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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253084, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345551

ABSTRACT

Abstract Repeatedly frying process of dietary edible oil has a potential role in the generation of free radicals. Therefore, questions have always been raised as to whether, there is an efficient and economical method to reduce the harmful effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Since hibiscus has been stated to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects, it was important to investigate its properties against harmful effects of free radicals. The current study aspires to find out whether irradiated powder of hibiscus has a protective role against adverse effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were equally assigned into five groups. First group"G1" was fed with normal diet as control group, meanwhile, group"G2" the diet mixed with fresh oil, "G3" diet mixed with repeatedly frying oil only, "G4" diet mixed with frying oil treated with hibiscus and "G5" diet mixed with frying oil treated with irradiated hibiscus. Feeding duration was six weeks. Fatty acid analyses of oil as well as peroxide values were determined. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses as well as histological study. Repeatedly heated cooked oil has significant increases in peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and both conjugated diene and triene compared with repeatedly frying oil treated with hibiscus. Also there are significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride and impaired in liver functions in "G3"compared with others. In addition, relative to the hibiscus groups, there is a substantial reduction in oxygen consumption in "G3". Both hibiscus as well as irradiated hibiscus attract attention in order to play a vital and economical role against harmful effects of frequent use of frying edible oil on some biological functions but, irradiated hibiscus was more effective.


Resumo O processo de fritura repetida de óleo comestível da dieta tem papel potencial na geração de radicais livres que podem ter efeitos prejudiciais em algumas funções biológicas. Portanto, sempre se questionou se existe uma maneira eficiente e econômica de prevenir ou pelo menos reduzir os efeitos nocivos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Como o hibisco tem ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, foi importante investigar suas propriedades como agente antioxidante contra os efeitos nocivos dos radicais livres. O presente estudo pretende descobrir se o pó irradiado de hibisco tem papel protetor contra os efeitos adversos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Trinta e cinco ratos albinos machos adultos foram divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. O primeiro grupo "G1" foi alimentado com dieta normal como grupo controle, enquanto o grupo "G2" dieta misturada com óleo fresco, dieta "G3" misturada com óleo de fritura repetida, dieta "G4" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco e dieta "G5" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco irradiado. A duração da alimentação foi de seis semanas. Foram determinadas as análises de ácidos graxos de óleo, bem como os valores de peróxidos. Amostras de sangue e fígado foram coletadas para análises bioquímicas e estudo histológico. O óleo cozido repetidamente aquecido tem aumentos significativos no valor de peróxido, valor de ácido, ácido graxo livre e dieno e trieno conjugados em comparação com óleo de fritura repetidamente tratado com hibisco. Também há aumentos significativos no colesterol e triglicérides e comprometimento das funções hepáticas no "G3" em comparação com outros. Além disso, em relação aos grupos de hibiscos, há uma redução substancial no consumo de oxigênio no "G3". Tanto o hibisco como o hibisco irradiado chamam atenção por desempenhar papel vital e econômico contra os efeitos nocivos do uso frequente de óleo comestível para fritar em algumas funções biológicas, mas o hibisco irradiado foi mais eficaz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hibiscus , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Cooking , Hot Temperature
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253183, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355858

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nanoparticles are considered viable options in the treatment of cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetite folate core shell (MFCS) on leukemic and hepatocarcinoma cell cultures as well as their effect on the animal model of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Through current study nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized by various techniques, and their properties were studied to confirm their nanostructure. Invivo study, nanoparticles were evaluated to inspect their cytotoxic activity against SNU-182 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human leukemia), and THLE2 (human normal epithelial liver) cells via MTT test. Apoptotic signaling proteins Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 expression were inspected through RT-PCR method. A cytotoxic effect of MNPs and MFCS was detected in previous cell cultures. Moreover, the apoptosis was identified through significant up-regulation of caspase-3, with Bcl-2 down-regulation. Invitro study, AML was induced in rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea followed by oral treatment with MNPS and MFCS. Biochemical indices such as aspartate and alanine amino transferases, and lactate dehydrogenase activities, uric acid, complete blood count, and Beta -2-microglubulin were assessed in serum. Immunophenotyping for CD34 and CD38 detection was performed. Liver, kidney, and bone marrow were microscopically examined. Bcl-2 promoter methylation, and mRNA levels were examined. Although, both MNPs and MFCS depict amelioration in biochemical parameters, MFCS alleviated them toward normal control. Anticancer activity of MNPs and MFCS was approved especially for AML. Whenever, administration of MFCS was more effective than MNPs. The present work is one of few studies used MFCS as anticancer agent.


Resumo Nanopartículas são consideradas opções viáveis ​​no tratamento do câncer. Este estudo foi conduzido para investigar o efeito de nanopartículas de magnetita (MNPs) e núcleo de folato de magnetita (MFCS) em culturas de células leucêmicas e de hepatocarcinoma, bem como seu efeito no modelo animal de leucemia mielocítica aguda (LMA). Através do atual estudo, nanopartículas foram sintetizadas, caracterizadas por várias técnicas, e suas propriedades foram estudadas para confirmar sua nanoestrutura. No estudo in vivo, as nanopartículas foram avaliadas para inspecionar sua atividade citotóxica contra células SNU-182 (carcinoma hepatocelular humano), K562 (leucemia humana) e THLE2 (fígado epitelial humano normal) por meio do teste MTT. A expressão das proteínas sinalizadoras apoptóticas Bcl-2 e Caspase-3 foram inspecionadas através do método RT-PCR. Um efeito citotóxico de MNPs e MFCS foi detectado em culturas de células anteriores. Além disso, a apoptose foi identificada por meio de regulação positiva significativa da Caspase-3, com regulação negativa de Bcl-2. No estudo in vitro, a AML foi induzida em ratos por N-metil-N-nitrosoureia seguida por tratamento oral com MNPS e MFCS. Índices bioquímicos como aspartato e alanina aminotransferases e atividades de lactato desidrogenase, ácido úrico, hemograma completo e Beta-2-microglubulina foram avaliados no soro. A imunofenotipagem para detecção de CD34 e CD38 foi realizada. Fígado, rim e medula óssea foram examinados microscopicamente. A metilação do promotor Bcl-2 e os níveis de mRNA foram examinados. Embora tanto os MNPs quanto os MFCS representem uma melhora nos parâmetros bioquímicos, o MFCS os aliviou em direção ao controle normal. A atividade anticâncer de MNPs e MFCS foi aprovada especialmente para AML. Sempre, a administração de MFCS foi mais eficaz do que MNPs. O presente trabalho é um dos poucos estudos que utilizou o MFCS como agente anticâncer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Liver Neoplasms , Ferric Compounds , Folic Acid
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202

ABSTRACT

Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.


