desarrollan a partir de las células cromafines localizadas en la médula suprarrenal, ganglios simpáticos y parasimpáticos. La distinción entre tumores benignos y malignos es compleja, pues no existen marcadores que puedan discriminar esta diferencia con alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo: Presentar tres casos clínicos de feocromocitoma maligno, diagnosticados y/o tratados en la sala de hospitalización de adultos del INEN. Método: Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se resumieron los datos. Presentación de los casos: Los 3 pacientes eran del sexo masculino, con edades entre 41 y 51 años al diagnóstico del tumor primario. De ellos, dos tenían una hipertensión arterial controlada y el tercero se comenzó a estudiar por crisis paroxísticas de hipertensión; dos tenían antecedentes de diabetes mellitus y no se demostraron evidencias en ningún caso de lesiones en órganos diana por la hipertensión. En los tres pacientes el tumor se localizó en la suprarrenal derecha. Solo en uno de los casos, la etiología maligna fue informada en el estudio anatomopatológico. En los otros dos pacientes, la malignidad se diagnosticó a punto de partida de lesiones metastásicas, años después de la adrenalectomía, en un caso de cadera y en el otro, de pulmón. Conclusiones: El feocromocitoma maligno es una enfermedad infrecuente de la edad mediana y el diagnóstico de su naturaleza es complejo. Se debe sospechar la aparición de enfermedad metastásica ante la reaparición de los síntomas que motivaron el estudio inicial en el paciente, incluso, años después de la adrenalectomía(AU)


Introduction: Pheochromocytomas are tumors developed from chromaffin cells located in the suprarenal medulla, as well as in sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. The distinction between benign and malignant tumors is complex, since there are no markers to discriminate this difference with high sensitivity and specificity. Objective: To present three clinical cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, diagnosed and/or treated in the adult hospitalization ward at the National Institute of Endocrinology. Method: The medical records were reviewed and the data was summarized. Case presentation: The three patients were male and aged between 41 and 51 years at the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Of them, two had controlled arterial hypertension and the third began to be studied for paroxysmal hypertension crises; two had a history of diabetes mellitus and no evidence of target-organ lesions due to hypertension was shown in any case. In the three patients, the tumor was located in the right suprarenal gland. Only in one of the cases, malignant etiology was reported in the pathological study. In the other two patients, the malignancy was diagnosed at the starting point of metastatic lesions, years after adrenalectomy: two respective hip and lung cases. Conclusions: Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare disease that appears at middle age and whose diagnosis is complex, due to its etiological nature. The appearance of metastatic disease should be suspected, given the reappearance of the symptoms that motivated the initial study in the patient, even years after adrenalectomy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adrenalectomy/methods , Rare Diseases/etiology , Neoplasm Metastasis/physiopathology
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 98-102, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251528

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad de Behçet es una enfermedad poco frecuente con un compromiso sistémico cuyas principales manifestaciones abarcan el sistema gastrointestinal, neurológico, vascular y articular, además de la piel y los ojos. Por su compromiso multisistémico, es frecuente confundirlo con otras entidades como la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, con la cual comparte gran parte de su presentación clínica, por lo que se describe un caso clínico y se aborda una revision narrativa desde el punto de vista epidemiológico de las manifestaciones clínicas con el fin de tener un mayor conocimiento para identificarla a tiempo.


Abstract Behçet's disease is a rare disease with systemic involvement whose main manifestations include the gastrointestinal, neurological, vascular, and articular systems, as well as the skin and eyes. Due to its multisystemic nature, it is often mistaken for other entities such as inflammatory bowel disease since they share multiple characteristics in their clinical presentation. A clinical case is described, and an epidemiological review of clinical manifestations is discussed to have better knowledge that allow identifying it on time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Signs and Symptoms , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Behcet Syndrome , Rare Diseases
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e942, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289538

ABSTRACT

La oftalmomiasis es una enfermedad poco frecuente, causada por artrópodos; en este caso por la mosca adulta. Presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina, de 44 años de edad, con antecedentes de inmunosupresión severa secundaria a VIH, quien fue atendida en el Servicio de Oftalmología por molestia ocular. Presentaba un aumento de volumen circunscrito en conjuntiva que se extendía sobre la córnea nasal del ojo izquierdo, de aspecto blanco nacarado, deslustrado. Se le realizó exéresis de la lesión y crioterapia. Posteriormente se le aplicó colirio de mitomicina C. A los siete meses la paciente regresó a la consulta con un cuadro de complicación franca y severa de la lesión, con destrucción de los tejidos de la órbita y múltiples cavernas ocupadas por cientos de larvas de moscas(AU)


