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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468949

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Antioxidants/analysis , Asteraceae/chemistry , Diet/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/genetics , Rats, Wistar/blood , Mice, Obese
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 246-250, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153363

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to verify the correlation between murine measurements and retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats exposed to the high-fat diet. Material and methods: Wistar male adult rats, descendants of mothers who consumed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and fed the same diet after weaning were used. At 60 days of life, body weight, longitudinal axis and waist circumference (WC) were measured. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Lee Index were calculated for a posterior analysis of the correlation with the amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue dissected on the same day. For analysis of the data, the Pearson correlation test was used, considering statistical significance for p<0.05. Results: Body weight had a weak correlation (r= 0.31; p= 0.38) with retroperitoneal adipose tissue. While the longitudinal correlated moderately and negative (r= -0.40; p= 0.25). Abdominal circumference (r= 0.62; p= 0.05), body mass index (r= 0.61; p= 0.03) and Lee (r= 0.69; p= 0.03) correlated moderately and positively with adipose tissue. Conclusion: Among the measured murine measurements, weight and longitudinal axis were not good indicators to represent accumulation of retroperitoneal adipose tissue in rats. However, Lee's index seems to be the best murine marker to diagnose the accumulation of retroperitoneal fat. BMI, CA and Lee index were murine parameters with higher correlation.


Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre medidas murinométricas e tecido adiposo retroperitoneal em ratos expostos à dieta hiperlipídica. Material e métodos: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos adultos, descendentes de mães que consumiram dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação e alimentados com a mesma dieta após o desmame. Aos 60 dias de vida, foram medidos o peso corporal, o eixo longitudinal e a circunferência da cintura (CC). O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e o Índice de Lee foram calculados para posterior análise da correlação com a quantidade de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal dissecado no mesmo dia. Para análise dos dados, utilizou se o teste de correlação de Pearson, considerando significância estatística para p<0.05. Resultados: O peso corporal apresentou uma correlação fraca (r= 0,31; p= 0,38) com o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal. Enquanto o longitudinal correlacionou moderadamente e negativo (r= -0,40; p= 0,25). A circunferência abdominal (r = 0,62; p = 0,05), índice de massa corporal (r= 0,61; p= 0,03) e Lee (r= 0,69; p= 0,03) correlacionaram-se moderada e positivamente com o tecido adiposo. Conclusão: Entre as medidas murinométricas, o peso e o eixo longitudinal não foram bons indicadores para representar o acúmulo de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal em ratos. No entanto, o índice de Lee parece ser o melhor indicador murinométrico para diagnosticar o acúmulo de gordura retroperitoneal. O IMC, índice de Lee e CA foram parâmetros murinométricos com maior correlação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Intra-Abdominal Fat/anatomy & histology , Diet, High-Fat/veterinary , Body Mass Index , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Waist Circumference
3.
Medisan ; 22(9)nov.-dic. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976174

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en 160 cortes histológicos de la fascia dentada del hipocampo de ratones BALB/c y ratas Wistar blancas, en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biomédicas de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Santiago de Cuba, de septiembre de 2013 a igual mes de 2014, con vistas a determinar las transformaciones histológicas que ocurren en dicha fascia en el segundo y sexto días posnatales. La observación microscópica de estos cortes se realizó empleando del software Image J. La extensión de la fascia al sexto día de vida llegó a ser mayor en los ratones; los máximos incrementos del grosor en ambos tipos de roedores se encontraron en el hilus, y el estrato granuloso fue de menor crecimiento en las ratas. La celularidad en los roedores presentó mayores proporciones en las tres regiones del hilus al segundo día, pero disminuyó en el sexto día, mientras que las zonas relacionadas con el hilus mantuvieron una mayor cantidad de células; sin embargo, el número celular disminuyó en ambas regiones moleculares de la fascia de las ratas.


A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in 160 histological cuts of the hippocampus fascia dentata from mice BALB/c and rats white Wistar, in the Laboratory of Biomedical Investigations from Santiago de Cuba Medical University, from September, 2013 to the same month in 2014, with the aim of determining the histological transformations that take place in this fascia in the second and sixth posnatal days. The microscopic observation of these cuts was carried out using the software Image J. The extension of the fascia at the sixth day of life was larger in the mice; the maximum increases of thickness in both types of rodents were in the hilus, and the granular stratum was of smaller growth in rats. The celularity in the rodents presented larger proportions in the three regions from the hilus at the second day, but it decreased at the sixth day, while the areas related to the hilus maintained a greater quantity of cells; however, the cellular number diminished in both molecular regions of the rats fascia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Mice , Rats , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Dentate Gyrus/growth & development , Mice/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/growth & development , Dentate Gyrus/anatomy & histology , Mice/growth & development
4.
Actual. osteol ; 13(2): 116-124, Mayo - Ago. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117997

ABSTRACT

To prevent post-extraction resorption and preserve the integrity of the alveolar ridges, the placement of bone grafts at the time of extraction is recommended. Bovine bone grafts are biocompatibile and osteoconductive, allowing new bone apposition by osteoprogenitor cells. Although there are trademarks recognized internationally regarding bovine bone grafts, they are expensive and even difficult to acquire. Therefore, domestic industry development of high quality biomaterials will reduce the public health high costs in the dental field. Here, we evaluated and compared the effects of an Argentinean manufactured bovine bone graft (Synergy Bone Matrix) with a bovine bone graft recognized for its osteoconductive effects (Bio-Oss), on bone healing in an experimental model in rats. We created critical sized bone defects in rat tibiae and filled them with either one of the bovine bone grafts or control. Clinical responses, X-ray findings, bone mineral density, and histological parameters were evaluated. No abscess, encapsulation, suppuration or inflammation of lymphatic nodes were observed. Radiographically, all implants were amalgamated to the surrounding bony margins, suggesting proper healing. On the other hand, control tibiae exhibited no signs of recovery and remained either unfilled or showed fibrous tissue formation. No statistical differences were observed in BMC and BMD between tibiae filled with Synergy Bone Matrix or Bio-Oss. Histological analysis revealed particles of both bone grafts surrounded by laminar bone tissue indicating osteoconductivity, without any inflammatory sign. This preliminary study suggests that Synergy Bone Matrix, as well as Bio-Oss, present similar properties of biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. (AU)