As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Solanum lycopersicum , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254646, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360224

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress (CS) can contribute to dysfunction in several organs including liver and kidney. This study was performed to investigate the changes in serum biochemistry, histological structure, as well as in localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TyrPho) and Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) in liver and kidney tissues of CS rats induced by two stressors (restrained and force swimming) for 60 consecutive days. Samples of blood, liver, and kidney were collected from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. Our results showed that serum biochemical parameters including corticosterone, blood sugar, urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase in CS group were significantly different from that in normal group in both liver and kidney tissues. Although histological structure was not changed. TyrPho expression was significantly increased in liver lysate but significantly decreased in kidney. Hsp-70 expression in liver increased whereas in kidney decreased. In conclusion, CS can induce changes in liver and kidney functions.


O estresse crônico (SC) pode contribuir para a disfunção em vários órgãos, incluindo fígado e rim. Este estudo foi realizado para investigar as alterações na bioquímica sérica, estrutura histológica, bem como na localização de proteínas tirosina fosforiladas (TyrPho) e proteína de choque térmico 70 (Hsp-70) em tecidos hepáticos e renais de ratos CS induzidas por dois estressores (restrito e natação forçada) por 60 dias consecutivos. Amostras de sangue, fígado e rim foram coletadas de ratos Sprague-Dawley machos adultos em cada grupo. Nossos resultados mostraram que os parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, incluindo corticosterona, glicemia, nitrogênio ureico, creatinina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, fosfatase alcalina no grupo CS foram significativamente diferentes do grupo normal em ambos os fígados e tecidos renais. Embora a estrutura histológica não tenha sido alterada, a expressão de TyrPho aumentou significativamente no lisado hepático, mas diminuiu significativamente no rim. A expressão de Hsp-70 no fígado aumentou, enquanto que no rim diminuiu. Em conclusão, a CS pode induzir alterações nas funções hepáticas e renais.


Subject(s)
Rats , Stress, Physiological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499

ABSTRACT

Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.


Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.


Subject(s)
Rats , Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Development , Hypoglycemic Agents , Antioxidants
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253061, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364520

ABSTRACT

Liver fibrosis is initial stage of any chronic liver disease and its end stage is develops into cirrhosis. Chronic liver diseases are a crucial global health issue and the cause of approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide. Cirrhosis is currently the 11th most common cause of death globally. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) treatment is the best way to treat acute and chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to improve the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with melatonin (MLT) to overcome CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and also investigate the individual impact of melatonin and MSCs against CCl4-induced liver impairment in animal model. Female BALB/c mice were used as CCL4-induced liver fibrotic animal model. Five groups of animal model were made; negative control, Positive control, CCl4+MSCs treated group, CCl4+MLT treated group and CCl4+MSCs+MLT treated group. Cultured MSCs from mice bone marrow were transplanted to CCl4-induced liver injured mice model, individually as well as together with melatonin. Two weeks after MSCs and MLT administration, all groups of mice were sacrificed for examination. Morphological and Histopathological results showed that combined therapy of MSCs+MLT showed substantial beneficial impact on CCl4-induced liver injured model, compared with MSCs and MLT individually. Biochemically, considerable reduction was observed in serum bilirubin and ALT levels of MLT+MSC treated mice, compared to other groups. PCR results shown down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Bcl-xl and Albumin, confirm a significant therapeutic effect of MSCs+MLT on CCI4-induced liver fibrosis. From the results, it is concluded that combined therapy of MSCs and MLT show strong therapeutic effect on CCL4-induced liver fibrosis, compared with MSCs and MLT individually.


A fibrose hepática é a fase inicial de qualquer doença hepática crônica, e em sua fase final desenvolve-se para cirrose. As doenças hepáticas crônicas são uma questão de saúde global crucial e a causa de aproximadamente 2 milhões de mortes por ano em todo o mundo. A cirrose, hoje em dia, é a 11ª causa mais comum de morte globalmente. O tratamento da célula-tronco mesenquimal (MSCs) é uma maneira eletiva de tratar a doença hepática aguda e crônica. O objetivo deste estudo é melhorar o potencial terapêutico dos MSCs combinados com a melatonina (MLT) para superar a fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4 e também investigar o impacto individual da melatonina e MSCs contra o comprometimento do fígado induzido por CCl4 no modelo animal. Os ratos BALB / C fêmeas foram usados ​​como modelo de animal fibrótico de fígado induzido por CCl4. Cinco grupos de modelo animal foram feitos: Controle Negativo, Controle Positivo, CCl4 + MSCs Tratados Grupo, Grupo Tratado CCl4 + MLT e Grupo Tratado CCl4 + MSCs + MLT. MSCs cultivados da medula óssea dos ratos foram transplantados para o modelo de camundongos de fígado induzido por CCl4, individualmente, bem como em conjunto com a melatonina. Duas semanas após a administração MSCs e MLT, todos os grupos de camundongos foram sacrificados para o exame. Os resultados morfológicos e histopatológicos mostraram que a terapia combinada do MSCs + MLT mostrou impacto benéfico substancial no modelo ferido no fígado induzido pelo CCl4, em comparação com o MSCs e o MLT individualmente. A redução bioquimicamente considerável foi observada em bilirrubina sérica e níveis ALT de ratinhos tratados com MLT + MSCs, em comparação com outros grupos. Os resultados de PCR mostraram regulação negativa do BAX e regulação positiva do BCL-XL e da albumina, confirmando um efeito terapêutico significativo do MSCs + MLT na fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4. Dos resultados, conclui-se que a terapia combinada de MSCs e MLT mostram um forte efeito terapêutico na fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4, em comparação com MSCs e MLT individualmente.


