Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 11.728
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202

ABSTRACT

Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.


As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Lycopersicon esculentum , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237412, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355854

ABSTRACT

Abstract Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non-castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.


Resumo Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Seizures/chemically induced , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Muscarinic Agonists/toxicity , Models, Theoretical
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Asteraceae , Antioxidants , DNA Damage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Obesity/drug therapy
6.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 180-186, out.2022. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399804

ABSTRACT

Introdução: estudos sugerem forte associação da exposição perinatal e pós-natal a dietas ricas em gordura e complicações cardiovasculares. Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos da exposição a dieta hiperlipídica no período perinatal e pós desmame sobre indicadores de risco cardiometabólico e alterações histomorfometrica na aorta em ratos. Metodologia: Ratas Wistar foram separadas em grupos de acordo com a dieta durante a gestação e lactação: dieta controle (n=3) e dieta hiperlipídica (n=3). No 21º dia de vida filhotes machos foram divididos em subgrupos (n=6): CC: formado por ratos expostos a dieta controle durante toda a vida; CH: formado por ratos cuja a mãe consumiu dieta controle e após o desmame os filhotes consumiram dieta hiperlipídica; HH: formado por filhotes expostos a dieta hiperlipídica durante toda a vida e HC: formado por ratos cuja a mãe consumiu dieta hiperlipídica e após o desmame os filhotes consumiram dieta controle. No 60º dia de vida, IMC, índices aterogênicos, proteína C reativa e histomorfometria da aorta dos descendentes foram avaliados. Resultados: o grupo HC apresentou maior IMC em comparação aos grupos HH e CH (p= 0,0004). A razão colesterol total / HDL-colesterol foi maior para o grupo CH comparado ao CC e HC (p = 0,016). Coeficiente aterogênico (p = 0,003), espessura da aorta (p = 0,003) e quantidade de lamelas elásticas (p = 0,0002) foram maiores nos grupos CH e HH em comparação a CC e HC. Conclusão: exposição a dieta hiperlipídica nos períodos perinatal e pós desmame aumentou o risco cardiometabólico e alterou a histomorfometria aórtica de ratos.


Background: studies suggest a strong association of perinatal and postnatal exposure to high-fat diets and cardiovascular complications. Objective: to evaluate the effects of exposure to a high-fat diet in the perinatal and post-weaning period on indicators of cardiometabolic risk and aorta histomorphometric changes in the rats. Methodology: Wistar rats were separated into groups according to the diet during pregnancy and lactation: control diet (n=3) and high fat diet (n=3). On the 21st day of life, male pups were divided into subgroups (n=6): CC: formed by rats exposed to a control diet for all life; CH: formed by rats whose mother consumed a control diet and after weaning the pups consumed a high-fat diet; HH: formed by pups exposed to a high-fat diet for all life and HC: formed by rats whose mother consumed a high-fat diet and after weaning the pups consumed a control diet. On the 60th day of life, BMI, atherogenic indices, C-reactive protein and histomorphometry of the aorta of the offspring were evaluated. Results: the HC group showed higher BMI compared to the HH and CH groups (p=0.0004). The total cholesterol / HDL-cholesterol ratio was higher for the CH group compared to CC and HC (p = 0.016). Atherogenic coefficient (p= 0,003), aortic thickness (p = 0.003) and amount of elastic lamellae (p = 0.0002) were higher in CH and HH groups compared to CC and HC. Conclusion: exposure to a high-fat diet in the perinatal and post-weaning periods increased cardiometabolic risk and altered aortic histomorphometry in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Aorta , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 459-464, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385263

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hyperthyroidism (Hy) is an endocrine disorder, in which the thyroid hormones markedly alter the cardiac function. Increased myocardial contractility and cardiac output, improvement in diastolic relaxation, changes in electrical activity, increments in ventricular mass, and arrhythmias have been reported. However, the influences of thyroid hormones upon molecular mechanisms of cardiac functions have not yet been fully understood. Objectives: To evaluate changes in cardiac contractile parameters and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) function in induced hyperthyroid rats. Methods: Hy was induced by intraperitoneal injections of T3 (15 μg/100 g) for 10 days. Contractile parameters and NCX function were evaluated in the isolated papillary muscle. Data normality was confirmed by the Shapiro-Wilk test. The comparison between groups was performed through an unpaired Student's t-test. Results are expressed as mean ± SD. The accepted significance level was p < 0.05. Results: Our data revealed, in the Hy group, an increase of 30.98% in the maximum speed of diastolic relaxation (-284.64 ± 70.70 vs. -217.31 ± 40.30 mN/mm2/sec (p = 0.027)) and a boost of 149% in the NCX function in late phase of relaxation (20.17 ± 7.90 vs. 50.22 ± 11.94 minutes (p = 0.002)), with no changes in the maximum twitch force (p = 0.605) or maximum speed of systolic contraction (p = 0.208) when compared to the control. Conclusion: The improvement in relaxation parameters is hypothetically attributed to an increase in Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2) expression and an increased calcium flow through L-type channels that boosted the NCX function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Papillary Muscles/physiology , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/physiology , Hyperthyroidism/complications , Thyroid Hormones , Intervention Studies , Rats, Wistar
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 781-788, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385681