Para prevenir la resorción post-exodoncia y preservar la integridad de los rebordes alveolares, se recomienda la colocación de injertos óseos en el momento de la extracción. Los injertos de hueso bovino son biocompatibles y osteoconductivos, permitiendo nueva aposición ósea por células osteoprogenitoras. Existen marcas internacionales de injertos de hueso bovino, pero resultan caros e incluso difíciles de adquirir. Por ello, la elaboración de biomateriales de alta calidad, nacionales, reduciría los altos costos de salud pública en odontología. En este estudio, se evaluaron y compararon los efectos de un injerto de hueso bovino fabricado en Argentina (Synergy Bone Matrix) versus un injerto de hueso bovino reconocido por sus efectos osteoconductivos (Bio-Oss), en el proceso de cicatrización ósea en un modelo experimental en ratas. Para ello, creamos un defecto óseo crítico en tibia de rata el cual se rellenó con uno de los injertos de hueso bovino o control. Se evaluó: respuesta clínica y radiográfica, densidad mineral ósea e histología. No se observaron abscesos, encapsulación, supuración o inflamación de los ganglios linfáticos. Radiográficamente, todos los implantes se integraron a los márgenes óseos circundantes, sugiriendo una cicatrización adecuada. Por el contrario, las tibias control no mostraron signos de recuperación con formación de tejido fibroso. No se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las BMC y BMD entre las tibias Synergy Bone Matrix o Bio-Oss. La histología reveló partículas de ambos injertos óseos rodeadas por tejido óseo laminar indicando osteoconductividad sin signos inflamatorios. Este estudio preliminar sugiere que Synergy Bone Matrix presenta propiedades similares de biocompatibilidad y osteoconductividad que Bio-Oss. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tibia/cytology , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Bone Resorption/prevention & control , Bone Transplantation/veterinary , Argentina , Radiology , Surgery, Oral , Bone Development , Bone Diseases, Developmental/chemically induced , Bone Diseases, Developmental/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density , Bone Transplantation/rehabilitation , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/surgery , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Acepromazine/administration & dosage , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(6): 650-656, jun. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895460

ABSTRACT

Flaxseed is considered a functional food with several health benefits. However, because of its high phytoestrogen content, flaxseed influences hormone metabolism and affects the gonadal biomorphology. In this study, computerized histomorphometry was used to evaluate seminiferous and epididymal tubules, considering the different regions of the epididymis (head, body and tail) of rats subjected to a prolonged diet of flaxseed. Young adult male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into 2 groups during their lactation period: Control Group (CG), fed casein-based meals and Flaxseed Group (FG), fed a 25% flaxseed meal. After 250 days of continuous ingestion, the animals were euthanized and a blood sample was collected. The testicles and epididymis were removed and fixed in buffered formalin solution. The samples were subjected to routine histological paraffin techniques and stained with hematoxilin and eosin. Immunostaining was performed using an antivimentin antibody for Sertoli cell identification. For morphometry, images of the slides were scanned and analyzed using Image J to determine the epithelial height, tubular and luminal diameter and tubular and luminal area. In the hormonal evaluation, FG had a higher serum concentration of estrogen (P=0.001), but no change was observed in the concentration of testosterone. The morphometric assay of seminiferous tubules and epididymal regions revealed no significant differences between the analyzed groups. Similarly, Sertoli cell quantification showed no significant differences in the FG (P=0.98). These results revealed that the continuous and prolonged intake of 25% flaxseed meals from gestation to 250 days of age, even with a significant increase in serum levels of estradiol, does not exert adverse effects on the testicular and epididymal structure or on the cells participating in the spermatogenesis of rats.(AU)


A semente de linhaça é considerada um alimento funcional com vários efeitos benéficos à saúde. Entretanto, devido ao seu elevado teor de fitoestrógenos, esta semente pode influenciar no metabolismo hormonal e interferir na biomorfologia gonadal. Neste estudo, utilizamos a histomorfometria computadorizada para avaliar os túbulos seminíferos e epididimários, considerando as diferentes regiões do epidídimo (cabeça, corpo e cauda) de ratos submetidos a uma dieta prolongada de semente de linhaça. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos adultos jovens (n=20) divididos em 2 grupos, durante o período de lactação: Grupo Controle (GC) a base de caseína e Grupo Linhaça (GL) alimentados com 25% de semente de linhaça. Ao final de 250 dias de ingestão contínua, os animais foram sacrificados e amostra de sangue foi coletada. Os testículos e epidídimos foram retirados e fixados em formol tamponado. As amostras foram submetidas ao processamento histológico de rotina para parafina e coradas em hematoxilina e eosina. Foi feita a imunomarcação com anticorpo antivimentina para identificação das células de Sertoli. Para morfometria, as imagens das lâminas foram digitalizadas e analisadas pelo software ImageJ para obtenção dos dados de altura epitelial, diâmetro e área tubular e luminal. Na avaliação hormonal o GL teve maior concentração de estrógeno sérico (p=0,001), mas nenhuma mudança na concentração de testosterona foi observada. Nos parâmetros morfométricos dos túbulos seminíferos e das regiões epididimárias, não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos analisados. Da mesma forma, a quantificação das células de Sertoli não apresentaram diferenças significativas no GL (p=0,98). Estes resultados mostraram que o consumo contínuo e prolongado de 25% de semente de linhaça desde período gestacional até 250 dias de idade, mesmo com o aumento significativo nos níveis séricos de estradiol, não exerceram efeitos adversos sobre a estrutura testicular e epididimária, assim como nas células participantes da espermatogênese em ratos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Seeds , Testis/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Flax/adverse effects , Epididymis/anatomy & histology , Seminiferous Tubules/anatomy & histology , Sertoli Cells , Vimentin , Histological Techniques/veterinary , Phytoestrogens/adverse effects
6.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 175-180, 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859826