Subject(s)
Rats , Stem Cells , Fibrosis , Liver , Liver Diseases , Melatonin
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255120, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364532

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) seed ethanolic extract in rats. We assessed the antioxidant potential using free radical scavenging on DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching activity, ferric reducing power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In the antiulcerogenic study, pre-treatment with Plantago ovata seeds ethanolic extract (POE) (400 mg/kg b.wt) significantly protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by decreasing the ulcer index value and preserving the integrity of the gastric mucosa. The oxidative stress status in the stomach tissues showed a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation during pre-treatment with POE. In conclusion, the POE protects against gastric ulcer due to its antioxidant potential and presence of bioactive molecules.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar as atividades antiulcerogênica e antioxidante das sementes de Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) em ratos. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado utilizando o método do sequestro do radical livre DPPH, autooxidação do ß-caroteno, poder redutor de ferro e atividade de sequestro do radical hidroxila. No estudo antiulcerogênico, o pré-tratamento com o extrato etanólico das sementes de Plantago ovata (POE) (400 mg/Kg b.wt) reduziu a úlcera gástrica induzida pelo etanol em ratos, diminuindo o valor do índice de úlcera e preservando a integridade da mucosa gástrica. O estudo do estresse oxidativo nos tecidos estomacais mostrou um aumento significativo dos níveis das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase, com uma diminuição significativa da peroxidação lipídica enquanto pré-tratamento com POE. Em conclusão, o POE protege contra úlcera gástrica devido aos seus potenciais antioxidantes e à presença de moléculas bioativas.


Subject(s)
Rats , Plantago , Stomach Ulcer , Gastric Mucosa , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants
10.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 25(3): 43-54, Sep.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1529068

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of photobiomodulation therapy on bone repair in a rat tibia osteotomy model at 15 and 30 days. The sample consisted of 36 male Holtzman rats that were randomized into 6 equal groups. Groups A1 and A2: osteotomy + 1 J laser energy. Groups B1 and B2: osteotomy + 3 J laser energy. Groups C1 and C2 (controls): osteotomy only. The bone repair was analyzed by histological evaluation of osteoblasts and osteocytes both at 15 days (groups A1, B1, and C1) and at 30 days (groups A2, B2, and C2). Within the results, in all groups a greater number of osteoblasts was found at 15 days vs 30 days (p<0.05), and a greater number of osteocytes in B1 and C2 vs B2 and C1, respectively (p<0.05). When evaluating the 3 groups worked up to 15 days, more osteoblasts were found in A1 and C1 vs B1 (p<0.001); and osteocytes predominated in A1 and B1 vs C1 (p<0.001). At 30 days there was a greater quantity of osteoblasts in C2 vs A2 and B2 (p<0.05) and of osteocytes in C2 vs B2 (p<0.05). It is concluded that 1 J photobiomodulation therapy improved bone repair at 15 days; however, this improvement was not observed at 30 days because there were no differences between the irradiated groups and the control.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio experimental fue determinar el efecto de terapia de fotobiomodulación sobre la reparación ósea en un modelo de osteotomía de tibia de rata a los 15 y 30 días. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 36 ratas Holtzman macho que se aleatorizaron en 6 grupos iguales. Grupos A1 y A2: osteotomía + energía láser de 1 Joule. Grupos B1 y B2: osteotomía + energía láser 3 Joule. Grupos C1 y C2 (controles): solo osteotomía. La reparación ósea fue analizada por evaluación histológica de osteoblastos y osteocitos tanto a los 15 días (grupos A1, B1 y C1) como a los 30 días (grupos A2, B2 y C2). Como resultados se encontró que en todos los grupos hubo mayor número de osteoblastos a los 15 días vs. 30 días (p<0,05), y mayor número de osteocitos en B1 y C2 vs B2 y C1, respectivamente (p<0,05). Al evaluar a los animales a los 15 días, se observó mayor número de osteoblastos en A1 y C1 vs B1 (p<0.001); y mayor número de osteocitos en A1 y B1 vs C1 (p<0,001). Al evaluar a los ratones a los 30 días hubo mayor cantidad de osteoblastos en C2 vs A2 y B2 (p<0,05) y de osteocitos en C2 vs B2 (p<0,05). Se concluye que la terapia de fotobiomodulación con 1 Joule mejoró la reparación ósea a los 15 días; sin embargo, dicha mejora no se observó a los 30 días porque no hubo diferencias entre los grupos irradiados y el control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tibia , Photobiology , Low-Level Light Therapy , Bone and Bones
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3726, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with low-level 660 nm laser alone or associated with Human Amniotic Membrane in the repair of partial-thickness burns in rats. Method: an experimental study conducted with 48 male Wistar rats, randomized into four groups: Control, Human Amniotic Membrane, Low-Level Laser Therapy, and Low-Level Laser Therapy associated with Human Amniotic Membrane. The histopathological characteristics of the skin samples were analyzed 7 and 14 days after the burn. The data obtained were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: the histological analysis of the burn injuries showed a decrease in inflammation (p<0.0001) and an increase in proliferation of fibroblasts (p<0.0001) mainly at 7 days in all treatments related to the control group. At 14 days, the greater effectiveness in accelerating the healing process was significant (p<0.0001) in the Low-Level Laser Therapy group associated with the Human Amniotic Membrane. Conclusion: the association of photobiomodulation therapies with the Human Amniotic Membrane allowed verifying a reduction in the healing process time of the experimental lesions, stimulating its proposal as a treatment protocol in partial-thickness burns.


