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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 303-314, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343478

ABSTRACT

In this study, against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diapetic nephropathy (DN); it is aimed to investigate the use of thymoquinone (TQ) and ß-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) and to compare the effects of these agents. With random selection of 35 male rats, five groups (seven rats in each group) were constituted as follows: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. In the STZ group; body weight, glutathione (GSH) and insulin levels decreased, relative kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels were increased. Also, in kidney tissue; histopathological changes (such as thickening of the capsular, glomerular and tubular basement membranes, increased mesangial matrix amount, increased cytoplasmic vacuolization in some of the tubular epithelial cells, increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in interstitial tissue) were detected. It was observed that these changes occurring after diabetes mellitus (DM) reversed significantly in TQ, BAIBA and TQ + BAIBA groups.


En este estudio, contra la nefropatía diapética (ND) inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ); tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de timoquinona (TQ) y ácido ß-aminoisobutírico (BAIBA) y comparar los efectos de estos agentes. Con la selección aleatoria de 35 ratas macho, se constituyeron cinco grupos (siete ratas en cada grupo) como sigue: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. En el grupo STZ; el peso corporal, los niveles de glutatión (GSH) y de insulina disminuyeron, el peso relativo de los riñones, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glucosa, el nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y los niveles de creatinina (Cr) aumentaron. Además, en tejido renal; se detectaron cambios histopatológicos (como engrosamiento de las membranas basales capsular, glomerular y tubular, aumento de la cantidad de matriz mesangial, aumento de la vacuolización citoplasmática en algunas de las células epiteliales tubulares, aumento de la expresión del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e infiltraciones de células inflamatorias en tejido intersticial). Se observó que estos cambios que ocurren después de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se revirtieron significativamente en los grupos TQ, BAIBA y TQ + BAIBA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Aminoisobutyric Acids/administration & dosage , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose/analysis , Glutathione/analysis , Kidney/drug effects
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 315-323, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343489

ABSTRACT

To investigate effectsof Yangyinyiqi Mixture on pulmonary fibrosis caused by bleomycin. SD ratswere divided randomly into: model group(distilled water,1 mL·0.1 kg-1), dexamethasone acetate group (dexamethasone acetate, the dosage was reduced gradually), low-dose group (Yangyinyiqi Mixture, 11 g·kg-1), moderate-dose group (Yangyinyiqi Mixture, 22 g·kg-1), high-dose group (Yangyinyiqi Mixture, 44 g·kg-1) and control group (distilled water, 1 mL·0.1 kg-1). Yangyinyiqi Mixture and dexamethasone acetate were intragastrically administrated. Lung tissue was collected for histopathological examination. Compared with control group, collagen markedly increased and HYP content significantly increased on 7th day in model group (p<0.01). On 28th day, collagen was diffusely deposited, alveolar was destroyed, and HYP content significantly increased (p<0.01). Compared with model group, bleomycin-induced suffering injury caused MMP-9 expression levels to rapidly increase (7and 14 days, p<0.01). TIMP-1 markedly increased (7and 14 days, p<0.01) and stayed at a high level to28th day. Yangyinyiqi Mixture exerted an effect against pulmonary fibrosis, which could involved prevention of collagen deposition through inhibitingMMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression.


El trabajo investiga los efectos de la mezcla Yangyinyiqi sobre la fibrosis pulmonary causada por bleomicina. Ratas SD se dividieron aleatoriamente en: grupo modelo (agua destilada, 1 mL·0.1 kg-1), grupo acetate de dexametasona (acetate de dexametasona, la dosis se redujo gradualmente), grupo de dosis baja (mezcla Yangyinyiqi, 11 g·kg-1), grupo de dosis moderada (mezcla Yangyinyiqi, 22 g·kg-1), grupo de dosis alta (mezcla Yangyinyiqi, 44 g·kg-1) y grupo control (agua destilada, 1 Ml·0.1 kg-1). La mezcla de Yangyinyiqi y el acetate de dexametasona se administraron por vía intragástrica. Se recolectó tejido pulmonary para examen histopatológico. En comparación con el grupo control, el colágeno aumentó notablemente y el contenido de HYP aumentó significativamente el séptimo día en el grupo modelo (p<0.01). El día 28, el colágeno se depositó difusamente, se produjo destrucción alveolar y el contenido de HYP aumento significativamente (p<0.01). En comparación con el grupo modelo, la lesión inducida por bleomicina causó que los niveles de expression de MMP-9 aumentaron rápidamente (7 y 14 días, p<0.01). TIMP-1 aumentó notablemente (7 y 14 días, p<0.01) y se mantuvo en un nivel alto hasta el día 28. La mezcla Yangyinyiqi ejerció un efecto contra la fibrosis pulmonary, lo que podría implicar la prevención del deposito de colágenio mediante la inhibición de la expression de MMP-9 y TIMP-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Bleomycin , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Disease Models, Animal , Hydroxyproline/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879137