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Grape is one of the most important fruit crops across the world and can be consumed in different ways. There has been a growing interest in the role of antioxidants such as resveratrol, which can be found in grape skin, in oral and dental tissues. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different presentations of resveratrol on cell proliferation and epithelial thickness of the oral mucosa of Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: water/control, red wine, grape juice, 12% alcoholic solution/ethanol and aqueous solution of resveratrol. Samples of palatal and tongue mucosa were collected for a histomorphometric analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) technique for quantification of cell proliferation. Results: As to epithelial thickness, both the tongue and the palate showed a statistically significant difference between the control group and the other groups, with greater decrease in the resveratrol and the wine groups. In the suprabasal layer of both the tongue and the palate epithelium, red wine reduced the rate of cell proliferation, while ethanol increased it. In the basal layer of the tongue epithelium, there was a statistically significant difference between the control, the grape juice and the resveratrol groups and the ethanol group, with increased cell proliferation in the ethanol group. Conclusions: Wine does not interfere in the physiological renewal of the basal layer of the buccal epithelium and exerts a protective action by reducing the cell proliferation rate of the suprabasal layer (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/anatomy & histology , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Ethanol/chemistry , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Vitis/chemistry , Wine/analysis
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 339-346, Jan.-Apr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709268

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho objetivou verificar se o ultrassom de baixa potência (US) previne a ocorrência de osteopenia em tíbias de ratos sob ausência de carga. Foram utilizados 45 Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar adultos, machos, distribuídos em cinco grupos iguais: C - animais-controle livres em gaiolas por 21 dias; S - animais suspensos pela cauda por 21 dias; ST - suspensos pela cauda por 21 dias e concomitantemente tratados com US; S→C - suspensos por 21 dias e depois permanecendo livres em gaiolas por mais 21 dias; S→CT - suspensos por 21 dias e depois permanecendo livres em gaiolas por mais 21 dias e concomitantemente tratados com US. O tratamento foi realizado com US de 1,5MHz, ciclo de trabalho 1:4, 30mW/cm², na tíbia direita, por 15 sessões de 20 minutos cada, cinco sessões por semana. Ainda vivos, os animais foram submetidos a exame de densitometria óssea para verificação da densidade mineral óssea (DMO) e do conteúdo mineral ósseo (CMO). Após a eutanásia dos animais, as tíbias foram desarticuladas, dissecadas e submetidas a ensaio mecânico destrutivo para análise da força máxima (Fmáx) e da rigidez (R). Foram avaliados também o comprimento (L) e o diâmetro (D) no ponto médio da tíbia. O grupo S apresentou valores de DMO, CMO, Fmáx, R, L e D menores em relação ao grupo C, demonstrando que a suspensão pela cauda é prejudicial a estas variáveis. O tratamento dos animais suspensos com o US, grupo ST, elevou os valores de CMO e DMO em relação aos do grupo S, igualando-os aos do grupo C...


This work intended to verify if the low power ultrasound (US) prevents the occurrence of osteopenia on the tibia of rats under the absence of load. 45 adult male Wistar Rattus novergicus albinus were used, separated in five equal groups: C - control free animals in cages for 21 days; S - animals suspended by the tail for 21 days; ST - animals suspended by the tail for 21 days and concurrently treated with US; S→C - animals suspended for 21 days and then free in cages for another 21 days; S→CT - animals suspended for 21 days and then free in cages for another 21 days and concurrently treated with US. The treatment was performed with US with 1.5 MHz, work cycle 1:4, 30 mW/cm², on tibia, for 15 sessions of 20 minutes each, 5 sessions per week. While still alive, the animals underwent bone densitometry examination to verify the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and the Bone Mineral Content (BMC). After the euthanasia of the animals, the tibias were disjointed, dissected and underwent destructive mechanical testing for the analysis of the maximum force (Fmax) and Rigidity (R). The length (L) and the diameter (D) of the middle point of the tibia were also measured. In group S, BMD, BMC, Fmax, R, L and D were smaller than in group C, demonstrating that the suspension by the tail is detrimental to these variables. The treatment of the suspended animals with the US, in group ST, increased the BMD and BMC compared to group S, leveling them to group C...


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Rats , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/veterinary , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats/anatomy & histology , Ultrasonic Therapy/veterinary , Tibia/pathology , Bone Density , Densitometry/veterinary
8.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 57(4): 309-314, out.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847553

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Hiperidrose é uma condição idiopática caracterizada por sudorese excessiva generalizada ou restrita a extremidades. O tratamento definitivo e com menor morbidade é a simpatectomia videotoracoscópica. O bloqueio da cadeia simpática com clipe possibilitaria a reversão da cirurgia para pacientes que sofrem de hiperidrose compensatória pós-operatória ­ complicação mais problemática. Como objetivo, este trabalho visa analisar a arquitetura ultraestrutural e morfométrica do nervo isquiático de ratos Wistar machos adultos submetidos à compressão crônica através de um clipe cirúrgico. Os objetivos são identificar se há alteração nervosa com o clipamento e se existe tempo para promover o retorno às atividades neuronais pós-retirada do clipe. Pode-se, portanto, verificar se o clipamento é eficaz como forma de tratamento para hiperidrose, com a vantagem de ser um procedimento reversível. Métodos: Foram selecionados 30 ratos Wistar machos separados em 3 grupos ­ 1, 2 e 3 ­ com n=10, com a retirada do clipe em 1, 2 e 4 semanas, respectivamente. Cada grupo foi dividido em A e B com n=5. Todos os ratos do grupo A eram sacrificados no momento da retirada do clipe e, no B, uma semana após a retirada do clipe. Resultados: O estudo mostrou que, em cada um dos grupos, houve nervos normais e com degeneração, independentemente da retirada do clipe ou de sua manutenção. Conclusão: Simpatectomia com clipe parece não ser um bom método para o tratamento da hiperidrose. O efeito da simpatectomia com clipe e sua remoção devem ser melhor observados em grandes estudos (AU)


Introduction: Hyperhidrosis is an idiopathic condition characterized by excessive sweating that may be generalized or restricted to specific parts of the body. The definitive treatment with less morbidity is endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. Blockade of the sympathetic chain with a clip enables reversal of surgery for patients suffering from postoperative compensatory sweating ­ the most problematic complication. This work was designed to assess the ultrastructural and morphometric architecture of the sciatic nerve of adult male Wistar rats subjected to chronic compression via surgical clip. The aims were to determine if there are changes to nerve from clipping and if there is time to restore neuronal activity after removal of the clip. One can thus check if clipping is an effective treatment for hyperhidrosis, with the advantage of being a reversible procedure. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were selected and divided into 3 groups of ten rats each, with removal of the clip at weeks 1, 2 and 4, respectively. Each group was divided into A and B with n = 5. Rats in group A were sacrificed at the time of clip withdrawal and rats in group B were sacrifi ced one week after clip withdrawal. Results: The study showed that, in each of the groups, there were normal and degenerated nerves regardless of clip removal or maintenance. Conclusion: Sympathectomy with clip does not seem to be a good method for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. The effect of sympathectomy with clip and its removal should be further investigated in larger studies (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Nerve Crush/methods , Sympathectomy/methods , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperhidrosis/surgery , Nerve Regeneration
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(1): 95-102, fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-667542