Resumo Objetivo: avaliar o efeito da fotobiomodulação com laser de baixa intensidade 660 nm isoladamente ou associada à membrana amniótica humana no reparo de queimaduras de espessura parcial em ratos. Método: estudo experimental com 48 ratos Wistar machos, randomizados em quatro grupos: Controle, Membrana Amniótica Humana, Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associado à Membrana Amniótica Humana. As características histopatológicas das amostras de pele foram analisadas aos 7 e 14 dias após a queimadura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Mann Whitney. Resultados: a análise histológica das lesões por queimadura mostrou a diminuição da inflamação (p <0,0001) e aumento da proliferação de fibroblastos (p <0,0001), principalmente nos 7 dias em todos os tratamentos relacionados ao grupo controle. Aos 14 dias, a maior efetividade na aceleração do processo cicatricial foi significativa (p<0,0001) no grupo Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associado à Membrana Amniótica Humana. Conclusão: a associação das terapias de fotobiomodulação à membrana amniótica humana permitiu comprovar redução no tempo do processo cicatricial das lesões experimentais, estimulando sua proposição como protocolo de tratamento em queimaduras de espessura parcial.


Resumen Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la fotobiomodulación con láser de baja intensidad 660 nm de sola o combinada con la membrana amniótica humana en la reparación de quemaduras de espesor parcial en ratas. Método: estudio experimental con 48 ratas Wistar macho, aleatorizadas en cuatro grupos: Control, Membrana Amniótica Humana, Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad y Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad combinada con la Membrana Amniótica Humana. Las características histopatológicas de las muestras de piel fueron analizadas a los 7 y 14 días después de la quemadura. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a las pruebas de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y Mann-Whitney. Resultados: el análisis histológico de las lesiones por quemadura mostró una disminución de la inflamación (p <0,0001) y un aumento de la proliferación de fibroblastos (p <0,0001) principalmente a los 7 días en todos los tratamientos en comparación con el grupo control; a los 14 días, en el grupo de Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad combinada con la Membrana Amniótica Humana la mayor efectividad en la aceleración del proceso de cicatrización fue significativa (p<0,0001). Conclusión: la asociación de terapias de fotobiomodulación con la membrana amniótica humana permitió comprobar que hubo una reducción en el tiempo del proceso de cicatrización de lesiones experimentales, lo cual favorece que se proponga como protocolo de tratamiento en quemaduras de espesor parcial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Skin/injuries , Wound Healing , Burns/pathology , Burns/therapy , Rats, Wistar , Low-Level Light Therapy , Amnion/pathology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1427-1438, oct. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521021

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The main cause of mortality and disability globally is myocardial infarction (MI). Isoproterenol (ISO), a β-adrenoceptor agonist, has been used to induce rat myocardial necrosis. Whereas interleukin-37 (IL-37) has anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. The study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of IL-37 administration on cardiac architecture, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers during ISO-induced MI in rats. Three groups of adult male rats were used in this study, the normal control group (n=8), ISO-induced MI group (n=8) that received isoproterenol hydrochloride (ISO) (100 mg/kg/day, SC, for the first 2 consecutive days), and IL-37-treated group (ISO+IL-37) (n=8) that received recombinant human IL-37 (40 µg/kg /day, intraperitoneally, for 2 weeks during and after ISO injections. Heart rate (HR.) and ECG changes were monitored. Some oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) tissue levels in the tissue homogenate were assayed. Interleukin- 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), caspase-8, P53, and C- reactive protein (CRP) were among the inflammatory markers examined. In addition, serum levels of creatinine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed to evaluate the myocardial injury. For histological analysis, tissues were sectioned, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson Trichrome and, immunohistochemical against NF-kB, TNF-α, and Caspase-9. IL-37 improved ECG changes, cardiac enzyme markers, and some inflammatory markers of oxidative stress in ISO-induced MI. It also improved the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in MI. In conclusion: IL-37 might be a promising therapeutic modality in myocardial infarction.


La principal causa de mortalidad y discapacidad a nivel mundial es el infarto de miocardio (IM). El isoproterenol (ISO), un agonista de los receptores adrenérgicos β, se ha utilizado para inducir necrosis miocárdica en ratas. Mientras que la interleucina-37 (IL-37) tiene propiedades antiinflamatorias y citoprotectoras. El estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los posibles efectos protectores de la administración de IL-37 en la arquitectura cardíaca, el estrés oxidativo y los marcadores inflamatorios durante el infarto de miocardio inducido por ISO en ratas. En este estudio se utilizaron tres grupos de ratas macho adultas, el grupo control normal (n=8), el grupo con IM inducido por ISO (n=8) que recibió clorhidrato de isoproterenol (ISO) (100 mg/kg/día, SC, durante los primeros 2 días consecutivos) y el grupo tratado con IL-37 (ISO+IL- 37) (n=8) que recibió IL-37 humana recombinante (40 µg/kg/día, por vía intraperitoneal, durante 2 semanas durante y después de las inyecciones de ISO. Se monitorearon la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y los cambios en el ECG. Se analizaron algunos marcadores de estrés oxidativo como la superóxido dismutasa (SOD), el óxido nítrico (NOx), el malondialdehído (MDA) y los niveles tisulares de glutatión (GSH) en el homogeneizado de tejido. La interleucina-6 (IL-6), el factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-α), la caspasa-8, la P53 y la proteína C reactiva (CRP) se encontraban entre los marcadores inflamatorios examinados. Se analizaron los niveles de creatinoquinasa (CK-MB) y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH) para evaluar la lesión miocárdica; para el análisis histológico se seccionaron los tejidos, se fijaron en parafina y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina (H&E), Tricromo de Masson e inmunohistoquímica contra NF-kB, TNF-α y Caspasa-9. IL-37 mejoró los cambios de ECG, los marcadores de enzimas cardíacas y algunos marcadores inflamatorios de estrés oxidativo en el IM inducido por ISO. Además mejoró los cambios histopatológicos e inmunohistoquímicos en MI. En conclusión: la IL-37 podría ser una modalidad terapéutica prometedora en el infarto de miocardio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Interleukins/administration & dosage , Heart/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Inflammation , Isoproterenol/adverse effects
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.