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of Xiaoer Feike Granules(XEFK) on chronic bronchitis in rats and its mechanism. Except for 10 rats in the blank group, the remaining 50 of the 60 SD rats were used to establish a model of chronic bronchitis induced by LPS. On the 22 nd day, the model rats were randomly divided into 5 groups according to their body weight, and administrated with purified water, Keteling Capsules 0.11 g·kg~(-1), XEFK 3.2, 1.6 and 0.8 g·kg~(-1)(the dosing concentrations were 0.32, 0.16, 0.08 g·mL~(-1), respectively). These rats took the corresponding drug orally once a day, for consecutive 21 days. The rats were anesthetized 1 hour after the last administration, and the lavage bronchus and alveoli were collected. Then, after the fixation of the smear, neutrophils were counted microscopically, and the contents of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and malondialdehyde(MDA) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) were detected by colorimetric method. Flow cytometry was used to detect the content changes of T cell subsets CD4~+, CD8~+, CD4~+/CD8~(+ )in serum. Hemorheology related indexes were detected by automatic hemorheology. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the contents of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in serum. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in lung was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR). HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the bronchitis tissues. Compared with the model group, XEFK high and medium dose groups could significantly reduce the contents of neutrophils and MDA in bronchial lavage fluid, and increase the activities of GSH-Px and SOD in BALF, and repair the chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and lymphoid tissue hyperplasia in the bronchial mucosal layer and submucosal layer. The high-dose group could reduce the plasma viscosity of rats, but there was no statistical difference in other hemorheological indexes. CD4~+, CD8~+, CD4~+/CD8~+, IL-2 and IL-10 contents in each dose group were significantly increased, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 contents were significantly decreased in serum. Each dose group could significantly down-regulate the expression level of TNF-α mRNA in the lung and increase the expression of IL-10 mRNA. XEFK could reduce lipid peroxidation, increase the content of peripheral blood T cell subsets, regulate the release and secretion of inflammatory factors, and repair the morphological and pathological changes of bronchial tissue. Its mechanism might be related to the improvement of inflammatory response and the enhancement of immune function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchitis, Chronic/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glutathione Peroxidase , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879094

ABSTRACT

This article aims to investigate the ameliorative effect of Linderae Radix ethanol extract on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet and to explore its possible mechanism from the perspective of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT). SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, atorvastatin group, Linderae Radix ethanol extract(LREE) of high, medium, low dose groups. Except for the normal group, the other groups were fed with a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia rat models; the normal group and the model group were given pure water, while each administration group was given corresponding drugs by gavage once a day for five weeks. Serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels were measured by automatic blood biochemistry analyzer; the contents of TC, TG, total bile acid(TBA) in liver and TC and TBA in feces of rats were detected by enzyme colorimetry. HE staining was used to observe the liver tissue lesions; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ATP-binding cassette G8(ABCG8) in small intestine; Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/aerfa(PPARγ/α), liver X receptor-α(LXRα), ATP-binding cassette A1(ABCA1) pathway protein and scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ(SR-BⅠ) in liver. The results showed that LREE could effectively reduce serum and liver TC, TG levels, serum LDL-c levels and AST activity, and increase HDL-c levels, but did not significant improve ALT activity and liver index; HE staining results showed that LREE could reduce liver lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, LREE also increased the contents of fecal TC and TBA, and up-regulated the protein expressions of ABCG8 in small intestine and PPARγ/α, SR-BⅠ, LXRα, and ABCA1 in liver. LREE served as a positive role on hyperlipidemia model rats induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to the regulation of RCT, the promotion of the conversion of cholesterol to the liver and bile acids, and the intestinal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. RCT regulation might be a potential mechanism of LREE against hyperlipidemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879024