Ophthalmomiasis is a rare disease, caused by arthropods; in this case by the adult fly. We present the case of a 44-year-old female patient, with a history of severe immunosuppression secondary to HIV, who was treated at the Ophthalmology Service for ocular discomfort. She presented a circumscribed increase in volume in the conjunctiva that extended over the nasal cornea of ​​the left eye, with a pearly white, tarnished appearance. Excision of the lesion and cryotherapy were performed. Subsequently, mitomycin C eye drops were applied. Seven months later, the patient returned to the consultation with a frank and severe complication of the lesion, with destruction of the tissues of the orbit and multiple caverns occupied by hundreds of fly larvae(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Cryotherapy/methods , Rare Diseases/therapy , Myiasis/epidemiology
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021259, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249015

ABSTRACT

Androgen secreting adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare disease with a poor prognosis. Approximately 80% of tumors are functional, most commonly secreting glucocorticoids. We herewith report a case of a huge functional ACC of the right adrenal gland in a 33-year-old female who presented with complaints of hirsutism, amenorrhea and an abdominal lump. On abdominal examination a large lump was palpable in the right hypochondrium reaching up to the umbilicus. Contrast-enhance computed tomography (CECT) revealed a mass in the right suprarenal region. The tumor measured 29 cm × 20 cm × 12 cm and weighed 7.8 kg, the largest reported case of ACC in the world to the best of our knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Adrenal Glands/pathology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/pathology , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/pathology , Rare Diseases
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200770, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278457

ABSTRACT

Abstract Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is an emerging technology that is that is bringing a number of technical breakthroughs in several scientific applications. This review aimed to describe potential applications of THz spectroscopy at the biochemistry and molecules detection for food industry, environment monitoring and diagnostics, and present the importance of such technological platform in disease control and Public Health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Terahertz Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Rare Diseases/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis
14.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021267, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249009

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is an uncommon autoimmune and blistering mucocutaneous disease. Childhood Pemphigus Vulgaris (CPV) is a pediatric variant of PV, which affects children below 12 years, being very rare among children under 10 years of age. CPV has similar clinical, histological, and immunological features as seen in PV in adults. The mucocutaneous clinical presentation is the most common in both age groups. Vesicles and erosions arising from the disease usually cause pain. A few CPV cases have been reported in the literature. This study reports a case of an 8-year-old male patient with oral lesions since the age of 3 years, and the diagnosis of pemphigus was achieved only 2 years after the appearance of the initial lesions. CPV remains a rare disease, making the diagnosis of this clinical case a challenge due to its age of onset and clinical features presented by the patient. Therefore, dentists and physicians should know how to differentiate CPV from other bullous autoimmune diseases more common in childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pemphigus/complications , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rare Diseases
15.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020196, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142407

ABSTRACT

B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is an extremely rare disease, accounting for approximately 1% of the lymphocytic leukemias. B-PLL generally occurs in older people. It is characterized by the presence of more than 55% prolymphocytes in the peripheral blood (PB), no or minimal lymphadenopathy, massive splenomegaly, and very high white blood cell counts. The prognosis of B-PLL patients is generally poor, with a median survival of 3 years, although a subset of patients may show a prolonged survival. Herein, we report a case of a 70-year-old male with weakness, generalized lymphadenopathy, and moderate splenomegaly at the initial presentation. Hematologic examination revealed lymphocytic leukocytosis, favoring a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder (CLPD). The key to decoding the precise CLPD was a combination of the clinical profile, morphologic findings on the peripheral blood and the bone marrow, immunophenotypic analysis, and cytogenetic study. The best diagnosis proffered was a de novo chronic lymphocytic leukemia/prolymphocytic leukemia. There was no prior history of lymphoproliferative disorder or lymphocytic leukocytosis. Discriminating this entity from other lymphoproliferative disorders is crucial as the treatment and prognosis are varied compared to the other lymphoproliferative disorders. The diagnostic conundrum encountered and the incredible utility of ancillary studies in such a scenario are highlighted in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic , Leukemia, Lymphoid , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, B-Cell , Rare Diseases , Lymphadenopathy
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021268, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249029