La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1537-1549, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521025

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cisplatin (Cis) is an important chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Males exposed to Cis were reported to exhibit testicular toxicity. Cis-induced testicular toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation, testosterone inhibition and apoptosis. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective roles of infliximab (IFX), which is an anti- TNF-a agent, and of white tea (Camellia sinensis), which is known to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects, against Cis-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Rats were randomly assigned into five groups as follows: control group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) treatment group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg) treatment group, cisplatin + white tea (WT) treatment group, and Cisplatin+ WT+IFX combined treatment group. In the present study, Cis exposure reduced the sperm count. It also increased testicular oxidative stress as well as the levels of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Histopathological assays supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with IFX and/or WT restored testicular histology, preserved spermatogenesis, suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis, and significantly ameliorated Cis-induced damage. It was concluded that white tea and infliximab could potentially serve as therapeutic options for the protection of testicular tissue against the harmful effects of Cis.


El cisplatino (Cis) es un importante agente quimioterapéutico utilizado en el tratamiento del cáncer. Se informó que los hombres expuestos a Cis exhibieron toxicidad testicular. La toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis está mediada por el estrés oxidativo, la inflamación, la inhibición de la testosterona y la apoptosis. En consecuencia, este estudio se realizó para evaluar las posibles funciones protectoras de infliximab (IFX), un agente anti-TNF-α, y del té blanco (Camellia sinensis), conocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes, antiapoptóticas y anti-TNF-α -efectos inflamatorios, contra la toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis en ratas. Cinco grupos de ratas se asignaron al azar de la siguiente manera: grupo control, grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/ kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino + té blanco (WT), y grupo de tratamiento combinado Cisplatino+ WT+IFX. En el presente estudio, la exposición a Cis redujo el conteo de espermatozoides. También aumentó el estrés oxidativo testicular, así como los niveles de marcadores inflamatorios y apoptóticos. Los ensayos histopatológicos respaldaron los hallazgos bioquímicos. El tratamiento con IFX y/o WT restauró la histología testicular, preservó la espermatogénesis, suprimió el estrés oxidativo y la apoptosis, y mejoró significativamente el daño inducido por Cis. Se concluyó que el té blanco y el infliximab podrían potencialmente servir como opciones terapéuticas para la protección del tejido testicular contra los efectos nocivos de Cis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tea/chemistry , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cisplatin/toxicity , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Infliximab/pharmacology , Sperm Count , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione/analysis , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde/analysis
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1382-1386, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521046

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Mormodica balsamina is a valuable medicinal plant that is used to treat wounds and inflammation; its leaves are also used as an antibiotic and in the treatment of stomach pain. This study was conducted to determine the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic leaf extract of Mormodica balsamina on ethanol-induced ulcer in albino rats. A total of 32 rats were used for the study. Groups I and II served as the baseline and negative controls respectively, while groups III-VII served as the test groups. Group I was untreated, while group II received 1ml/kg body weight of the vehicle (2 % DMSO). Three test groups (III - V) received methanol extracts (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/kg body weight respectively) while the other three test groups (VI - VIII) received aqueous extracts (75 mg, 150mg, 300 mg/kg body weight respectively) via oral gavage for seven days prior to ulcer induction. The rats were sacrificed, stomachs excised and ulcers scored. Histological sections were produced and examined. Findings revealed that M. balsamina extracts protected the rats' gastric epithelia from ethanol induced ulceration to varying degree with the high dose (150 and 300 mg/kg) of both extracts offering the best preservation (42 % and 50 % ulcer protective index respectively) when compared to untreated animals. Histological findings correlated with calculated ulcer indices, with treated animals having less severe gastric mucosal lesions. In conclusion, extracts of M. balsamina may possess reasonable antiulcer activities in rats against ethanol induced gastric ulcer.


Mormodica balsamina es una valiosa planta medicinal que se utiliza para tratar heridas e inflamaciones; sus hojas también se utilizan como antibiótico y en el tratamiento del dolor de estómago. Este estudio se realizó para determinar la actividad antiulcerosa del extracto metanólico de hojas de Mormodica balsamina sobre la úlcera inducida por etanol en ratas albinas. Se utilizaron un total de 32 ratas para el estudio. Los grupos I y II sirvieron como referencia y controles negativos respectivamente, mientras que los grupos III-VII sirvieron como grupos de prueba. El grupo I no se trató, mientras que el grupo II recibió 1 ml/kg de peso corporal del vehículo (2% de DMSO). Tres grupos de prueba (III - V) recibieron extractos de metanol (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/ kg de peso corporal respectivamente) mientras que los otros tres grupos de prueba (VI - VIII) recibieron extractos acuosos (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/kg de peso corporal respectivamente) por sonda oral durante siete días antes de la inducción de la úlcera. Se sacrificaron las ratas, se extirparon los estómagos y se puntuaron las úlceras. Se realizaron y examinaron secciones histológicas. Los resultados revelaron que los extractos de M. balsamina protegieron el epitelio gástrico de las ratas de la ulceración inducida por etanol en diversos grados, y la dosis alta (150 y 300 mg/kg) de ambos extractos ofreció la mejor conservación (42 % y 50 % de índice de protección contra úlceras, respectivamente) en comparación con los animales no tratados. Los hallazgos histológicos se correlacionaron con los índices de úlcera calculados, y los animales tratados tenían lesiones de la mucosa gástrica menos graves. En extractos de M. balsamina puede poseer actividades antiulcerosas razonables en ratas contra la úlcera gástrica inducida por etanol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Momordica/chemistry , Ethanol/toxicity , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Plants, Medicinal , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Momordica balsamica , Plant Leaves , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/chemistry
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1492-1500, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521050