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the protective effect of total flavonoids from Rosa multiflora(TF-RM) on the injury of HUVEC induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL). SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, simvastatin group(1.8 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and TF-RM group(2.5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with 10 rats in each group. They were intragastrically administered with drugs for 7 days, and then blood was collected from the abdominal aorta to prepare drug-containing serum. The HUVEC injury model was established through ox-LDL induction, and added with 15% simvastatin, 5% TF-RM, 10% TF-RM, 15% TF-RM drug-containing serum and blank serum, respectively. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) was determined by flow cytometry. Nitric oxide(NO) content was determined by nitrate reductase method. The contents of ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA. The expression of Lox-1 protein was determined by Western blot. Compared with the blank group, ROS level in HUVEC and the contents of ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-1β in HUVEC were significantly increased(P<0.05), NO decreased significantly(P<0.01),Lox-1 protein expression increased significantly(P<0.05), and TNF-α and IL-6 showed an increasing trend. Compared with the model group, TF-RM significantly reduced ROS level in HUVEC and ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1β content in supernatant(P<0.05), significantly increased NO content(P<0.01), and inhibited Lox-1 protein expression(P<0.05). VCAM-1, IL-6 contents showed a decreasing trend. Serum containing TF-RM acts on lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptors, and exerts a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells by reducing cell oxidative damage, regulating vasoactive substances, and reducing adhesion molecules and inflammatory cascades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Lipoproteins, LDL , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rosa
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879023

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of Baihe Dihuang Decoction on the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons in rats with anxious depression. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, venlafaxine group(6.75 mg·kg~(-1)), high-dose Baihe Dihuang Decoction group(8.64 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose Baihe Dihuang Decoction group(4.32 g·kg~(-1)). Chronic restraint stress(6 h) combined with corticosterone(ih, 30 mg·kg~(-1)) was used to establish an anxious depression model, and 7 days after modeling, the administration started and continued for 21 days. The anxiety and depression-like behaviors of the rats were evaluated. Golgi-Cox staining and electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and ultrastructural changes of synaptic dendrites. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity protein synapsin-1 and postsynaptic density protein 95(PSD-95). Western blot method was used to detect the expression of functional protein synaptophysin(SYP) and synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein(SynGap). The results showed that the rats in the model group had obvious anxiety and depression-like behaviors, the hip-pocampal dendritic spine density and branch length were reduced, the number of synapses was cut, and the internal structure was da-maged. The average fluorescence intensity of synapsin-1 and PSD-95 was significantly reduced and the expression of SYP and SynGap also decreased. High-dose Baihe Dihuang Decoction could significantly improve the anxiety and depression-like behaviors of model rats, relieve synaptic damage, and increase the expression of synapsin-1, PSD-95, SYP, and SynGap proteins. Therefore, we believe that Baihe Dihuang Decoction can improve anxiety and depression behaviors by regulating the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression/drug therapy , Hippocampus , Neuronal Plasticity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Synapses
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878987

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Gegen Qinlian Decoction(GQD) on enzyme activity, gene expression and methylation level of fatty acid synthase(FASN) in adipose tissue from rats with insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet. The 60% fat-powered high-fat diet was continuously given to male SD rats to induce the insulin resistance model. Then, they were divided into five groups randomly and administrated by gavage every day for 16 weeks with following drugs respectively: 10 mL·kg~(-1)water for control group(C) and insulin resistance model control group(IR), 1.65 g·kg~(-1)GQD per day for low-dose group(GQDL), 4.95 g·kg~(-1)GQD per day for medium-dose group(GQDM), 14.85 g·kg~(-1)GQD per day for high-dose group(GQDH), and 5 mg·kg~(-1) rosiglitazone per day for rosiglitazone group(RGN). Epididymal adipose tissue was taken to determine enzyme activity of FASN by colorimetric method, mRNA expression level of Fasn by quantitative Real-time PCR(Q-PCR) and CpGs methylation level between +313 and +582 by bisulfite sequencing PCR(BSP). These results showed that Fasn expression was significantly lowered in IR model rats compared with the control rats(P<0.01). Enzymatic activity and CpGs methylation level of Fasn in IR group showed downward trends. Low and medium-dose GQD can increase enzyme activity of FASN(P<0.05). Moreover, low-dose GQD increased the total CpGs methylation level of Fasn fragment between +313 and +582 in insulin resistance rats(P<0.05). For GQDM group, the methylation frequency of CpGs at positions +506 and +508(P<0.01) as well as the methylation frequency of CpGs on the binding sites of transcription factorzinc finger protein 161(P<0.05) were significantly increased. The methylation frequency of CpG at +442 position was positively correlated with Fasn expression(P<0.01, r=0.735), and methylation frequencies of CpGs at +345 and +366 positions were positively associated to enzyme activity of FASN respectively(P<0.05, r=0.479; P<0.01, r=0.640). In conclusion, GQD can reverse enzyme activity of FASN and methylation level of Fasn in adipose tissue of insulin resistant rats, and CpG sites at positions +506 and +508 may be the targets of GQD. The methylation level of CpGs at + 345 and + 366 sites were possibly related to FASN activity, while methylation of CpG at + 442 site may be closely correlated with mRNA level of Fasn. In addition, GQD did not significantly change mRNA expression level of Fasn, but effectively reversed enzymatic activity, suggesting that GQD may regulate the post transcriptional expression of Fasn.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Gene Expression , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Male , Methylation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878963