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se as alterações histológicas e a expressão das metalotioneínas (MTs) e das proteínas de choque térmico (Hsp70) nos rins de ratos Wistar após a exposição ao fungicida tirame. Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos: grupo dieta-padrão; grupo dieta-padrão+óleo de milho; e grupo tirame. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (P<0,05) na evolução do peso corporal entre os ratos do grupo tirame e os dos grupos controle e óleo de milho, e não foram verificadas lesões histológicas evidentes nos rins dos animais. Foram encontradas diferenças entre os animais do grupo exposto ao tirame e os dos grupos controle e óleo quanto às características histomorfométricas relativas ao corpúsculo renal - exceto para a proporção área da cápsula de Bowman:área do glomérulo - e relativas aos túbulos contorcidos proximal e distal - exceto para altura do epitélio dos túbulos distais. Nos ratos expostos ao tirame, foi observada imunomarcação positiva para as MTs, de moderada a forte, nos túbulos contorcidos da região cortical, diminuindo do córtex em direção à medula, e forte imunomarcação para as Hsp70 nas áreas do córtex e da medula, no glomérulo e nos túbulos contorcidos. Os resultados sugerem que o tirame pode ter toxicidade crônica nos mamíferos por afetar o seu crescimento e que a expressão das MTs e das Hsp70, provável resposta celular adaptativa ao estresse oxidativo causado pelo tirame, pode ser utilizada como biomarcador de exposição a este químico.


The histological alterations and the expression of metallothionein (MTs) and heat shock protein (Hsp70) in the kidney of Wistar rats after thiram fungicide exposure were evaluated. Animals were distributed into three groups: standard diet group, standard diet + corn oil group and thiram group. Significant differences were found (P<0,05) in the evolution of body weight between rats in the thiram group and those in the control and corn oil groups, and no histological lesions were evident in the animals' kidneys. Differences were found among animals in the group exposed to thiram and the control and oil groups regarding histomorphometric characteristics of the renal corpuscle - except for the proportion in the area of Bowman's capsule: glomerulus area - and regarding the height of the epitelium in the distal tubules. In rats exposed to thiram, a positive moderate to strong immunoexpression was observed for MTs, in the cortical convulated tubules decreasing the cortex towards the medulla, and a strong immunoexpression for Hsp70 in the cortex and medulla areas, in the glomerulus and convulated tubules. The results suggest that thiram may have chronic toxicity in mammals affecting their growth, and that the expression of MTs and Hsp70, a probable cellular adaptive response to the oxidative stress caused by thiram, may be used as a biomarker of exposure to this chemical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Metallothionein/analysis , /analysis , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/abnormalities , Antifungal Agents , Oxidative Stress
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(1): 119-124, mar. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638771

ABSTRACT

Lead is one of the heavy metals most used in industry. Poisoning due to long-term lead exposure is known as saturnism, and is an occupational illness that has been known for many years. Lead is highly toxic and can compromise the structural and functional patterns of organs and systems. The aim of this study was to examine the lungs and kidneys of fetuses from female Wistar rats exposed to lead acetate. In this study, the lungs and kidneys of 20 fetuses from female rats that had previously been treated with lead acetate were dissected, fixed, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Macroscopic changes to the shape, color and consistency of organs from fetuses treated with this heavy metal were observed, in comparison with organs from control fetuses. Microscopic lesions characterized by vascular sclerosis, cell atrophy or hyperplasia, progressive interstitial fibrosis, inclusion bodies containing lead acetate and glomerular sclerosis were found in the kidneys. The lesions found in the lungs consisted of destructuring of the parenchyma, impregnation with lead acetate, formation of fibrosis, extravasation of vascular fluids, reduction of the alveolar spaces and formation of alveolar edema. These changes were correlated with the level of lead acetate absorption, as determined using atomic spectrophotometry.


El plomo es un metal pesado utilizado en la industria. El envenenamiento debido a la exposición prolongada por plomo es una enfermedad profesional conocida por muchos años. La toxicidad del plomo es muy expresiva y puede poner en peligro el modelo estructural y funcional de los órganos y sistemas. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar los pulmones y riñones de fetos de ratas Wistar expuestos al acetato de plomo. En este estudio, 20 fetos de ratas Wistar previamente tratados con acetato de plomo durante la gestación, tuvieron sus órganos disecados, fijados, incluidos en parafina y teñidos con hematoxilina y eosina. Macroscópicamente, los órganos fetales tratados por este metal fueron comparados con los órganos de fetos controles en relación a forma, color y consistencia. Microscópicamente, se encontraron lesiones en el riñón que se caracterizaron por esclerosis vascular, atrofia o hiperplasia de células, fibrosis intersticial progresiva, presencia de cuerpos de inclusión que contenían acetato de plomo y esclerosis glomerular. En el pulmón se observó desorganización del parénquima impregnado con acetato de plomo, formación de fibrosis, líquido intersticial, reducción de los espacios alveolares y edema alveolar. Estos cambios se correlacionaron con el nivel de absorción de acetato de plomo, determinado por espectrometría atómica.


Subject(s)
Rats , Lead/toxicity , Lung/anatomy & histology , Lung , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/veterinary , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/blood , Carcinogenic Danger
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(6): 514-520, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the sural nerve morphology among Wistar (WR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, including the nerve fascicles and myelinated fibers morphometry. METHODS: Age matched (20 weeks) female WR (N=6), WKY (N=6) and SHR (N=7) had their right and left sural nerves removed, embedded in epoxy resin, and observed by light microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed with the aid of computer software. RESULTS: Despite presenting the same age, WR were heavier than WKY and SHR, as were SHR compared to WKY. Systolic arterial pressure was higher in SHR compared to WR, but no differences between SHR and WKY or WR and WKY were observed. The sural nerves were morphometrically symmetric between proximal and distal segments on the same side and between sides in all strains with no differences in the myelinated fiber number. Schwann cell number and density were smaller in SHR and G ratio was larger in SHR, indicating that SHR have thinner myelinated fibers. CONCLUSION: Sural nerve morphology is similar between WKY and WR, allowing the use of WR as the SHR controls in morphological investigations involving peripheral neuropathies.


OBJETIVO: Comparar a morfologia do nervo sural em ratos Wistar (WR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY) e espontanemanete hipertensos (SHR), incluindo a morfometria dos fascículos e fibras mielínicas. MÉTODOS: Os nervos surais direito e esquerdo de WR (N=6), WKY (N=6) e SHR (N=7), com 20 semanas de idade foram removidos e preparados para inclusão em resina epóxi e microscopia de luz. A morfometria foi realizada com o auxílio de um programa de computador. RESULTADOS: Apesar de apresentarem a mesma idade, WR são mais pesados que os WKY e SHR. Ainda, SHR são mais pesados que os WKY. A pressão arterial sistólica foi significativamente maior nos SHR comparados aos WR, sem diferença entre WKY e SHR ou WR e WKY. Os nervos surais são morfometricamente simétricos entre segmentos proximal e distal e entre lados direto e esquerdo nas três diferentes linhagens, sem diferença no número de fibras mielínicas. O número e a densidade de células de Schwann foram menores e a razão G foi maior nos SHR, indicando a presença de fibras mielínicas com bainha mais fina. CONCLUSÃO: A morfologia do nervo sural é semelhante ente WR e WKY, permitindo o uso de WR como controles dos SHR nas investigações envolvendo neuropatias periféricas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Myelin Sheath/physiology , Rats, Inbred SHR/anatomy & histology , Rats, Inbred WKY/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Sural Nerve/anatomy & histology , Body Weight , Blood Pressure/physiology , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Sural Nerve/physiology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(3): 907-913, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608679

ABSTRACT

The microfibril-elastin fiber system, an important constituent of the extracellular matrix, was studied in the rat left atrioventricular valve to investigate the interrelationship of oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibers in left atrioventricular valve morphology. The elastin fibers forms continuous bundles observed along the length of the valve in atrial and ventricular layers and oriented parallel to endothelium. The elaunin and oxytalan fibers are distributed in the thickest fiber bundles along the length of the valve. The thinner fibers which radiated towards both the atrial and spongiosa layers, either as isolated or arborescent fiber bundles were identified as oxytalan fibers. With transmission electron microscopy elastic fibers were seen mainly in the atrial layer. The spongiosa layer was composed of elaunin and oxytalan fibers and ventricular layer showed elaunin fibers arranged in continuous bundles parallel to the endothelium. Both fibrillin and elastin were seen and identified by immunocytochemistry with colloidal gold in the left atrioventricular valve spongiosa and atrial layers. These observations allow us to suggest that the microfibril-elastin fiber system plays a role in the mechanical protection and maintenance of the integrity of the rat left atrioventricular valve.


Fue estudiado el sistema de fibras microfibrillas-elastina, un componente importante de la matriz extracelular, en la valva atrioventricular izquierda de rata, con la finalidad de investigar la interrelación de oxitalán, elaunin y fibras elásticas en la morfología de dicha valva. Las fibras de elastina forman paquetes continuos a lo largo de la valva en las capas atriales y ventriculares, orientadas paralelamente al endotelio. Las fibras de elaunin y oxitalán se distribuyen en haces de fibras más gruesas a lo largo de la valva. Las fibras más delgadas, las cuales se irradiaban hacia las capas atrial y esponjosa, ya sea como haces de fibras aisladas o arborescentes, fueron identificadas como fibras oxitalán. En la capa atrial a través de microscopía electrónica de transmisión se observaron principalmente fibras elásticas. La capa esponjosa estaba compuesta por fibras de elaunin y oxitalán; la capa ventricular mostró fibras de elaunin dispuestas en haces continuos paralelos al endotelio. Tanto fibrilina y elastina se observaron e identificaron por inmunocitoquímica con oro coloidal en las capas esponjosa y atrial de la valva atrioventricular izquierda. Estas observaciones nos permiten sugerir que el sistema de fibras de elastina-microfibrillas tienen participación en la protección mecánica y la mantención de la integridad de la valva atrioventricular izquierda en la rata.


Subject(s)
Rats , Elastin/physiology , Elastin/genetics , Elastin/ultrastructure , Microfibrils/genetics , Microfibrils/ultrastructure , Heart Valves/anatomy & histology , Heart Valves/innervation , Heart Valves/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(3): 1058-1061, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608706

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural effects of lead on the kidney cortex of rats. Wistar Albino rats (180-200g body weight) were divided into a controlled and lead acetate-exposed group. Rats received lead acetate at 500 ppm in their drinking water for 60 days. Both groups were fed with the same standard food, but lead acetate was added to the drinking water. During the experimental period, blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta of the anesthetised animals. At the end of exposure, body weight and blood lead levels were measured. The kidney tissue samples were prepared and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Cortical renal tubules show various degenerative changes with focal tubular necrosis invaded by inflammatory cells. The ultrastructural alterations found in lead acetate-treated rats were a diminution in the amount of filtration slits, increased fusion of foot processes in epithelial cells of the glomeruli, increase of lysosomal structures and pinocytic vesicles as well as large mitochondria in proximal tubule cells.


El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los efectos ultraestructurales del plomo en la corteza renal. Ratas Wistar albinas (180-200g de peso corporal) fueron divididas en grupo control y grupo experimental. Las ratas recibieron 500 ppm de acetato de plomo en el agua potable durante 60 días. Ambos grupos fueron alimentados con el mismo alimento estándar, pero acetato de plomo se le añadió al agua potable al grupo experimental. Durante el período experimental, se tomaron bajo anestesia muestras sanguíneas desde la parte abdominal de la aorta. Al final de la exposición, fueron medidos el peso corporal y los niveles de plomo en la sangre. Fueron preparadas las muestras de tejido renal y se analizaron mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de transmisión. Los túbulos renales corticales mostraron varios cambios degenerativos con necrosis tubular focal invadida por células inflamatorias. Las alteraciones ultraestructurales encontradas en las ratas tratadas con acetato de plomo correspondieron a una disminución en la cantidad de ranuras de filtración, aumento de la fusión de los procesos podales en las células epiteliales de los glomérulos, aumento de la estructura lisosomal y las vesículas pinocíticas, así como grandes mitocondrias en las células del túbulo proximal.


Subject(s)
Rats , Kidney Cortex/anatomy & histology , Kidney Cortex , Kidney Cortex/blood supply , Kidney Cortex/injuries , Kidney Cortex/ultrastructure , Lead/administration & dosage , Lead/physiology , Lead/blood , Lead/toxicity , Acetates/adverse effects , Acetates/blood , Acetates/toxicity , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/injuries , Rats, Wistar/blood
14.
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 28(2): 120-128, Apr.-June 2011. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644141

ABSTRACT

Heart autonomic ganglia play an important role in cardiac rhythm control, protecting against certainarrhythmias due to their parasympathetic activity. Starvation during pregnancy may cause cardiac disorders andhinder optimal cardiac performance. Also, morphology of subepicardial neuron is subjected to the influenceof extrinsic factors. We studied the influence of protein deprivation on subepicardic neurons in rats at earlydevelopment stages and the effect of restoration of a normal diet.: Three groups of pregnant Wistar rats weresubmitted to different diets according to its protein content: normal (NN group) and 5% casein (DD group),until 42 days after delivery and low protein for 21 days with refeeding for a further 21 days (RN group).All animal were weighed. The number and area of neuronal profiles were measured. The neurons werestained by histochemical methods â-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and â-nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) and their ultra structure were observed.Group DD and RNanimals weighed less than those from group NN. The number of neurons and the cellular profile area didnot show significant differences among groups for both techniques. Endoplasmatic reticulum ribosomes inneurons of undernourished animals showed decreased electron density. Protein deprivation in early stages ofdevelopment produces ultra structural changes but does not alter the number and profile area of nerve cellbodies in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Diet , Neurons , Ribosomes/metabolism , Nutrition Disorders , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(1): 16-21, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591943

ABSTRACT

The extracellular matrix is a key element in the tracheal morphology and physiology, both in normal and pathological states, yet little is known regarding its composition and organization. Herein we carried out a detailed study of the morphological organization and volumetric density of elastic system fibers in the trachea of Wistar rats. Six Wistar rats at the age of 45 days were used. The trachea was excised following anesthesia with Thiopental and perfusion through the left ventricle with buffered saline followed by formalin solution. Samples were fixed in formaline, embedded in paraffin, and histologically processed. The elastic system fibers were evaluated at light microscopy by using Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin technique after oxidation with oxone. Morphometric studies were performed by the point-counting method. Quantities were expressed ( percent, mean) as volumetric densities and were determined on 25 random fields for each animal. Elastic system fibers were identified beneath the tracheal mucosa showing mainly a longitudinal profile. There were also some bundles of oblique fibers in this region, forming an irregular network of elastic tissue. Close to the inner surface of the cartilaginous ring, a well defined circular layer is present. The volumetric density of the elastic system fibers in the trachea of Wistar rats is 2.46 +/- 0.99 percent. The data in the present study provides original information regarding the elastic system fibers of the rat trachea, which might be used as a model for studying human major airway morphology. The results reported herein provide the basis for continuous investigations on tracheal extracellular matrix by stereology.


La matriz extracelular es un elemento clave en la morfología y fisiología de la tráquea, tanto en estados normales como patológicos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de su composición y organización. Se llevó a cabo un estudio detallado de la organización morfológica y la densidad volumétrica de fibras del sistema elástico en la tráquea de ratas Wistar. Se utilizaron seis ratas Wistar edad de 45 días de vida. La tráquea fue extraída después de anestesia con tiopental y la perfusión a través del ventrículo izquierdo con solución salina tamponada seguido de solución de formalina. Las muestras fueron fijadas en formalina e incluidas en parafina y se procesaron histológicamente. Las fibras del sistema elástico fueron evaluadas en microscopía de luz utilizando la técnica de Weigert, resorcina-fucsina después de la oxidación con Oxone. Los estudios morfométricos fueron realizados por el método de conteo de puntos. Las cantidades se expresaron ( por ciento, media) como la densidad volumétrica y se determinaron en 25 campos al azar para cada animal. Las fibras elásticas del sistema fueron identificadas por bajo la mucosa traqueal que muestra principalmente un perfil longitudinal. También se encontraron algunos haces de fibras oblicuas en esta región, formando una red irregular de tejido elástico. Cerca de la superficie interna del anillo cartilaginoso, una capa bien definida circular está presente. La densidad volumétrica de las fibras del sistema elástico en la tráquea de ratas Wistar fue de 2,46 +/- 0,99 por ciento. Los datos del presente estudio proporcionan información inicial sobre las fibras del sistema elástico de la tráquea de rata, que puede ser utilizado como un modelo para el estudio de la morfología de las vías respiratorias humanas. Los resultados reportados en este documento constituyen la base de investigaciones continuas en la tráquea de la matriz extracelular por estereología.


Subject(s)
Adult , Rats , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Trachea/embryology , Trachea/innervation , Trachea/blood supply , Trachea , Trachea/ultrastructure , Evaluation Studies as Topic/methods , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(1): 76-79, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-591953

ABSTRACT

La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus) ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Es interesante el hecho de que no existen descripciones detalladas de la anatomía del hígado y sus ligamentos que lo fijan a la pared. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma clara y acorde a los principios de la Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria el hígado y sus medios de unión en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron 88 ratas (Rattus norvegicus albinus) de entre 250 y 450 gramos. Fueron disecadas en fresco luego de ser eutanasiadas por sobredosis de tiopental sódico intraperitoneal. Se realizó una incisión paramediana que se extendía desde el cartílago xifoides del esternón hasta el pubis y otra sobre cada arco costal hacia dorsal. Se observó que presentaba 6 lóbulos bien definidos y no presentaba vesícula biliar. Sus medios de unión eran similares a los descritos para el perro a excepción de la presencia del ligamento hepatoomental.