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the present work was to study the closer effect of clomiphene citrate on the ultrastructure of the testis of adult albino rats to provide a basis for optimizing this drug in the treatment of male infertility. The testes were removed from both groups under anesthesia and then prepared for examination by light using hematoxylin and eosin stains and a transmission electron microscope. Semithin sections were cut into 1 µm thick sections, stained with toluidine blue, and examined by light microscopy for a survey. The desired areas were placed in the center, and other areas were trimmed. Primary spermatocytes showed marked nuclear changes (pyknosis), and their nuclear membranes were ill-defined and disrupted. The cytoplasm showed widespread degeneration of mitochondria and lysosomes and focal degeneration of the rough endoplasmic reticulum compared with the control group. The spermatids were pale, and the two phases of spermatogenesis were distinctly identifiable in the control group but were confused in the treated group. Some spermatids had interrupted nuclear membranes, also containing degenerated mitochondria, focal fragmentation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes. Spermatozoa in the treated group appeared deformed compared to the control, where they had deformed head caps. Leydig cells of the treated group have an irregularly shaped nucleus, with focal chromatin aggregation and peripheral chromatin condensation on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. The observations of the present work indicate a possible causal relationship between testicular affection and ingestion of clomiphene citrate, which can be avoided by close medical observations using ultrasonography, semen analysis, or testicular biopsy to detect early malignant changes. Furthermore, the drug should not be used for more than three to six cycles and should be stopped for at least three cycles before reuse. When clomiphene citrate is ineffective in the treatment of male infertility, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) administration is typically selected. However, high-dose hMG therapy is associated with a variety of adverse effects. In this work, we report the success of a modified clomiphene citrate regimen in increasing sperm count without any hazards to the testicular tissue.


El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del citrato de clomifeno sobre la estructura de los testículos de la rata albina adulta, con la finalidad de determinar la mejor manera de utilizar este fármaco en el tratamiento de la infertilidad masculina. Los testículos se extrajeron bajo anestesia y para su análisis a través de microscopio de luz se tiñeron con HE. Además, las muestras fueron preparadas para su examen con microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Por otra parte, se cortaron secciones semifinas de 1 µm de espesor, se tiñeron con azul de toluidina y se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica. Los espermatocitos primarios mostraron cambios nucleares marcados (picnosis) y sus membranas nucleares estaban mal definidas y alteradas. En el grupo experimental las células presentaban el citoplasma con degeneración generalizada de las mitocondrias y de los lisosomas y una degeneración focal del retículo endoplásmico rugoso en comparación con el grupo control. Las espermátidas estaban pálidas y las dos fases de la espermatogénesis eran claramente identificables en el grupo control, pero se confundían en el grupo tratado. Algunas espermátidas tenían membranas nucleares interrumpidas, y también contenían mitocondrias degeneradas, fragmentación focal del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y ribosomas libres. Los espermatozoides del grupo tratado se presentaban deformados en comparación con el control. Las células de Leydig del grupo tratado presentaban un núcleo de forma irregular, con agregación focal de cromatina y condensación de cromatina periférica en la superficie interna de la membrana nuclear. Las observaciones del presente trabajo indican una posible relación causal entre la afección testicular y la ingestión de citrato de clomifeno, que puede evitarse mediante observaciones médicas minuciosas a través de ecografía, análisis de semen o biopsia testicular para detectar cambios malignos tempranos. Además, el medicamento no debiera ser usado durante más de tres a seis ciclos y debe suspenderse durante al menos tres ciclos antes de volver a usarlo. Cuando el citrato de clomifeno es ineficaz en el tratamiento de la infertilidad masculina, normalmente se selecciona la administración de gonadotropina menopáusica humana (hMG). Sin embargo, la terapia con hMG en dosis altas se asocia con una variedad de efectos adversos. En este trabajo, informamos el éxito de un régimen modificado con citrato de clomifeno para aumentar el recuento de espermatozoides sin riesgo para el tejido testicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Clomiphene/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron
17.
Actual. osteol ; 19(2): 128-143, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523882

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo muestra la obtención de un material a partir de un polímero sintético (TerP) y otro natural, mediante entrecruzamiento físico y su caracterización fisicoquímica y biológica, con el fin de emplearlos para regeneración de tejido óseo. Las membranas fueron obtenidas por la técnica de evaporación del solvente y caracterizadas por espectroscopia FTIR, ensayos de hinchamiento, medidas de ángulo de contacto y microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM). Se encontró que la compatibilidad entre los polímeros que la constituyen es estable a pH fisiológico y que, al incorporar mayor cantidad del TerP a la matriz, esta se vuelve más hidrofóbica y porosa. Además, teniendo en cuenta la aplicación prevista para dichos materiales, se realizaron estudios de biocompatibilidad y citotoxicidad con células progenitoras de médula ósea (CPMO) y células RAW264.7, respectivamente. Se evaluó la proliferación celular, la producción y liberación de óxido nítrico (NO) al medio de cultivo durante 24 y 48 horas y la expresión de citoquinas proinflamatorias IL-1ß y TNF-α de las células crecidas sobre los biomateriales variando la cantidad del polímero sintético. Se encontró mayor proliferación celular y menor producción de NO sobre las matrices que contienen menos proporción del TerP, además de poseer una mejor biocompatibilidad. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el terpolímero obtenido y su combinación con un polímero natural es una estrategia muy interesante para obtener un biomaterial con posibles aplicaciones en medicina regenerativa y que podría extenderse a otros sistemas estructuralmente relacionados. (AU)