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a method for the determination of the concentration of five main components of phthalide target areas of Chaxiong(CPTA) and its inclusion of β-CD in the plasma of rats, and determine the pharmacokinetic parameters, absolute bioavailability and relative bioavailability of CPTA/β-CD inclusion compound in vivo. The plasma concentrations of senkyunolide A, N-butylphthalide, new osthol lactone, Z-ligustilide and butenyl phthalide were determined with UPLC-MS/MS. The content determination was conducted at the chromatographic conditions as follows: Shim-pack GIST C_(18)-AQ HP column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 3 μm), mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B), gradient elution, flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), column temperature of 35 ℃ and injection volume of 2 μL. The mass spectra were obtained with electrospray ion source(ESI), positive ion mode and multi reaction monitoring. CPTA/β-CD inclusion compound was prepared by grinding method, DAS 2.0 software was used to model the data, and the absolute bioavailability of CPTA and relative bioavailability of inclusion compound were calculated. Finally, the methods for the determination of five components of senkyunolide A, N-butylphthalide, new osthol lactone, Z-ligustilide and butenyl phthalide in CPTA, were successfully established. The linear relationship among the five components was good within their respective ranges, r>0.99. The absolute bioavailability of the five components in rats was 22.30%, 16.32%, 21.90%, 10.16% and 12.43%, respectively. After CPTA/β-CD inclusion was prepared, the relative bioavailability of the five components was 138.69%, 198.39%, 218.01%, 224.54% and 363.55%, respectively, significantly improved. This method is rapid, accurate and sensitive, so it is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of extracts in traditional Chinese medicine and their preparations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878949