The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus) has long been used as a model for medical, biological and molecular research. It is interesting that there are no detailed descriptions of the gross anatomy of the liver and ligaments that attach it to the abdominal wall. The aim of this study is to define clearly and according to the principles of the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, the liver and the form of attachment in this species of laboratory mammal. Eighty eight rats (Rattus novergicus albinus) were used with a weight between 250 and 450 grams. They were freshly dissected after being euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium given intraperitoneally. An incision from the xiphoid cartilage up to the pubic region was made and another on each costal arch toward the dorsal. Six well defined lobes were observed; gallbladder was not present. Forms of attachment were similar to those described for the dog except for the presence of the hepatoomental ligament.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adult , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/innervation , Liver/blood supply , Liver/ultrastructure , Anatomy, Comparative/methods , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(1): 293-298, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591989

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was quantifying and morphologically analyzing the myenteric neurons of the small and large gastric curvatures of the glandular stomach of rats infected the tachyzoites of the Toxoplasma gondii for 30 days. Ten male rats were assigned into two groups: Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG). The animals from the CG received saline solution orally whereas the EG animals received 104 tachyzoites of the T. gondii genotype III strain (BTU II). After 30 days, euthanasia was conducted for the removal of the stomach, which was dissected under the stereomicroscope for removal of the tunica mucosa and the tela submucosa. Whole mounts were stained with Giemsa. Quantification of the myenteric neurons was conducted by using a 40X-objective microscope in 40 microscopic fields for the region of the small gastric curvature and 40 fields for the large gastric curvature of the glandular stomach of the animals from both groups. The cell body of 50 myenteric neurons from each region was measured for each animal. Chronic experimental infection caused by the genotype III strain of Toxoplasma gondii was verified to reduce myenteric neuron density only in the small gastric curvature region of the glandular stomach, not resulting in significant changes in the size of the neurons.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivos cuantificar y analizar morfológicamente neuronas del plexo mientérico de las curvaturas gástricas menor y mayor del estómago glandular de ratones infectados durante 30 días por taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii. Fueron utilizados 10 ratas machos distribuidos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo control (GC) y grupo experimental (GE). Los animales del GC recibieron solución salina por vía oral y los animales del GE recibieron, por la misma vía, 104 taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii de una cepa genotipo III (cepa BTU II). Tras 30 días, se realizó eutanasia para retirar el estómago, que fue disecado bajo el estereomicroscopio para retirar la túnica mucosa y tela submucosa. Preparados de membrana fueron coloreados por la técnica de Giemsa. La cuantificación de neuronas mientéricas se realizó con microscopía óptica, con objetivo de 40X en 40 campos microscópicos para la región de la curvatura gástrica menor y 40 campos para la curvatura gástrica mayor del estómago glandular, en ambos grupos. Se midió el área del cuerpo celular de 50 neuronas mientéricas de cada región en cada animal. Se verificó que la infección experimental crónica provocada por la cepa de genotipo III de Toxoplasma gondii en ratones, redujo la densidad de neuronas mientéricas solamente en la región de curvatura gástrica menor del estómago glandular, no llevando a alteraciones significativas el tamaño de las neuronas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Myenteric Plexus , Toxoplasmosis/physiopathology , Toxoplasmosis/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/physiology
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 627-634, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598915

ABSTRACT

The progress of science in search of new techniques of the nerve regeneration and the functional repair in reinnervated muscle has been the target of many researchers around the world. Consequently, nerves and muscles in different body segments asked for more enlightenment of their morphology, their interrelation with other anatomic structures and their peculiarities. One of the most significant areas that need deeper studies is the region of the head and neck, since they are often affected by important pathologies. In order to offer the researcher's community a morphological myoneural interaction model, this study elected the levator labii superioris muscle and its motor nerve, the buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII pair) not only for its special characteristics, but also its value on the facial expression. The rat was chosen for this investigation for being easy to obtain, to keep, to manipulate and to compare this experiment with many others studies previously published. The techniques used were Mesoscopic (dissection), histoenzymologic and morphometric ones.In the results the muscle proved to have a predominance of fast twich fibers (FG and FOG) and superficial location, with a proximal bone and a distal cutaneous insertion. Its motor nerve, the buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII pair), breaks through the muscle belly into its deep face, and comprised a heterogeneous group of myelinic nerve fibers disposed in a regular form in all fascicle. Near the motor point, the nerve showed to be composed of two fascicles with different sizes. Due to the small nerve dimensions, the nerve fibers have a smaller diameter if compared to the motor nerve of pectineus muscle of the cat. Further studies with neural tracers have already had a start in order to provide more information about the distribution and the architecture of these fibers.


El progreso de la ciencia en busca de nuevas técnicas para la regeneración neural y la recuperación funcional de los músculos reinervados, ha atraído el interés de muchos investigadores en todo el mundo. En consecuencia, los músculos y los nervios merecen más aclaraciones sobre su morfología, relaciones anatómicas y particularidades. Entre las áreas que merecen estudios más profundos y detallados, está la región de cabeza y cuello, que es a menudo afectada por enfermedades graves. Con el propósito de ofrecer a la comunidad científica un modelo morfológico de interacción mioneural, se eligió el músculo elevador del labio superior y su nervio motor, la rama bucal del nervio facial (VII par craneal), por sus especiales características y su importancia en la expresión facial. En esta investigación se optó por la rata, por las facilidades de obtención, de manejo y para comparar los datos obtenidos con estudios previos. Se utilizaron técnicas mesoscópicas de disección, histoenzimológicas y morfométricas. Los resultados mostraron un músculo con predominio de fibras de contracción rápida (FG y FOG), ubicación superficial, inserción proximal ósea e inserción distal en la piel. Su nervio motor, la rama bucal del nervio facial, ingresa en el vientre muscular en la cara profunda, y está compuesto por un grupo heterogéneo de fibras nerviosas mielínicas dispuestas de forma regular por todo el fascículo nervioso cerca del punto motor. El nervio es formado por dos fascículos de diferentes tamaños. Debido a las pequeñas dimensiones en la rata, el diámetro de las fibras nerviosas presenta valores reducidos, en comparación con el nervio motor del músculo pectíneo en el gato, por ejemplo. Los datos aportados podrán ser usados como referencia en estudios de regeneración en nervios y músculos. Otros estudios con marcadores neuronales se iniciaron para aclarar la distribución y la estructura de las fibras mencionadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant , Rats , Lip/anatomy & histology , Lip/innervation , Masticatory Muscles/innervation , Neuromuscular Junction/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 677-682, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598922

ABSTRACT

The verification of the acute effects of ethanol on the midbrain, which neurons are mainly formed in E14, will ratify if the acute effects of ethanol are associated, in terms of prevalence, to the date of birth of neurons in certain regions of the brain. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute exposure to ethanol on the neuronal density of the midbrain and to associate these results with acute effects of ethanol in other regions of the brain under the same conditions. The rats were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol during one day (E12) and 1h after the last ethanol injection was applied to BrdU. The animals were sacrificed; the brains were removed and sectioned. The sections were treated with DAB for the BrdU revelation, the slides were stained with safranin for one group and another group was stained with H & E. The effects of acute injection of ethanol in E12 on the midbrain were not detected in this study. Data from literature suggest that the deleterious action of acute ethanol consumption only occur if the drug is injected at times near the beginning of the migration of neurons in that particular region of the brain.