In the present work, the preparation of a biomaterial from a synthetic terpolymer (TerP) and a natural polymer, physically crosslinked, is shown. In order to evaluate the new material for bone tissue regeneration, physicochemical and biological characterizations were performed. The membranes were obtained by solvent casting and characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, swelling tests, contact angle measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the compatibility between the polymers is stable at physiological pH and the incorporation of a higher amount of TerP into the matrix increases hydrophobicity and porosity.Furthermore, considering the intended application of these materials, studies of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity were conducted with Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells (BMPCs) and RAW264.7 cells, respectively. Cell proliferation, NO production and release into the culture medium for 24 and 48 hours, and proinflammatory cytokine expression of IL-1ß and TNF-α from cells grown on the biomaterials while varying the amount of the synthetic polymer were evaluated. Greater cell proliferation and lower NO production were found on matrices containing a lower proportion of TerP, in addition to better biocompatibility. The results of this study demonstrate that the obtained terpolymer and its combination with a natural polymer is a highly interesting strategy for biomaterial preparation with potential applications in regenerative medicine. This approach could be extended to other structurally related systems. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Osteogenesis , Polymers/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Bone Regeneration , Chitosan/chemistry , Polymers/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials/toxicity , Materials Testing , Cell Differentiation , Chromatography, Gel , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Cell Culture Techniques , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Chitosan/toxicity
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1027-1035, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by diabetes mellitus (DM) -induced cardiac muscular abnormalities, is a strong inducer of impaired cardiac contraction and arrhythmia. Atrioventricular block, a serious type of arrhythmia resulting from interruption of cardiac impulse conduction via the atrioventricular node (AVN), frequently occurs among diabetic patients. However, details of structural changes in AVN in DM remain poorly explained. Here, this study defined the effects of DM on the morphological remodeling of the AVN in male Sprague Dawley rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). At 24 weeks, the pathological changes in the AVN were assessed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under LM, the AVN in diabetic rats became a less compact mass and exhibited the intracellular vacuolation. The nodal cells were more varied in sizes with the absence or shrinkage of nuclei and clear cytoplasm compared to the control. The collagen content significantly increased in relation to the presence of myofibroblasts. Consistent with LM, TEM images of the diabetic nodal cells revealed several signs of cell damage, such as mitochondrial changes, deterioration of cell organelles, gap junction internalization, and cell separation. Furthermore, changes in AVN innervation, evidenced by damaged Schwann cells and axons, were also found. These results indicated alterations in important components in the AVN during diabetic condition, which may lead to the impairment of electrical conduction, causing abnormal cardiac functions in diabetic patients.


La miocardiopatía diabética, caracterizada por anomalías musculares cardíacas inducidas por diabetes mellitus (DM), es un fuerte inductor de alteración de la contracción cardíaca y arritmia. El bloqueo atrioventricular, un tipo grave de arritmia resultante de la interrupción de la conducción del impulso cardíaco a través del nodo atrioventricular (NAV), se produce con frecuencia entre los pacientes diabéticos. Sin embargo, los detalles de los cambios estructurales en NAV en DM siguen estando pobremente explicados. Aquí, este estudio definió los efectos de la DM en la remodelación morfológica del NAV en ratas macho Sprague Dawley inducidas por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg de peso corporal). A las 24 semanas, los cambios patológicos en el NAV se evaluaron mediante microscopía óptica (MO) y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). Bajo MO, el NAV en ratas diabéticas se convirtió en una masa menos compacta y exhibió la vacuolización intracelular. Las células nodales tenían tamaños más variados con ausencia o contracción de núcleos y citoplasma claro en comparación con el control. El contenido de colágeno aumentó significativamente en relación con la presencia de miofibroblastos. De acuerdo con MO, las imágenes MET de las células nodales diabéticas revelaron varios signos de daño celular, como cambios mitocondriales, deterioro de los orgánulos celulares, internalización de uniones comunicantes y separación celular. Además, también se encontraron cambios en la inervación del NAV, evidenciados por schwannocitos y axones dañados. Estos resultados indicaron alteraciones en componentes importantes en el NAV durante la condición diabética, lo que puede conducir al deterioro de la conducción eléctrica, causando funciones cardíacas anormales en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Node/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1128-1134, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514339

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study investigated the role and mechanism of aspirin combined with rehabilitation training in the nerve injury repair and Schwann cell changes in rats with sciatic nerve injury. Totally, 120 male healthy SD rats were randomly divided into sham, model, aspirin, and aspirin + rehabilitation groups, with 30 rats in each group. The sciatic nerve function index (SFI), photothermal pain tolerance threshold and inclined plane test results at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after operation were compared. The distance of sensory nerve regeneration and the expression of S100B protein in Schwann cells were analyzed. Compared with the sham group, the SFI of the model, aspirin, and aspirin+rehabilitation groups were significantly lower at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after operation. However, the aspirin and aspirin+rehabilitation groups had significantly higher SFI than the model group. The SFI at 6 and 8 weeks after operation was higher in the aspirin+rehabilitation group than that in the aspirin group (P<0.05). The photothermal pain tolerance threshold of the sham, aspirin, and aspirin+rehabilitation groups were significantly higher than those of the model group at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after operation (P<0.05). The inclination angles of the model, aspirin, and aspirin+rehabilitation groups were significantly lower than those of the sham group at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after operation, and the inclination angle of the aspirin+rehabilitation group was significantly higher than that of the model and aspirin groups (P<0.05). The sensory nerve regeneration distance in aspirin and aspirin+rehabilitation groups was higher than that in the sham and model groups (P<0.05). The expression of S100B protein in the aspirin and aspirin+rehabilitation groups was higher than that in the model group (P<0.05). Aspirin combined with rehabilitation training can promote the functional recovery of sciatic nerve injury, and the mechanism may be related to the increase of the expression of S100B protein in Schwann cells.