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology, molecular docking and in vivo experiments were used to explore the pharmacodynamic basis and potential mechanism of Danggui Sini Decoction in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea(PD). The chemical constituents of Danggui(Angelicae Sinensis Radix), Guizhi(Cinnamomi Ramulus), Tongcao(Tetrapanacis Medulla), Baishao(Paeoniae Radix Alba), Xixin(Asari Radix et Rhizoma), Gancao(Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma), and Dazao(Jujubae Fructus) from Danggui Sini Decoction were retrieved through TCMSP(Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database), and the action targets of Danggui Sini Decoction were collected through DrugBank. "Primary dysmenorrhea" and "dysmenorrhea" were used as the key words to search the corresponding targets in the GeneCards, OMIM and TTD databases, and then the intersection targets of Danggui Sini Decoction and the primary dysmenorrhea targets were taken for reverse screening to obtain the corresponding active ingredients. Cytoscape 3.6.1 software was used to construct a traditional Chinese medicine-compound-target-disease network; STRING database was used to build a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network; Gene ontology(GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were conducted by using DAVID database. The action mechanism of the intersection targets were then predicted, and a histogram chart and bubble chart were drawn for visualization. Then the top five targets in the PPI network were used for docking with the most compounds. In animal experiments, Sprague Dawley(SD) female rats were used to establish a primary dysmenorrhea model by intraperitoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol once a day. A total of 60 SD female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely control group, model group, Danggui Sini Decoction low(1.5 g·kg~(-1)), medium(3.0 g·kg~(-1)), high(6.0 g·kg~(-1)) dose groups, and ibuprofen(20 mg·kg~(-1)) positive control group, with 10 rats in each group. From day 4, except for the control group, rats in the other groups were given intragastric administration of corresponding drugs, and the control group received intragastric administration of normal saline for 7 consecutive days. The number of writhing before and after the administration, the ute-rine contraction inhibition rate and the uterine index after administration were observed, and ELISA assay was used to detect the levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA) in the tissues of each group as well as the levels of serum inflammatory factors interleukin 1(IL-1), interleukin 6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α). According to network analysis, 7 Chinese medicines contained 114 active ingredients, 149 targets, and 30 common target genes with PD were obtained. The key targets included VEGFA, IL6, PTGS2, TNF, etc.; GO function enrichment analysis showed a total of 399 terms(P<0.05) were obtained, 353 of which were biological process(BP) terms, 21 were cell composition(CC) terms, and 25 were molecular function(MF) terms. In KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, 14 signaling pathways were obtained, 3 of which were related to inflammation, namely arachidonic acid metabolism, MAPK signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. The compounds in Danggui Sini Decoction can play a therapeutic role in the treatment of PD by acting on VEGFA, IL-6, PTGS2, TNF and other targets to regulate arachidonic acid and inflammatory signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Dysmenorrhea/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878930

ABSTRACT

The present study is to investigate the absorption characteristics of the main components in Polygonum orientale extract in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia model rats with everted intestinal sac models. Intestinal sac fluid samples were collected in different part of intestine(duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon) at different time after administration of different concentration of P. orientale extract(5.0,10.0, 20.0 mg·mL~(-1)). An UPLC-TQD method was employed for the determination of six components including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, protocatechuic acid, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercitrin in the intestinal sac samples. The absorption rate and cumulative absorption were calculated to analyze the intestinal absorption characteristics of six components in normal and myocardial ischemia model rats. The P-glycoprotein(P-gp) inhibitor was applied to investigate influence of intestinal absorption of six components in P. orientale extract. The results showed that the main absorption sites were concentrated on the duodenum at low concentration, while they were the colon at the medium concentration and the ileum at high concentration in control groups. In the condition of myocardial ischemia model, the main absorption sites focus on the ileum and jejunum at low concentration; the main absorption sites were in the ileum at the medium concentration and main absorption sites were the duodenum and ileum at high concentration. Compared with the normal group, the absorption rate and cumulative absorption of the six components significantly decreased in the model group. P-gp inhibitor markedly increased the absorption rate and cumulative absorption of six components in the model group, inferring that the 6 components may be the substrates of P-gp, and the mechanism needs further study. In this study, it is revealed that the six components of P. orientale extract can be absorbed into the intestinal sac, and it is an effective method to assess the intestinal absorption characteristics of P. orientale extract through everted intestinal sac model, providing data support for the clinical application and further development of P. orientale.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestinal Absorption , Intestines , Isoproterenol , Myocardial Ischemia/chemically induced , Polygonum , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878929

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the improvement effect of ethanol extract from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(CRP) on triglyceride of hyperlipidemia model rats, and to explore the possible mechanism. SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive control group, and high, medium and low-dose CRP ethanol extract groups, with 10 rats in each group. During the experiment, except for the normal group that was fed with distilled water and ordinary feed, rats in the other groups were given different concentrations of alcohol and fed with high-sugar and fat diets. All rats were given free diets. While being modeled, each group was administered with 0.01 mL·g~(-1) by gavage once a day for six weeks. Blood samples were collected after two weeks, four weeks and six weeks of drug treatment. After the completion of the experiment, blood, liver and adipose tissue were collected. Triglyceride(TG), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in serum, TG in liver tissue and TG in fecal were detected. Free fatty acid(FFA) and triglyceride-related hydrolase, such as adipose tiglyceride lipase(ATGL), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), hepatic lipase(HL), hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase(HSL) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors(PPARγ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c(SREBP-1 c) and farnesoid X receptor(FXR) were determined by RT-PCR. Compared with the model group, each administration group could reduce TG levels in serum and liver to varying degrees, reduce serum ALT, AST, ALP activities, significantly reduce free fatty acid content in serum, significantly increase triglyceride metabolism-related enzymes, including fat ATGL, LPL and liver HL content, and significantly reduced the content of fat HSL. According to the study of transcriptional regulation genes relating to triglyceride metabolism, extract from CRP could significantly increase the mRNA expressions of PPARγ and FXR. In conclusion, ethanol extract from CRP could ob-viously reduce the TG level of hyperlipidemia model rats, and might reduce plasma TG content by increasing PPARγ-LPL/ATGL and FXR-HL triglyceride hydrolysis pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol , Hyperlipidemias/genetics , Liver , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878927