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: High-intensity physical exercises can cause oxidative stress and muscle damage. Several medicinal plants have been used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. The present study evaluated high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) associated with Schinus Terebentifholius ethanolic extract (EE) on oxidative parameters and muscle damage in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 04 groups (n=10/group): 1. Control (CG) - animals that did not undergo HIRE and were treated with vehicle (distilled water, orally); 2. Acute exercise (AE) - animals submitted to acute exercise session; 3. Exercise + vehicle (EV) - animals that underwent HIRE and were treated with vehicle and 4. Exercise + extract (EX) animals administered with Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100mg/Kg, orally) and submitted to the exercise session. Schinus terebenthifolius EE showed high in vitro antioxidant activity (13.88 ± 0.36 mg/mL). Before the experimental period, lactate was measured at pre and post moments of AE (p<0.0001) and EX (p<0.0001) groups. After the acute session, the following were evaluated: oxidative stress {malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl groups (SH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)}, muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the in vivo analyses of the EX group compared to AE and EV groups, respectively: hepatic (MDA: p<0.0001 and SH: p=0.0033, in both; FRAP: p=0.0011 and p=0.0047), muscle (MDA, SH and FRAP: p<0.0001, in both; CK: p=0.0001 and p<0.0001; LDH: p<0.0001, in both), serum levels (MDA: p=0.0003, p=0.0012, SH: p=0.0056, p=0.0200, FRAP: p=0.0017 and p=0.0165) were significant. There was no significant difference in ALT and AST markers. It could be concluded that Schinus terebenthifolius EE associated with HIRE attenuated oxidative stress and muscle damage in rats.


RESUMEN: Los ejercicios físicos de alta intensidad pueden causar estrés oxidativo y daño muscular. Varias plantas medicinales se han utilizado como agentes antioxidantes y antiinflamatorios. El presente estudio evaluó el ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad (HIRE) asociado con el extracto etanólico (EE) de Schinus terebentifholius sobre los parámetros oxidativos y el daño muscular en ratas Wistar. Los animales se dividieron en 4 grupos (n=10/grupo): 1. Control (GC) - animales que no se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo (agua destilada, por vía oral); 2. Ejercicio agudo (AE) - animales sometidos a sesión de ejercicio agudo; 3. Ejercicio + vehículo (EV) - animales que se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo y 4. Ejercicio + extracto (EX) animales administrados con Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100 mg/kg, por vía oral) y sometidos a la sesión de ejercicio. Schinus terebenthifolius EE mostró una alta actividad antioxidante in vitro (13,88 ± 0,36 mg/mL). Antes del período experimental, se midió el lactato en los momentos pre y post de los grupos AE (p<0,0001) y EX (p<0,0001). Tras la sesión aguda, se evaluaron: el estrés oxidativo malondialdehído (MDA), grupos sulfhidrilo (SH) y poder antioxidante reductor férrico (FRAP), daño muscular (creatina quinasa (CK) y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH)), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). En los análisis in vivo del grupo EX frente a los grupos AE y EV, respectivamente: hepático (MDA: p<0,0001 y SH: p=0,0033, en ambos; FRAP: p=0,0011 y p=0,0047), muscular (MDA, SH y FRAP: p<0,0001, en ambos; CK: p=0,0001 y p<0,0001; LDH: p<0,0001, en ambos), niveles séricos (MDA: p=0,0003, p=0,0012, SH: p=0,0056, p=0,0200, FRAP: p=0,0017 y p=0,0165) fueron significativas. No hubo diferencia significativa en los marcadores ALT y AST. Se podría concluir que Schinus terebenthifolius EE asociado con HIRE atenuó el estrés oxidativo y el daño muscular en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Exercise , Anacardiaceae , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Physical Endurance , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 256-267, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395304

ABSTRACT

Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years' great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN(by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.


La nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por gentamicina (GIAN) se considera una de las causas importantes de insuficiencia renal aguda. En los últimos años, el gran esfuerzo se ha centrado en la introducción de la medicina herbal como un nuevo agente terapéutico para la prevención de GIAN. Por lo tanto, el estudio actual fue diseñado para investigar el efecto del extracto de grano de café verde (GCBE) sobre la GIAN en ratas. Los resultados del presente estudio mostraron que los grupos de ratas que recibieron GCBE oral durante 7 días después de la inducción de GIAN (mediante una inyección intraperitoneal diaria de gentamicina durante 7 días), informaron una mejora significativa en las pruebas de función renal en comparación con los grupos del modelo GIAN. Además, hubo una mejora significativa en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo renal (malondialdehído renal, superóxido dismutasa renal) y cambios histopatológicos renales en los grupos tratados con GCBE en comparación con el grupo del modelo GIAN. Estos resultados indican que GCBE tiene un papel potencial en la mejora del daño renal involucrado en GIAN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/toxicity , Coffea/chemistry , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Coffee , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 214-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364976

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Various studies are ongoing related to the radioprotective agents. Herbal preparations are currently becoming popular because of their beneficial effects with fewer side effects compared to the synthetic/semi-synthetic medicines, and Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is only one of them. Objective To investigate NSO for its antioxidant effects on the heart tissue of rats exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Methods Thirty six male albino Wistar rats, divided into four groups, were designated to group I (IR plus NSO group) that received both 5 Gray of gamma IR to total cranium and NSO; group II (IR alone group) that received IR plus saline, group III (control group of NSO) that received saline and did not receive NSO or IR; group IV (control group) that received only sham IR. Alterations in Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS), Oxidative stres index (OSI), Sulhydryl group (SH), Lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), Paraoxonase (PON) levels, Arylesterase (ARE) and Ceruloplasmin (CER) activities in homogenized heart tissue of rats were measured by biochemical methods. Results In heart tissue of the rats in the IR alone group (group II) LOOH, TOS and OSI levels were found to be higher, ARE activity and TAS level were found to be lower than all of the other groups (p < 0.01). These results also support that IR increases oxidative stress and NSO's protective effect. Conclusion NSO would reduce the oxidative damage in the irradiated heart tissue in the experimental rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Heart/radiation effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Radiation-Protective Agents/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Phytotherapy
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 161-171, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There are divergences in the literature regarding the experimental model (Wistar-WIS or Wistar Kyoto-WKY) to be used as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control. The characterization of these models in terms of cardiovascular parameters provides researchers with important tools at the time of selection and application in scientific research. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of WIS and WKY as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control by assessing the long-term behavior of blood pressure and cardiac structure and function in these strains. Methods: To this end, WIS, WKY, and SHR underwent longitudinal experiments. Blood pressure and body mass were measured every two weeks from the 8th to the 72nd. Echocardiographic analysis was performed in all groups with 16, 48, and 72 weeks of life. After having applied the normality test, the Two-Way ANOVA of repeated measures followed by the Tukey post hoc test was used. A significance level of 5% was established. Results: The WIS group showed higher body mass (p<0.05), while the WKY and SHR presented higher body mass variation over time (p<0.05). SHR exhibited increased values of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure when compared to WKY and WIS, whereas the WKY generally showed higher values than WIS (p<0.05). Regarding the cardiac function, SHR showed reduced values, while the WKY presented an early decrease when compared to WIS with aging (p<0.05). Conclusion: WIS is a more suitable normotensive control for SHR than WKY in experiments to test blood pressure and cardiac structure and function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Body Weight , Echocardiography , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
13.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-15], mar. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366584