En este estudio se investigó el papel y el mecanismo que desempeña la aspirina combinada, con el entrenamiento de rehabilitación en la reparación de lesiones nerviosas y los cambios en los schwannocitos en ratas con lesiones en el nervio ciático. En total, 120 ratas SD macho sanas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 30 ratas en cada uno: simulación, modelo, aspirina y aspirina + rehabilitación. Se compararon el índice de función del nervio ciático (SFI), el umbral de tolerancia al dolor fototérmico y los resultados de la prueba del plano inclinado a las 4, 6 y 8 semanas después de la operación. Se analizó la distancia de regeneración del nervio sensorial y la expresión de la proteína S100B en los schwannocitos. En comparación con el grupo simulado, el SFI de los grupos modelo, aspirina y aspirina+rehabilitación fue significativamente menor a las 4, 6 y 8 semanas después de la operación. Sin embargo, los grupos de aspirina y aspirina + rehabilitación tuvieron un SFI significativamente más alto que el grupo modelo. El SFI a las 6 y 8 semanas después de la operación fue mayor en el grupo de aspirina + rehabilitación que en el grupo de aspirina (P<0,05). El umbral de tolerancia al dolor fototérmico de los grupos simulado, aspirina y aspirina+rehabilitación fue significativamente mayor que el del grupo modelo a las 4, 6 y 8 semanas después de la operación (P<0,05). Los ángulos de inclinación de los grupos modelo, aspirina y aspirina+rehabilitación fueron significativamente menores que los del grupo simulado a las 4, 6 y 8 semanas después de la operación, y el ángulo de inclinación del grupo aspirina+rehabilitación fue significativamente mayor que el de los grupos modelo y aspirina (P<0.05). La distancia de regeneración del nervio sensorial en los grupos de aspirina y aspirina+rehabilitación fue mayor que en los grupos simulado y modelo (P<0,05). La expresión de la proteína S100B en los grupos de aspirina y aspirina+rehabilitación fue mayor que en el grupo modelo (P<0,05). La aspirina combinada con el entrenamiento de rehabilitación puede promover la recuperación funcional de la lesión del nervio ciático, y el mecanismo puede estar relacionado con el aumento de la expresión de la proteína S100B en los schwannocitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/cytology , Exercise , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Sciatic Neuropathy/rehabilitation , Schwann Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Pain Threshold , Combined Modality Therapy , Sciatic Neuropathy/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1043-1052, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514344

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with rising incidences worldwide. Gastric symptoms of DM have been reported, including nausea, vomiting, bloating, and epigastric pain. Moreover, acute to chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis occur in DM can affect the chief cells of the gastric gland. Chief cells are vital because of their ability to digest and separate vitamin B12 from protein. Lack of vitamin B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis and abnormal metabolism in red blood cells, and eventually leading to pernicious anemia. Furthermore, decreased vibratory and positional senses, numbness, ataxia with subacute combined degeneration, and dementia are present in pernicious anemic patients. Twenty-four male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into control (n = 12) and diabetic (n = 12) groups. The rats were further separated into two categories: short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) groups. DM model was induced by manually injecting intraperitoneally with streptozotocin in citrate buffer at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The same amount of buffer was injected into the control group. After sacrifice, three regions of the stomach (the cardia, body, and pylorus) were dissected. Histopathology was performed by staining with toluidine blue. Image analysis was used to quantify the zymogen granule accumulation in chief cells. The data were compared between the control and DM rats in each period using Student's t-test. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to examine the ultrastructures. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of zymogen granules in DM rats. Under TEM, the destructions of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in the DM rat were observed in the chief cells. In rats with uncontrolled diabetes, there is damage to the chief cells all over the area of the stomach, affecting digestion and malabsorption of vitamin B12. Therefore, this result helps clinicians recognize that diabetic patients with gastric symptoms may have hidden pernicious anemia.


La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un trastorno metabólico con incidencia creciente a nivel mundial. Se han informado síntomas gástricos de DM, que incluyen náuseas, vómitos, distensión abdominal y dolor epigástrico. Además, la gastritis aguda a crónica y la gastritis atrófica que ocurren en la DM pueden afectar las células principales de la glándula gástrica. Las células principales son vitales debido a su capacidad para digerir y separar la vitamina B12 de las proteínas. La falta de vitamina B12 conduce a una síntesis de ADN deteriorada y un metabolismo anormal en los glóbulos rojos, lo que eventualmente conduce a una anemia perniciosa. Además, los pacientes con anemia perniciosa presentan disminución de los sentidos vibratorio y posicional, entumecimiento, ataxia con degeneración combinada subaguda y demencia. En este estudio se usaron 24 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos control (n = 12) y diabéticas (n = 12). Las ratas se separaron además en dos categorías: grupos a corto plazo (4 semanas) y a largo plazo (24 semanas). El modelo de DM se indujo inyectando manualmente por vía intraperitoneal estreptozotocina en tampón de citrato a una dosis de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se inyectó la misma cantidad de tampón en el grupo control. Después del sacrificio, se disecaron tres regiones del estómago (cardias, cuerpo y píloro). La histopatología se realizó mediante tinción con azul de toluidina. El análisis de imágenes se utilizó para cuantificar la acumulación de gránulos de zimógeno en las células principales. Los datos se compararon entre las ratas control y DM en cada período utilizando la prueba t de Student. Además, se utilizó microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) para examinar la ultraestructura celular. Hubo una disminución significativa en el porcentaje de gránulos de zimógeno en ratas DM. Bajo TEM, se observaron en las células principales las destrucción de las mitocondrias, del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y del complejo golgiense en la rata DM. En ratas con diabetes no controlada, hay daño en las células principales de toda el área del estómago, lo que afecta la digestión y la malabsorción de vitamina B12. Por lo tanto, este resultado ayuda a los médicos a reconocer que los pacientes diabéticos con síntomas gástricos pueden tener una anemia perniciosa oculta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chief Cells, Gastric/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
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