ABSTRACT

Background Neonatal acute liver failure (NALF) is a rare and life-threatening condition. It causes bilirubin to accumulate to a dangerous level in the body, causing permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and lungs. In many cases, the etiology of NALF remains unknown. Case presentation We described a case of an 8-day-old baby girl who presented with poor oral intake, lethargy, and jaundice. Her clinical condition rapidly deteriorated with progression to multi-organ failure, and despite intensive resuscitation efforts, she expired. At autopsy, the most significant findings were liver necrosis, yellow hyaline membrane deposition in the lungs, and bilirubin deposition in the brain (kernicterus). Conclusions NALF is a rare and potentially fatal condition necessitating prompt recognition and disease-specific treatment approaches. Toxic accumulation of bilirubin in the lungs can lead to hypoxia and precipitate further ischemic injury to the liver.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Hyaline Membrane Disease/pathology , Kernicterus/pathology , Autopsy , Rare Diseases , Cerebrum/pathology , Lung/pathology
18.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020228, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142405

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that involves any organ. However, the primary pituitary tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease. Intracranial tuberculomas account for 0.15-5% of intracranial space-occupying lesions, of which, pituitary as the primary site is unusual, and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenoma. In this setting, the late diagnosis can result in permanent endocrine dysfunction. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to the neurosurgery outpatient department with complaints of progressively increasing headache and diminished vision over the last year. On the clinical examination, the patient was conscious and oriented. The routine hematological and biochemical workup showed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and increased prolactin levels. The radiological working diagnosis was consistent with pituitary macroadenoma. No other radiological and/or clinical clue that could elicit the suspicion of pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesions of tuberculosis was found. The transsphenoidal endonasal tumor excision was done. The histopathology showed numerous epithelioid cell granulomas, Langhans giant cells along with scant necrosis. Ziehl Neelsen staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli, and the final diagnosis of pituitary tuberculoma was made. We report this rare case of pituitary lesion that may be included in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms , Tuberculosis/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Epithelioid Cells , Giant Cells, Langhans , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Granuloma/pathology
19.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020217, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142400

ABSTRACT

Angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm, constituting only 2% of all the soft tissue tumors and most frequently involves the skin of the head and neck region in elderly males. They are extremely aggressive tumors with high rates of metastasis and poor outcomes. We report a unique case of angiosarcoma involving an unusual site - upper alveolus and maxilla in a young patient highlighting the diagnostic challenges in such a scenario. A 29 years old female presented with a non-healing wound of the oral cavity, which had progressed to the current maximum size of 6.4 cm within one month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed the involvement of maxilla up to the floor of the orbit and adjacent soft tissue. However, no distant metastasis was detected on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan. Biopsy of the lesion showed an irregular, highly pleomorphic, and mitotically active epithelioid soft tissue tumor conclusively diagnosed as angiosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Hemangiosarcoma , Oral Ulcer , Rare Diseases
20.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021254, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153183

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IMT) is a rare pathologic entity that was first described in 1973. This lesion is most commonly found in the lungs, but other organs' involvement has also been reported. Intracranial location of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor is rare, and the first case was reported in 1980. An intriguing fact about the intracranial IMT is its resemblance with meningioma on clinical presentation and neuroimaging. We came across a case of intracranial Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IIMT) in a 27-year-old male who presented with recurrent episodes of seizures and was diagnosed as meningioma on neuroimaging. The lesion did not subside with medical management and kept on progressing in size. The patient had to undergo surgery, and diagnosis of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor was ascertained on histopathology. This 'surprise' diagnosis prompted us to review the literature on all cases of IIMTs reported to date to better understand the entity and its implications. In this review article, we present our observations regarding various studied parameters, including patient profile, clinical presentation, site of involvement, focality of the lesion, special associations, and lines of management of the 49 published cases of IIMTs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Neoplasms , Myofibroblasts , Granuloma, Plasma Cell/pathology , Seizures , Rare Diseases , Meningeal Neoplasms , Meningioma/diagnosis
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