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio do crescimento (Growth Hormone - GH) e treinamento de força (TF) na composição do tecido ósseo de ratos Wistar a partir da Espectroscopia Raman. 40 ratos machos foram distribuídos de forma aleatória em quatro grupos: controle (C [n=10]), controle a aplicação de GH (GHC [n=10]), treinamento de força (T [n=10]) e treinamento de força e aplicação de GH (GHT [n=10]). O treinamento foi composto por quatro séries de 10 saltos aquáticos, realizados três vezes por semana, com sobrecarga correspondente a 50% do peso corpóreo e duração de quatro semanas. O GH foi aplicado na dose de 0,2 UI/Kg em cada animal, três vezes por semana e em dias alternados. Ao final do experimento, os animais foram eutanasiados e coletados os fêmures direitos para realização da análise da composição óssea. A espectroscopia Raman (ER) foi utilizada para observar os seguintes compostos a partir de suas respectivas bandas: colágeno e fosfolipídio (1445 cm-1), colesterol (548 cm-1), glicerol (607 cm-1), glicose (913 cm-1), Pico de carboidrato (931 cm-1 ) e prolina (918 cm-1 ). Para a análise estatística, foram realizados os testes de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk e análise de variâncias ANOVA one-way, seguida pelo pós-teste de Tukey. Os resultados revelaram aumento nas concentrações de colágeno e fosfolipidio, colesterol, glicerol, glicose, pico de carboidrato e prolina em todos os grupos experimentais, associados ou não à realização do ST e/ou aplicação de GH. Porém, somente o grupo T diferiu significativamente do grupo C (p<0,05). Conclui-se que todas intervenções puderam promover ganho no tecido ósseo, porém, somente o grupo T demonstrou diferença significativa nos compostos minerais analisados. (AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of growth hormone (GH) and strength training (TF) on the bone tissue composition of Wistar rats using Raman Spectroscopy. 40 male rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C [n = 10]), control the application of GH (GHC [n = 10]), strength training (T [n = 10]) and training of strength and application of GH (GHT [n = 10]). The training consisted of four series of 10 water jumps, performed three times a week, with an overload corresponding to 50% of body weight and lasting four weeks. GH was applied at a dose of 0.2 IU / kg to each animal, three times a week and on alternate days. After four weeks, the animals were euthanized and the right femurs were collected to carry out the analysis of the bone composition. Raman spectroscopy (ER) was used to observe the following compounds from their respective bands: collagen and phospholipid (1445 cm-1), cholesterol (548 cm-1), glycerol (607 cm-1), glucose (913 cm-1), Peak carbohydrate (931 cm-1), proline (918 cm-1). For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality tests and ANOVA One-Way analysis of variances were performed, followed by the Tukey post-test. The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of collagen and phospholipid, cholesterol, glycerol, glucose, peak carbohydrate and proline in all experimental groups, associated or not with the performance of ST and / or application of GH. However, only group T differed significantly from group C (p <0.05). It was concluded that all intervention could promote gain in bone tissue, however, only the T group showed a significant difference in the analyzed mineral compounds. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spectrum Analysis , Bone and Bones , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Resistance Training , Femur , Metabolism , Phospholipids , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Body Weight , Proline , Growth Hormone , Carbohydrates , Cholesterol , Analysis of Variance , Collagen , Glycerol , Lipids
14.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 119-128, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354464

ABSTRACT

Introduction: some plants such as turmeric, cinnamon, and okra are known to have therapeutic functions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, an immunomodulatory role has been observed in the production of antibodies, in particular immunoglobulin A (IgA), which mediates a variety of protective functions for the organism. Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary plants on the production of IgA in healthy Wistar rats. Methods: thus, 48 male Wistar rats of 90 days of age were allocated to four groups. The animals were treated for 14 days with dried turmeric, cinnamon, or okra (50, 50, 12.5 mg/day, respectively) in phosphate buffered saline, or with only phosphate buffered saline by gavage. The animals received water and feed ad libitum. Body mass and relative weight ofperitoneal fat, adrenal gland, kidney, spleen, liver and thymus, biochemical parameters, and IgA levels were analyzed. Results: no significant changes were observed in the body mass, relative weight of organs and tissues, and biochemical parameters. An increase in serum IgA levels was observed in animals treated with turmeric or cinnamon. Conclusion: we conclude that the treatment with turmeric and cinnamon increased IgA production. Therefore, our study supports the idea that dietary supplementation with these plants may improve humoral immunity.