La verificación de los efectos agudos del etanol sobre el mesencéfalo, cuyas neuronas se forman principalmente en la E14, puede ratificar si los efectos agudos del etanol están asociados, en términos de prevalencia, a la fecha de nacimiento de neuronas en ciertas regiones del cerebro. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos de la exposición aguda al etanol sobre la densidad neuronal del mesencéfalo y asociar estos resultados con los efectos agudos de etanol en otras regiones del cerebro bajo las mismas condiciones. Las ratas fueron tratadas con etanol intraperitoneal durante un día (E12) y 1h después de la última inyección de etanol fue aplicado BrdU. Los animales fueron sacrificados, los cerebros fueron removidos y seccionados. Las secciones fueron tratados con DAB para la revelación de BrdU, las secciones fueron teñidas con safranina para un grupo y otro grupo se tiñeron con H&E. Los efectos agudos de la inyección de etanol en E12 sobre el mesencéfalo no fueron detectados en este estudio. Los datos de la literatura sugieren que los efectos deletéreos del consumo agudo de etanol sólo se producen si la droga se inyecta en etapas cercanas al comienzo de la migración de las neuronas en esa región particular del cerebro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Brain/anatomy & histology , Brain , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Ethanol/pharmacology , Malformations of Cortical Development, Group II/chemically induced , Malformations of Cortical Development, Group II/veterinary , Mesencephalon/anatomy & histology , Mesencephalon , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/growth & development , Rats, Wistar/metabolism
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 879-889, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598952

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to determine the chronical stress effects on the encephalic NPY neurons population during the fetal Central nervous system development. Immunocytochemical techniques were used for this purpose: NPY neurons presented a similar morphology during the gestation days studied but their distribution varied in the anterior, medium and posterior brain. Statistical Highly significant differences in number of NPY positive neurons (p<0.01) among anterior, medium and posterior brain of stressed fetus (SF) were determined depending on the gestation period and the brain area. The NPY neurons were increased in ARC (Arcuate Hypothalamic Nucleus), PH (Posterior Hypothalamic Area) and DM (Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus) in stressed fetuses (SF) of 17 days, and in ARC of 19 days SF (p< 0.01) were detected in the different brain nucleus. The NPY population increased in PnO (Pontine Reticular Nu, Oral Part) and RITg (Reticulotegmental Nu of the Pons) of 17 days SF, while they were detected in posterior brain at Pyx (Pyramidal Decussation), Rob (Raphe Obscurus Nucleus) and RPA (Raphe Pallidus Nucleus) in SF of 19 days. They also increased in number (p<0.05) in DPGI (Dorsal Paragigantocellular Nu), CGPn (Central Gray of Pons) and PrH (Prepositus Hypoglossal Nucleus) of 17 days SF. Finally, any statistical differences were found among CF and SF in the following nuclei: anterior brain, AH (Anterior Hypothalamic Nucleus), DM (Dorsomedia L Hypothalamic Nucleus) of 17 days; ME (Median Eminence)., VMH (Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus) of 19 days; medium brain in CG (Central Periaqueductal Gray), DR (Dorsal Raphe Nucleus) of 17 days and posterior brain in PnC (Pontine Reticular Nu, Caudal Part), PrH (Prepositus Hypoglossal Nucleus), RMgG (Raphe Magnus Nucleus), IO (Inferior Olive) of 17 days. The increase number of NPY neurons found in the stressed rat fetuses in all periods studied would indicate the participation of the NPY System in...


El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los efectos del estrés crónico en la población de neuronas NPY encefálicas durante el desarrollo del S.N.C. fetal mediante técnicas inmunocitoquímicas. Se demostró que las neuronas NPY presentan un morfología similar en los días de gestación estudiados, pero su distribución varía en el cerebro anterior, medio y posterior. Se comprobaron diferencias altamente significativas entre el cerebro anterior, medio y posterior (p<0,01) de fetos estresados (FE), variando dicha significación dependiendo del día de la gestación y del área estudiada. En los diferentes núcleos cerebrales del cerebro anterior se detectaron aumentos en ARC (Arcuate Hypothalamic Nucleus), PH (Posterior Hypothalamic Area) de 17 días y DM (Dorsomedia L Hypothalamic Nucleus) y en ARC (Arcuate Hypothalamic Nucleus) de 19días (p<0,01) de F.E. En el cerebro medio se detectaron aumentos en DR (Dorsal Raphe Nucleus) (p<0,01) y PN (Pontine Nucleus) (p<0,05) de 19 F.E. En el cerebro posterior se detectaron aumentos en PnO (Pontine Reticular Nu, Oral Part) y RITg (Reticulotegmental Nu of the Pons) de 17 F. E. y Pyx, (Pyramidal Decussation), Rob (Raphe Obscurus Nucleus) y RPA (Raphe Pallidus Nucleus) de 19 F.E. Asimismo se comprobaron aumentos (p<0,05) en DPGI (Dorsal Paragigantocellular Nu.) de 17 F.E, CGPn (Central Gray of Pons) y PrH (Prepositus Hypoglossal Nucleus), de 19 F.E. Finalmente, no se comprobaron diferencias entre F. C. (fetos controles) y F. E. en los siguientes núcleos del cerebro anterior: AH (Anterior Hypothalamic Nucleus), DM (Dorsomedia L Hypothalamic Nucleus), de 17 días; y EM, (Median Eminence), VMH (Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus) de 19 días. En el cerebro medio CG, (Central Periaqueductal Gray), DR (Dorsal Raphe Nucleus) de 17 días. En el cerebro posterior el PnC, (Pontine Reticular Nu, Caudal Part), PrH (Prepositus Hypoglossal Nucleus), RMgG (Raphe Magnus Nucleus), IO (Inferior Olive) de 17 días del cerebro posterior...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Mice , Neurons/cytology , Neurons , Neurons/physiology , Neurons/chemistry , Neurons/ultrastructure , Stress, Physiological , Maternal Exposure , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/embryology , Central Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Central Nervous System/embryology , Central Nervous System/ultrastructure
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