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius in lowering uric acid and changing the gut microbiome in hyperuricemia rats. A total of 36 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, positive drug control group, and high-dose, middle-dose and low-dose P. igniarius ethanol extract groups, with 6 rats in each group. Hyperuricemia rats were established by D-fructose combined with oteracil potassium(OAPS). One week later, the positive control group was given allopurinol 50 mg·kg~(-1) intragastrically, and P. igniarius ethanol extract groups were treated with 30, 60 and 90 mg·kg~(-1) drugs for 14 consecutive days. Body weight, blood glucose and serum uric acid(SUA) were monitored every week. After the model rats were administered with the ethanol extracts of P. igniarius by gavage for two weeks, the activities of creatinine, BUN, xanthine oxidase(XOD) and adenosine deaminase(ADA) were detected. The right kidney was taken to analyze the histological and morphological changes and the degree of damage to main organs of the extract of P. igniarius. The 16 S rDNA gene sequence technique was used to analyze the guts microbiota composition in feces. The results indicated that ethanol extract of P. igniarius could significantly lower the SUA level(P<0.01), while inhibiting the activities of XOD and ADA(P<0.05, P<0.01). Histological examination showed that the allopurine group showed slight renal tubular dilation and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the normal group, with no significant difference between the P. igniarius ethanol extract groups and the normal group. The 16 S sequencing results showed that the composition of gut microbiota has changed in each group. Therefore, ethanol extracts of P. igniarius may reduce the level of SUA in rats by inhibiting the activities of XOD and ADA, with a certain effect on the composition of gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hyperuricemia , Phellinus , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Uric Acid
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878893

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the potential mechanism of curcumin in mediating interleukin-6(IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) signaling pathway to repair intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) chemotherapy for colon cancer. SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) 5-FU for 4 days to establish a model of intestinal mucosal injury. Then the rats were randomly divided into model group(equal volume of normal saline), curcumin low, medium and high dose groups(50, 100, 200 mg·kg~(-1)), and normal SD rats were used as control group(equal volume of normal saline). Each group received gavage administration for 4 consecutive days, and the changes of body weight and feces were recorded every day. After administration, blood was collected from the heart, and jejunum tissues were collected. The levels of serum interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were detected by ELISA, and at the same time, the concentration of Evans blue(EB) in jejunum was measured. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological state of jejunum, and the length of jejunum villi and the depth of crypt were measured. The positive expression levels of claudin, occludin and ZO-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, E-cadherin, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues. The results showed that, curcumin significantly increased body weight and fecal weight(P<0.05 or P<0.01), decreased fecal score, EB concentration, IL-1β and TNF-α levels(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in rats. In addition, curcumin maintained the integrity of mucosal surface and villi structure of jejunum to a large extent, and reduced pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, curcumin could increase the positive expression of occludin, claudin and ZO-1(P<0.05 or P<0.01), repair intestinal barrier function, downregulate the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and upregulate the protein expression of E-cadherin(P<0.05). Therefore, curcumin could repair the intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-FU chemotherapy for colon cancer, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signal and the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Curcumin , Fluorouracil/toxicity , Interleukin-6/genetics , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878892

ABSTRACT

The rat osteoarthritis model was replicated by injection of sodium iodoacetate into the knee joint cavity, and the effects of Gancao Fuzi Decoction on rat osteoarthritis and the proteome of articular cartilage were investigated. Sixty SD rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into normal group, model group, glucosamine sulfate group, and Gancao Fuzi Decoction high, medium and low dose groups. Osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of sodium iodoacetate(3 mg on each leg) in all groups except the normal group. After modeling, each administration group was given intragastric administration for 1 month. During the administration period, joint pain test and joint width measurement were performed every week to observe the autonomous behavior of rats. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) method was used to detect the contents of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-3(MMP-3), and matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor(TIMP-1) in rat joint lavage fluid. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe bone and joint morphology. Nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap system was used to detect arti-cular cartilage proteins. The results showed that, compared with the model group, Gancao Fuzi Decoction could significantly improve joint pain and joint swelling in osteoarthritis rats, significantly reduce the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β and MMP-3 in the joint cavity la-vage fluid, increase the content of TIMP-1, and relieve inflammatory diseases such as enlarged joint space, rough cartilage edge, different thickness of cartilage layer, and disordered arrangement of chondrocytes. After comparing the proteins between the groups, 273 differential proteins were screened out. KEGG analysis found that the above differential proteins involved 43 signaling pathways such as systemic lupus erythematosus, among which 11 signaling pathways were related to osteoarthritis. The above results indicated that Gancao Fuzi Decoction had a preventive effect on osteoarthritis, and its mechanism of action may be accomplished by regulating the protein expression of osteoarthritis-related signal pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cartilage, Articular , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts , Proteomics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878726

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine(Dex)on sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal rats through Wnt signaling pathway. Methods Sixty 7-day-old SD rats were assigned into five groups:control group(without any intervention),Dex group(intraperitoneal injection of 25 μg/kg Dex),sevoflurane group(3% sevoflurane treatment for 4 hours),sevoflurane+Dex group(inhalation of 3% sevoflurane after injection of 25 μg/kg Dex for 4 hours),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(Wnt inhibitor XAV393 and 25 μg/kg Dex were injected and 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 4 hours).Three weeks later,Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function;TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons;neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining was conducted to detect the survival of hippocampal neurons;Western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.The expression of the factors involved in Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,and Western blot. Results Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the escape latency of Dex group(t=0.304,P=0.768);the escape latency in sevoflurane group(t=5.823,P=0.002),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.188,P=0.010),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=5.784,P=0.002)was significantly prolonged.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.646,P=0.005)was significantly shortened.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.296,P=0.008)was prolonged.Compared with that in the control group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane group(t=5.179, P=0.004),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=2.309,P=0.043),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.871, P=0.003)decreased.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.296,P=0.008)significantly increased.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=2.361, P=0.041)reduced.Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in Dex group(t=1.920,P=0.127),and the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane group,sevoflurane+Dex group,and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 16%(t=13.436,P=0.002),5%(t=7.752, P=0.001),and 11.5%(t=12.612,P=0.002),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 11%(t=8.521,P=0.002)and 5.5%(t=3.123,P=0.036),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane+Dex group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 6.5%(t=6.250,P=0.003).Compared with that in the control group,the number of positive cells in 0.15 mm


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cognitive Dysfunction/chemically induced , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurane/toxicity , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.@*Methods@#Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca @*Results@#An increase of cytoplasmic Ca @*Conclusion@#The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cerebral Arteries , Homeostasis , Male , Mitochondria/physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 263-274, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878255

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant (IR) rats and the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at age of 10 weeks were fed with HFD for 10 weeks to establish IR model. The IR rats were then randomly assigned into 3 groups, including IR control (IR) group, aerobic exercise (AE) group and resistance exercise (RE) group. An additional chow diet sedentary control (CON) group was used as well. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FIN), glucagon and lipids, as well as triacylglycerol (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) in skeletal muscles were measured after 8-week exercise interventions. The results showed that the contents of FBG, FIN, and LDL-C were increased by IR compared with CON group, and significantly decreased by aerobic exercise and resistance exercise; while aerobic exercise induced an increase in HDL-C as well. Furthermore, IR exhibited no significant effects on TG content of skeletal muscles, but significantly increased FFA level. Both aerobic and resistance exercise led to a decrease in TG content, and FFA level was increased by aerobic exercise but deceased by resistance exercise. In addition, the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ was increased and that of CPT-1 was decreased by IR, while both types of exercise resulted in a decrease in the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ, and an increase in CPT-1. In conclusion, aerobic and resistance exercise may attenuate IR through decreasing HFD-induced ectopic fat deposition and increasing β-oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells, and resistance exercise shows a greater improvement in lipid metabolism of skeletal muscles than aerobic exercise.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 223-232, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878251

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the role of GluN2B-BDNF pathway in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) in neuropathic pain. Intra-lateral ventricle injection of cholera toxin subunit B conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (CBHRP) was used to label the CSF-CN. Double-labeled immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were used to observe the expression of GluN2B and BDNF in the CSF-CN. Chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) rat model was used to duplicate the neuropathic pain. Pain behavior was scored to determine the analgesic effects of GluN2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 and BDNF neutralizing antibody on CCI rats. GluN2B and BDNF were expressed in the CSF-CN and their expression was up-regulated in CCI rats. Intra-lateral ventricle injection of GluN2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 or BDNF neutralizing antibody notably alleviated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. Moreover, the increased expression of BDNF protein in CCI rats was reversed by intra-lateral ventricle injection of Ro 25-6981. These results suggest that GluN2B and BDNF are expressed in the CSF-CN and alteration of GluN2B-BDNF pathway in the CSF-CN is involved in the modulation of the peripheral neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Hyperalgesia , Neuralgia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 51-61, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878235

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the composition and content of pulmonary surfactant (PS) were analyzed to explore the hypoxia adaptation mechanism in plateau zokors (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae). 36 plateau zokors and plateau pikas were trapped alive at the Laji Mountain in Guide County, Qinghai Province (at the altitude of about 3 600 m), and 36 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were purchased from the experimental animal center of Lanzhou University (at the altitude of about 1 500 m). All animals were lavaged after laboratory anesthesia, the blood in lung tissues was fully washed out and the lung tissues were then taken out to obtain the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by bronchoalveolar lavage. The composition and content of phospholipids in the PS of three different kinds of animals were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography; the protein composition, content and types in the PS were analyzed by G-250 Coomassie brilliant blue method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and mass spectrometry; the dissolved oxygen in the PS solutions were determined by using dissolved oxygen electrode. The results showed that the total contents of phospholipids in the PS were successively increased among plateau zokors, plateau pikas and SD rats (P 0.05). The relative content of PSe had no significant differences between plateau zokors and plateau pikas (P > 0.05), but both were significantly higher than that of SD rats (P < 0.01). The serum albumin (SA) was identified in the PS of three kinds of animals, including homologous tetramer protein containing heme, which is composed of hemoglobin β subunit, in plateau zokors and plateau pikas. Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain was found in PS of plateau zokors and SD rats. The content of Ig heavy chain in plateau zokor was significantly higher than that in SD rats (P < 0.01), and the content of protein containing heme was significantly higher than that in plateau pikas (P < 0.05). The amount of dissolved oxygen was successively decreased in the PS among plateau zokors, plateau pikas and SD rats (P < 0.01), but it was significantly higher than that in saline (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the total content of proteins in the PS of plateau zokors and plateau pikas was significantly higher, while the total content of phospholipids was significantly decreased. There were high content of homologous tetramer protein containing heme in the PS of plateau zokors and plateau pikas. The relative content of DPPC, the main component of phospholipids, was significantly increased in plateau zokors. The changes of PS component and content improve the adaptability of the two plateau animals in hypoxia environment.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Animals , Hypoxia , Lagomorpha , Pulmonary Surfactants , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on inflammatory reaction, apoptosis and expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) of ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of its neuroprotection effect.@*METHODS@#A total of 84 SD rats were randomized into a sham operation group (12 rats), a model group (18 rats), an EA group (18 rats), an EA+YAP virus transfection group (18 rats) and an EA+virus control group (18 rats). Except for the sham operation group, thread embolization method was adopted to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats of the other groups. EA was applied at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) for 30 min in the 3 EA intervention groups 2 h before model establishment, disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and 1 mA in intensity. Adenovirus transfection technique was used to induce gene silencing of YAP in the EA+YAP virus transfection group, and adenovirus vectors was injected as negative control in the EA+virus control group 4 d before model establishment. Twenty-four hours after model establishment, neurological function score was evaluated, the relative cerebral infarction area was observed by TTC staining, the apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex was detected by TUNEL staining, the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex was detected by ELISA method, the expression of YAP was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham operation group, the expression of YAP was increased in the model group (@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture pretreatment can effectively improve the ischemia reperfusion injury, its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the expression of YAP in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex and relieving the apoptosis and inflammatory reaction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/therapy
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