Introdução: algumas plantas como a cúrcuma, a canela e o quiabo são conhecidas por apresentar funções terapêuticas, como atividade antioxidante e anti-inflamatória. Além disso, tem sido observado um papel imunomodulador sobre a produção de anticorpos, em especial a imunoglobulina A (IgA), a qual medeia uma variedade de funções protetoras para o organismo. Objetivo: o objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito de plantas dietéticas na produção de IgA em ratos Wistar saudáveis. Métodos: destarte, 48 ratos machos Wistar com 90 dias de idade foram alocados em quatro grupos. Os animais foram tratados por 14 dias com cúrcuma seca, canela ou quiabo (50, 50, 12,5 mg/dia, respectivamente) em solução salina tamponada com fosfato ou apenas solução salina tamponada com fosfato, por gavagem. Os animais receberam água e ração ad libitum. Foram analisados a massa corporal e o peso relativo da gordura peritoneal, glândula adrenal, rim, baço, fígado e timo, parâmetros bioquímicos e níveis de IgA. Resultados: não foram observadas alterações significativas na massa corporal, no peso relativo dos órgãos e tecidos e nos parâmetros bioquímicos. Foi observado aumento dos níveis séricos de IgA nos animais tratados com cúrcuma ou canela. Conclusão: podemos concluir que o tratamento com cúrcuma e canela aumentou a produção de IgA. Portanto, nosso estudo suporta a ideia de que a suplementação alimentar com essas plantas pode melhorar a imunidade humoral.


Subject(s)
Rats , Spleen , Thymus Gland , Rats, Wistar , Abelmoschus , Curcuma , Kidney , Liver , Antibodies , Antibody Formation , Plants , Cinnamomum zeylanicum
15.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363761

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus treatment is based on oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Medicinal plants constitute an option, and the leaves of Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) were shown to be effective in reducing glycemia in hyperglycemic animals. Objective: In this paper, we report the effect of P. rusciofolia (Pr) on insulin and incretin secretion in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methodology: The effective dose was selected, and four groups (n=10) of Wistar rats were used. Two groups with normal glycemia received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.), and two groups with hyperglycemia induced by alloxan (intraperitoneal, ip), received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, and incretin and insulin levels were measured at the end of the experimental period. Results: The results showed that extract promotes better tolerance to oral glucose overload, in addition to a statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in blood levels of incretin and insulin, compared to the hyperglycemic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of P. ruscifolialeaves has a hypoglycemic effect in hyperglycemic animals by a mechanism that involves the incretin-insulin system


Antecedentes: la diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica cuyo tratamiento se basa en el uso de agentes hipoglicemiantes orales o insulina. Una opción al tratamiento son las plantas medicinales y en ese sentido, estudios previos en animales con hojas de Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) han demostrado efecto hipoglicemiante. Objetivo: en este trabajo se reporta el efecto de P. rusciofolia (Pr) en la secreción de insulina e incretina, en ratas hiperglicémicas por aloxano. Metodología: se emplearon cuatro grupos de ratas Wistar (n=10). Dos grupos con glicemia normal que fueron tratadas con agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) y dos grupos con hiperglicemia inducida por la inyección intraperitoneal de aloxano recibieron agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) durante dos semanas. Se midieron la tolerancia oral a la glucosa, y los niveles de incretina e insulina al final del periodo de experimentación. Resultados: se encontró que el extracto promueve una mayor tolerancia a la sobrecarga de glucosa, y además un incremento significativo (p<0.001) de los niveles de incretina e insulina en sangre, comparados al grupo de ratas hiperglicémicas. Conclusión: se concluye que e l estracto etanólico de las hojas de P. ruscifolia tienen efecto hipoglicemiante en animales hiperglicémicos por un mecanismo que incluye al sistema incretina-insulina


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prosopis/chemistry , Incretins/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/metabolism , Biochemical Phenomena , Rats, Wistar , Alloxan , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 48-55, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy has neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety. Drugs that target epilepsy may also be useful for its neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Objective: To investigate the effects of serotonergic modulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the seizures in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan, or saline 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. Behavioral seizures were assessed by the Racine's scale. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and brain tissue were determined by ELISA. Results: Serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, alleviated PTZ-induced seizures by prolonging onset times of myoclonic-jerk and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The anti-seizure effect of fluoxetine was greater than that of serotonin. Likewise, serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, reduced PTZ-induced increases in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in both serum and brain tissue. None of the administered drugs including PTZ affected TNF-α concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that endogenous and exogenous serotonin exhibits anticonvulsant effects by suppressing the neuroinflammation. It seems that 5-HT1B/D receptors do not mediate anticonvulsant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of serotonin.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A epilepsia apresenta comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas como depressão, transtorno bipolar e ansiedade. Os medicamentos que visam o tratamento da epilepsia podem ser úteis para a epilepsia e suas comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da modulação serotonérgica em citocinas pró-inflamatórias e as convulsões no modelo de convulsão induzida por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) em ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram injetados intraperitonealmente com serotonina, inibidor seletivo da recaptação da serotonina fluoxetina, sumatriptano agonista do receptor 5-HT1B / D ou solução salina 30 min antes do tratamento com PTZ. As crises comportamentais foram avaliadas pela escala de Racine. As concentrações de IL-1β, IL-6 e TNF-α no soro e tecido cerebral foram determinadas por ELISA. Resultados: A serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, aliviaram as convulsões induzidas por PTZ ao prolongar os tempos de início das convulsões mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas generalizadas. O efeito anticonvulsivo da fluoxetina foi maior do que o da serotonina. Da mesma forma, a serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, reduziram os aumentos induzidos por PTZ nos níveis de IL-1β e IL-6 no soro e no tecido cerebral. Nenhum dos medicamentos administrados, incluindo PTZ, alterou as concentrações de TNF-α. Conclusões: Nossos achados sugerem que a serotonina endógena e exógena exibe efeitos anticonvulsivantes por suprimir a neuroinflamação. Aparentemente, os receptores 5-HT1B / D não medeiam os efeitos anticonvulsivantes e anti-neuroinflamatórios da serotonina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Serotonin/adverse effects , Fluoxetine/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Sumatriptan/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
17.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e58558, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367771

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease(CVD) remains the major cause of mortality in the world, typically claiming a third of all deaths. The primary cause of CVD is atherosclerosis. Therefore, timely prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis are able to reduce the risk of the development of its clinical manifestations. Anti-atherosclerotic activity of medicinal plants mainly appears in their multiple effects.This study was carried out to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of virgin olive oil in experimentally induced hyperlipemic Wistar. A total of 24 rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups and treated as follows for 50 days: (1) Normal control (NC); that were fed with a standart diet; (2) High Cholesterol Diet Control (HCD); which received high cholesterol diet for 50 days; (3) Animals receiving high cholesterol diet for 50 days, after this period the animals are fed for eight days by the standard foodand receiving by gavage virgin olive oil (HCD+VOO) and(4) Animals fed for eight days with the standard food and receiving by gavage olive oil (VOO). High Cholesterol Diet containing yolk egg and coconut oil. Results showed that olive oil caused a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low­Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) and Atherogenic Index Serum (AIS). The results also demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) increase in High­Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL). Moreover, virgin olive oil induced a significant reduction in liver lipid content. On the other hand, a High cholesterol diet induced oxidative stress was measured by estimating reduced glutathione level and amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed as an index of lipid peroxidation in a liver and a heart. Virgin olive oil supplementation attenuated all these variations. Our observations of the study indicate that the virgin olive oil has a significant antihyperlipidemic potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Atherosclerosis/diet therapy , Diet, High-Fat/methods , Olive Oil/pharmacology , Triglycerides/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/immunology , Cholesterol/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar/immunology , Diet, Atherogenic/methods , Glutathione/pharmacology , Hypercholesterolemia/immunology , Lipoproteins/immunology
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1300-1307, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405267

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) represent a unique class of glucose-declining renal-targeted drugs. The SGLT2i Canagliflozin (CANA) is an anti-hyperglycemic drug that reduces various cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to explore the potential effects of CANA on the isolated healthy adult rat hearts to show if CANA has positive inotropic or cardiac depressant effects via analyzing the amplitude and frequency of cardiac contractions. In isolated normal adult rat hearts, the effects of CANA on cardiac contractility were examined. In a dose-response curve, CANA led to a significant cardiac depressant effect in a dose-dependent manner. This cardiac depressant effect of CANA (10-6 M) was not prevented by atropine. However, this cardiac depressant effect was partially antagonized by both Isoproterenol (10-5 M) and Calcium chloride (10-6 M), suggesting beta-adrenoceptor and calcium channel blocking actions. In addition, the cardiac depressant effect of CANA (10-6 M) was mitigated in part by Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, suggesting that its action probably depends to some extent on the accumulation of nitric oxide, which decreases the rise of intracellular Calcium. Data from this study demonstrate that CANA has a significant cardiac relaxant effect in isolated hearts of healthy adult rats by different possible mechanisms. This inhibitory effect on cardiac contractility may help improve the diastolic ventricular filling providing a therapeutic potential to help the other cardioprotective mechanisms of CANA in the prevention and treatment of heart failure.


RESUMEN: Los inhibidores del cotransportador de sodio- glucosa 2 (SGLT2i) representan una clase única de fármacos dirigidos a los riñones que disminuyen la glucosa. El SGLT2i Canagliflozin (CANA) es un fármaco antihiperglucémico que reduce varios resultados cardiovasculares y renales en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar los efectos potenciales de CANA en corazones aislados de ratas adultas sanas para indicar si CANA tiene efectos inotrópicos o depresores cardíacos positivos mediante el análisis de la amplitud y la frecuencia de las contracciones cardíacas. En corazones aislados de ratas adultas normales, se examinaron los efectos de CANA sobre la contractilidad cardíaca. En una curva de dosis-respuesta, CANA condujo a un efecto depresor cardíaco significativo de manera dependiente de la dosis. Este efecto depresor cardíaco de CANA (10-6 M) no fue impedido por la atropina. Sin embargo, este efecto depresor cardíaco fue parcialmente antagonizado tanto por el isoproterenol (10-5 M) como por el cloruro de calcio (10-6 M), lo que sugiere acciones bloqueadoras de los receptores beta adrenérgicos y de los canales de calcio. Además, el efecto depresor cardíaco de CANA (10-6 M) fue mitigado en parte por el inhibidor de la sintasa de óxido nítrico, L-NAME, lo que sugiere que su acción probablemente depende en cierta medida de la acumulación de óxido nítrico, lo que disminuye el aumento de calcio intracelular. Los datos de este estudio demuestran que CANA tiene un efecto relajante cardíaco significativo en corazones aislados de ratas adultas sanas por diferentes mecanismos posibles. Este efecto inhibitorio sobre la contractilidad cardíaca puede ayudar a mejorar el llenado ventricular diastólico proporcionando un potencial terapéutico para ayudar a los otros mecanismos cardioprotectores de CANA en la prevención y tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Canagliflozin/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1261-1267, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405287

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of the study was to provide a detailed anatomical description of the rat's ear anatomy that will prove insightful to different experimental otologic surgical procedures regardless of scope. Three male Wistar rats were enrolled in the study. Candidates were screened for systemic and otologic pathology. External ear canal endoscopy was carried out with a 30˚ rigid endoscope through an image capture system. Middle ear anatomical elements were analyzed under stereomicroscopy. 3D computer tomography image reconstruction was realized with a micro-CT to describe the anatomy. Image data from all three rats were analyzed. Anatomical annotations and surgical exposure recommendations were added for key elements. The most relevant images from all three rats were selected for representation. Detailed visualization of the structural elements of the tympanic cavity were clearly visible: promontory, round window, stapedial artery, stapes, incus, and tympanic membrane were all constant findings. We describe a step wise ventral surgical approach of the middle and inner ear for which we found that the clavotrapezius muscle was a reliable landmark. For the transtympanic approach the endoscopic transcanal access was an easy and reliable method for which a detailed anatomical representation was depicted. Further, anatomical similarities to humans were observed by stereomicroscopy and Micro-CT imaging reiterating that the rat model is suitable for otologic research. The endoscopic approach to the tympanic membrane is comfortable and less expensive than a microscope. The tendon of the clavotrapezius muscle can be a reliable landmark for discovering the tympanic bulla when considering a ventral approach. 3D Micro-CT reconstruction allows intact evaluation of the samples, simultaneously being a diagnostic and also a learning tool.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo fue proporcionar una descripción anatómica detallada de la anatomía del órgano vestíbulococlear de la rata que resultará útil para diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos otológicos experimentales, independientemente del alcance. En el estudio se usaron tres ratas Wistar macho. Los ejemplares fueron evaluados por patología sistémica y otológica. La endoscopía del meato acústico externo se realizó con un endoscopio rígido de 30˚ a través de un sistema de captura de imágenes. Los elementos anatómicos del oído medio se analizaron bajo estereomicroscopía. La reconstrucción de la imagen de tomografía computarizada en 3D se realizó con un micro-CT para describir la anatomía. Se analizaron los datos de imagen de las tres ratas. Se agregaron anotaciones anatómicas y recomendaciones de exposición quirúrgica para elementos clave. Las imágenes más relevantes de las tres ratas fueron seleccionadas para su representación. La visualización detallada de los elementos estructurales de la cavidad timpánica era claramente visible: promontorio timpánico, ventana coclear, arteria estapedial, estapedio, yunque y membrana timpánica eran hallazgos constantes. Describimos un abordaje quirúrgico ventral escalonado del oído medio e interno para el cual encontramos que el músculo clavotrapecio era un punto de referencia confiable. Para el abordaje transtimpánico, el acceso transcanal endoscópico fue un método fácil y confiable para el cual se describió una representación anatómica detallada. Además, se observaron similitudes anatómicas con los humanos mediante estereomicroscopía e imágenes Micro-CT, lo que reitera que el modelo de rata es adecuado para la investigación otológica. El abordaje endoscópico de la membrana timpánica es cómodo y menos costoso que un microscopio. El tendón del músculo clavotrapecio puede ser un punto de referencia fiable para descubrir la bulla timpánica cuando se considera un abordaje ventral. La reconstrucción 3D Micro- CT permite la evaluación intacta de las muestras, siendo simultáneamente una herramienta de diagnóstico y también de aprendizaje.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ear/anatomy & histology , Ear/surgery , Otologic Surgical Procedures , Rats, Wistar , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ear/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1294-1299, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405302

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the small intestine causes serious abdominal pathologies including tissue dysfunction and organ failure. L-carnitine (L-C), a powerful antioxidant, may help lessen the severity of these pathological effects since it plays a key role in energy metabolism. In this work we aimed to study the effects of L-C on the isolated ileal and duodenal contractility and histological changes in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is the control group. Second group, I/R group, had rats submitted to 45-minutes of intestinal ischemia and to 45-minutes reperfusion. The third group, I/R+ L-C group, rats were treated with L-C 5 minutes before reperfusion and than submitted to ischemia. The fourth group, included rats that were treated with L-C without ischemia or reperfusion. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing superior mesentery arteries by silk loop. The ileal and duodenal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (Ach) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. At the same time the terminal ileal and duodenal segments were examined for histological changes. Ach-induced contraction responses were higher in the I/R+L-C group, the L-C group, and the control group compared to the I/R group, in both ileal and duodenal segments. On the other hand, the phenylephrine-induced relaxations were higher in the I/R+L-C and L-C groups, especially in duodenal segments. In I/R group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in I/R+L-C group the damage was noticeably lower possibly due to protective properties of L-C. I/R injury caused severe cellular damage response within the muscularis resulting in decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the L-C has significantly affected the gastrointestinal contractility. Also L-C treatment reduced the damage in intestinal morphology that occurs after IR injury.


RESUMEN: La isquemia-reperfusión (I/R) del intestino delgado provoca graves patologías abdominales que incluyen disfunción tisular y falla orgánica. La L-carnitina (L-C), un poderoso antioxidante, puede ayudar a disminuir la gravedad de estos efectos patológicos, ya que desempeña un papel clave en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de L-C sobre la contractilidad ileal y duodenal aislada y los cambios histológicos en la lesión por isquemia y reperfusión intestinal. Se dividieron 28 ratas Wistar en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo fue el control. El segundo grupo, grupo I/R, de ratas sometidas durante 45 minutos de isquemia intestinal y a 45 minutos de reperfusión. El tercer grupo, grupo I/R+ L-C, las ratas se trataron con L-C, 5 minutos antes de la reperfusión y luego se sometieron a isquemia. El cuarto grupo, las ratas fueron tratadas con L-C sin isquemia ni reperfusión. La isquemia intestinal se realizó obstruyendo la arteria mesentérica superior con un asa de seda. Los segmentos ileal y duodenal se aislaron y suspendieron en un baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (Ach) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. Al mismo tiempo, se examinaron cambios histológicos de los segmentos del íleon terminal y del duodeno. Las respuestas de contracción inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en el grupo I/R+L-C, el grupo L-C y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo I/R, tanto en el segmento ileal como en el duodenal. Por otra parte, las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron mayores en los grupos I/R+L-C y L-C, especialmente en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo I/R se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba dañada significativamente, mientras que en el grupo I/R+L-C el daño fue notablemente menor, posiblemente debido a las propiedades protectoras de L-C. La lesión por I/R causó una respuesta de daño celular severo dentro de la capa muscular que resultó en una disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con L-C afectó significativamente la contractilidad gastrointestinal. Por otra parte, el tratamiento L-C redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal que ocurre después de la lesión por IR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Carnitine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL