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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878337

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immunomodulatory effects of cadmium (Cd).@*Methods@#The effect of Cd on AhR activation ( @*Results@#Cd increased @*Conclusion@#AhR signaling is involved in the lung leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine response to Cd. The relevance of the AhR to the cytokine response to Cd provides new insight into the mechanisms of Cd immunotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/immunology , Cadmium/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/immunology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Male , Rats , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/immunology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is commonly known as an environmental sensor. Polymorphisms in AhR gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results were controversial. This study was conducted to quantitatively summarize the association between AhR polymorphisms and cancer risk by meta-analysis.@*METHODS@#Relevant reports were searched in four databases (Embase, PubMed, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure). We used pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to evaluate the strength of the association in both standard and cumulative meta-analysis. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis was also performed, and between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were checked.@*RESULTS@#A total of seventeen studies referring to three AhR polymorphisms (rs2066853, rs7796976, and rs2074113) were identified, and 9557 cases and 10038 controls were included. There was no statistically significant association of AhR rs2066853 polymorphism with cancer risk in the overall population, and the negative results were repeated in subgroup analysis by the ethnicity and cancer type. Concerning AhR rs7796976 or rs2074113 polymorphism, no significant correlation was detected. Moreover, these non-significant findings were stable in sensitivity analysis, and the cumulative meta-analysis indicated a trend of no significant link between this three AhR polymorphisms and cancer risk as more data accumulated over time.@*CONCLUSION@#This meta-analysis provides evidence that the rs2066853, rs7796976, or rs2074113 polymorphism in AhR gene is not a susceptible predictor of cancer. Further clinical and functional investigation between AhR polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility are needed.


Subject(s)
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Confidence Intervals , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Odds Ratio , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180713, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1040234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vitamin D has been known to have important regulatory functions in inflammation and immune response and shows inhibitory effects on experimental periodontitis in animal models. However, the potential mechanism has yet to be clarified. Recent studies have highlighted Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and its downstream signaling as a crucial regulator of immune homeostasis and inflammatory regulation. Objective: This study aimed to clarify the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) on experimental periodontitis and AhR/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/NLR pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway in the gingival epithelium in a murine model. Methodology: We induced periodontitis in male C57BL/6 wild-type mice by oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and subsequently gave intraperitoneal VD3 injection to the mice every other day for 8 weeks. Afterwards, we examined the alveolar bone using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and detected the gingival epithelial protein using western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Results: SEM images demonstrated that alveolar bone loss was reduced in the periodontitis mouse model after VD3 supplementation. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemical staining of the gingival epithelium showed that the expression of vitamin D receptor, AhR and its downstream cytochrome P450 1A1 were enhanced upon VD3 application. Additionally, VD3 decreased NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 protein expression. Conclusions: These results implicate the alleviation of periodontitis and the alteration of AhR/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by VD3 in the mouse model. The attenuation of this periodontal disease may correlate with the regulation of AhR/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by VD3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/metabolism , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Calcitriol/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Calcitriol/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss , NF-kappa B/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/analysis , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/drug effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Caspase 1/analysis , Bone Density Conservation Agents/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/metabolism , Gingiva/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763044

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter (PM), which refers to the mixture of particles present in the air, can have harmful effects. Damage to cells by PM, including disruption of organelles and proteins, can trigger autophagy, and the relationship between autophagy and PM has been well studied. However, the cellular regulators of PM-induced autophagy have not been well characterized, especially in keratinocytes. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is expressed in the epidermis and is activated by PM. In this study, we investigated the role of the AhR in PM-induced autophagy in HaCaT cells. Our results showed that PM led to AhR activation in keratinocytes. Activation of the AhR-target gene CYP1A1 by PM was reduced by co-treatment with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF), an AhR inhibitor. We also evaluated activation of the autophagy pathway in PM-treated keratinocytes. In HaCaT cells, treatment with PM treatment led to the induction of microtubules-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1, which are essential components of the autophagy pathway. To study the role of the AhR in mediating PM-induced autophagy, we treated cells with α-NF or used an siRNA against AhR. Expression of LC3-ІІ induced by PM was decreased in a dose dependent manner by α-NF. Furthermore, knockdown of AhR with siAhR diminished PM-induced expression of LC3-ІІ and p62. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of the AhR decreases PM-induced autophagy. We confirmed these results using the autophagy-inhibitors BAF and 3-MA. Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to PM induces autophagy via the AhR in HaCaT keratinocytes.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Epidermis , Keratinocytes , Negotiating , Organelles , Particulate Matter , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , RNA, Small Interfering
7.
Blood Research ; : 253-261, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fluoranthene (FR) is a common environmental pollutant that exists in a complex mixture with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified biomarkers for monitoring FR exposure and investigated the rescue effect of FR-induced cellular toxicity via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist activity in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs).METHODS: Morphological changes, viability, and rescue effects of an AHR antagonist (CH223191) were examined in BM-MSCs after exposure to FR. Cytotoxic effects were assayed using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V and propidium iodide dye-based flowcytometry assay, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, and nuclear DNA fragmentation assay. Molecular signaling pathways of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated using immunoblotting. Proteomics were performed in order to reveal the spectra of cellular damage and identify biomarkers for FR exposure.RESULTS: Exposing BM-MSCs to FR (IC₅₀=50 µM) induced cell death and morphological changes, while the AHR antagonist showed rescue effects. Autophagy was activated and mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Proteomic analysis identified 48 deregulated proteins (26 upregulated and 22 downregulated). Among them, annexin A6, pyruvate kinase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and phospholipase A2 could be potential biomarkers for FR exposure.CONCLUSION: The exposure of BM-MSCs to FR induced remarkable alterations in cellular biology and the proteome, allowing for identification of novel biomarkers for FR exposure. Furthermore, AHR antagonists might be able to prevent cellular damage due to FR exposure.


Subject(s)
Annexin A5 , Annexin A6 , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Biomarkers , Bone Marrow , Cell Death , DNA Fragmentation , Immunoblotting , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxidoreductases , Phospholipases A2 , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Propidium , Proteome , Proteomics , Pyruvate Kinase , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 302-303, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038265

ABSTRACT

Abstract: IL-22 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor transcription factor that acts as a master regulator of IL-22-producing Th22 cells is not fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with vitiligo and in normal controls. Transcript levels were determined by a reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA expression was drastically increased in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy controls (P = 0.000). Th22 cells may contribute to abnormal immune responses underlying vitiligo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vitiligo/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Interleukins/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773626

ABSTRACT

Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is still uncertain, increasing evidence indicates that the excessive activation of NLRP3 inflammasome plays a major role. Norisoboldine (NOR), an alkaloid isolated from Radix Linderae, has previously been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation and IL-1β production. The present study was to examine the effect of NOR on colitis and the underlying mechanism related to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results showed that NOR alleviated colitis symptom in mice induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Moreover, it significantly reduced expressions of cleaved IL-1β, NLRP3 and cleaved Caspase-1 but not ASC in colons of mice. In THP-1 cells, NOR suppressed the expressions of NLRP3, cleaved Caspase-1 and cleaved IL-1β but not ASC induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Furthermore, NOR could activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in THP-1 cells, inducing CYP1A1 mRNA expression, and promoting dissociation of AhR/HSP90 complexes, association of AhR and ARNT, AhR nuclear translocation, XRE reporter activity and binding activity of AhR/ARNT/XRE. Both siAhR and α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) markedly diminished the inhibition of NOR on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, NOR elevated Nrf2 level and reduced ROS level in LPS- and ATP-stimulated THP-1 cells, which was reversed by either siAhR or α-NF treatment. Finally, correlations between activation of AhR and attenuation of colitis, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and up-regulation of Nrf2 level in colons were validated in mice with TNBS-induced colitis. Taken together, NOR ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in mice through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation via regulating AhR/Nrf2/ROS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Colitis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Inflammasomes , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Lindera , Chemistry , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Genetics , Metabolism , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812416

ABSTRACT

Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is still uncertain, increasing evidence indicates that the excessive activation of NLRP3 inflammasome plays a major role. Norisoboldine (NOR), an alkaloid isolated from Radix Linderae, has previously been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation and IL-1β production. The present study was to examine the effect of NOR on colitis and the underlying mechanism related to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results showed that NOR alleviated colitis symptom in mice induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Moreover, it significantly reduced expressions of cleaved IL-1β, NLRP3 and cleaved Caspase-1 but not ASC in colons of mice. In THP-1 cells, NOR suppressed the expressions of NLRP3, cleaved Caspase-1 and cleaved IL-1β but not ASC induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Furthermore, NOR could activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in THP-1 cells, inducing CYP1A1 mRNA expression, and promoting dissociation of AhR/HSP90 complexes, association of AhR and ARNT, AhR nuclear translocation, XRE reporter activity and binding activity of AhR/ARNT/XRE. Both siAhR and α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) markedly diminished the inhibition of NOR on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, NOR elevated Nrf2 level and reduced ROS level in LPS- and ATP-stimulated THP-1 cells, which was reversed by either siAhR or α-NF treatment. Finally, correlations between activation of AhR and attenuation of colitis, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and up-regulation of Nrf2 level in colons were validated in mice with TNBS-induced colitis. Taken together, NOR ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in mice through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation via regulating AhR/Nrf2/ROS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Colitis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Inflammasomes , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Lindera , Chemistry , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Genetics , Metabolism , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
11.
Immune Network ; : e35-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717670

ABSTRACT

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses by sensing a variety of small synthetic and natural chemicals, which act as its ligands. AhR, which is expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), regulates the differentiation of DCs. However, effects of AhR on the differentiation of DCs are variable due to the heterogeneity of DCs in cell surface marker expression, anatomical location, and functional responses. The plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), one of DC subsets, not only induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses by secreting type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce IL-10 producing regulatory T cell or anergy or deletion of antigen-specific T cells. We showed here that AhR ligands indoxyl 3-sulfate (I3S) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) inhibited the development of pDCs derived from bone marrow (BM) precursors induced by FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L). I3S and I3C downregulated the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and E2-2 (Tcf4). In mice orally treated with I3S and I3C, oral tolerance to dinitrofluorobenzene was impaired and the proportion of CD11c⁺B220⁺ cells in mesenteric lymph nodes was reduced. These data demonstrate that AhR negatively regulates the development of pDCs from BM precursors induced by Flt3L, probably via repressing the expression of STAT3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Cell Differentiation , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Dinitrofluorobenzene , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 , Immune Tolerance , Interferon Type I , Interleukin-10 , Ligands , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Population Characteristics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , STAT3 Transcription Factor , T-Lymphocytes , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 430-431, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038249

ABSTRACT

Abstract The etiopathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is still poorly understood. In addition to genetic and hormonal elements, environmental factors could be involved. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is expressed in keratinocytes and can be activated by environmental pollutants leading to alterations in the cell cycle, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here we demonstrate the overexpression of nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptors in miniaturized hair follicles in female pattern hair loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Hair Follicle/metabolism , Alopecia/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Hair Follicle/pathology , Hair Follicle/chemistry , Alopecia/pathology
13.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(3): 190-196, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899423

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study was to analyze the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in peripheral blood CCR6+CD4+ and CD4+CD25+T cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Flow cytometry was applied to determine the proportion of AhR positive cells in CCR6+CD4+T, CD4+CD25+T and peripheral blood peripheral mononuclear cells from each subject. AhR mRNA and CYP1A1 mRNA relative expression levels were tested by real-time PCR. Results: The percentage of AhR positive cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher in RA group than that in healthy cases [(35.23 ± 10.71)% vs. (18.83 ± 7.32)%, p < 0.01]. The expression levels of AhR and CYP1A1 were both increased in patients with RA while compared to controls [(3.71 ± 1.63) vs. (2.00 ± 1.27), p = 0.002; (2.62 ± 2.08) vs. (0.62 ± 0.29), p < 0.01, respectively]. In RA patients, the percentage of AhR positive cells in CD4+CD25+T cells was significantly lower than that from controls [17.90 (6.10 ± 80.10)% vs. (52.49 ± 19.18)%, p < 0.01]; In healthy controls, the percentage of AhR positive cells in CD4+CD25+T cells was significantly higher than that in CCR6+CD4+T cells, and was also significantly higher than that in PBMCs [(52.49 ± 19.18)% vs. (23.18 ± 5.62)% vs. (18.06 ± 7.80)%, X 2 = 24.03, p < 0.01]; in RA patients, the percentage of AhR positive cells in CCR6+CD4+T cells was significantly increased than that in CD4+CD25+T cells and PBMCs [(46.02 ± 14.68)% vs. 17.90 (6.10 ± 80.10)% vs. (34.22 ± 10.33)%, X 2 = 38.29, p < 0.01]; Nevertheless, no statistically significant relationship was found between clinical data and AhR positive cells in CCR6+CD4+T and CD4+CD25+T cells. Conclusion: AhR may participate in the pathological progress of RA by controlling the differentiation of Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o papel do receptor de hidrocarboneto arílico (AhR) nos linfócitos T CCR6+ CD4+ e CD4+ CD25+ no sangue periférico de pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR). Métodos: Foi aplicada citometria de fluxo para determinar a proporção de células AhR positivas em linfócitos CCR6+ CD4+ e CD4+ CD25+ do sangue periférico e células mononucleares periféricas de cada indivíduo. Os níveis de expressão relativa de ácido ribonucleico mensageiro (do inglês ribonucleic acid, RNAm,) de AhR e RNAm de enzima de primeiro estágio essencial para o AhR (CYP1A1) foram testados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (do inglês polymerase chain reaction, PCR,) em tempo real. Resultados: A percentagem de células AhR positivas nas células mononucleares do sangue periférico foi maior no grupo com AR do que nos indivíduos saudáveis [(35,23 ± 10,71)% vs. (18,83 ± 7,32)%, (p < 0,01)]. Os níveis de expressão de AhR e CYP1A1 estavam aumentados em pacientes com AR quando comparados com os controles [(3,71 ± 1,63) vs. (2,00 ± 1,27), p = 0,002; (2,62 ± 2,08) vs. (0,62 ± 0,29), p < 0,01, respectivamente]. Em pacientes com AR, a percentagem de células AhR positivas nos linfócitos T CD4+ CD25+ foi significativamente inferior à dos controles [17,90 (6,10 ± 80,10)]% vs. (52,49 ± 19,18)%, p < 0,01]; em controles saudáveis, a percentagem de células AhR positivas nos linfócitos T CD4+ CD25+ foi significativamente mais elevada do que nos linfócitos T CCR6+ CD4+ e também foi significativamente maior do que nas células mononucleares do sangue periférico (do inglês peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC,) [(52,49 ± 19,18)% vs. (23,18 ± 5,62)% vs. (18,06 ± 7,80)%, X 2 = 24,03, p < 0,01]; em pacientes com AR, a percentagem de células AHR positivas nos linfócitos T CCR6+ CD4+ era significativamente maior em comparação com os linfócitos T CD4+ CD25+ e PBMC (46,02 ± 14,68)% vs. [17,90 (6,10 ± 80.10)]% vs. (34,22 ± 10,33)%, X2 = 38,29, p < 0,01]; no entanto, não foi encontrada correlação estatisticamente significativa entre os dados clínicos e células AhR positivas em linfócitos T CCR6+ CD4+ e CD4+ CD25+. Conclusão: O Ahr pode participar do progresso patológico da AR ao controlar a diferenciação de linfócitos Th17 e Treg no sangue periférico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/blood , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/blood , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Receptors, CCR6/blood , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , Middle Aged
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87968

ABSTRACT

Indoxyl sulfate, a protein-bound uremic toxin, leads to CKD (chronic kidney disease) progression and its complications through the activation of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and RAS (renin-angiotensin system). Inhibition of these pathways may slow the development of CKD and CKD-associated complications.


Subject(s)
Indican , Kidney , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renin-Angiotensin System
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32623

ABSTRACT

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent; however, the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity associated with DOX significantly limits its clinical application. In the present study, we investigated whether Rb1 could prevent DOX-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). H9C2 cells were treated with various concentrations (−μM) of Rb1. AhR, CYP1A protein and mRNA expression were quantified with Western blot and real-time PCR analyses. We also evaluated the expression levels of caspase-3 to assess the anti-apoptotic effects of Rb1. Our results showed that Rb1 attenuated DOX-induced cardiomyocytes injury and apoptosis and reduced caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not caspase-9 activity in DOX-treated H9C2 cells. Meanwhile, pre-treatment with Rb1 decreased the expression of caspase-3 and PARP in the protein levels, with no effects on cytochrome c, Bax, and Bcl-2 in DOX-stimulated cells. Rb1 markedly decreased the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression induced by DOX. Furthermore, transfection with AhR siRNA or pre-treatment with AhR antagonist CH-223191 significantly inhibited the ability of Rb1 to decrease the induction of CYP1A, as well as caspase-3 protein levels following stimulation with DOX. In conclusion, these findings indicate that AhR plays an important role in the protection of Ginsenoside Rb1 against DOX-triggered apoptosis of H9C2 cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cardiotoxicity , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Cytochromes c , Doxorubicin , Myocytes, Cardiac , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transfection
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337896

ABSTRACT

Dioscin has a wide range of biological effects and broad application prospects. However the studies concerning the toxicology and mechanism of dioscin is small. This article is to study the hepatotoxicity of dioscin and the effect of dioscin treatment on expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA and CYP1A mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells in vitro. Dioscin 0.5-32 µmol · L(-1) exposed to HepG2 cells for 12 h, cell viability was examined by CCK-8 assay and the release rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was to evaluate cell membrane damage. HepG2 cells morphologic changes were quantified by inverted Microscope, and the effect on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of CYP1A and AhR was evaluated by RT-RCR. The protein expression of CYP1A1 was detected by western blot. The cell viability was significantly inhibited after HepG2 cells were exposed to dioscin 0.5-32 µmol · L(-1). Compared with the control, the LDH release rate and ROS were significantly increased. The expression of CYPlA and AhR mRNA was increased. The expression of CYP1Al protein was increased after dioscin treatment, and resveratrol, an AhR antagonist, could downregulate the expression of CYP1A1. It follows that large doses dioscin has potential hepatotoxicity. The possible mechanism may be dioscin can active aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the expression of CYP1A.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Genetics , Diosgenin , Toxicity , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Bodily Secretions , RNA, Messenger , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, binds to a wide variety of synthetic and naturally occurring compounds. AhR is involved in the regulation of inflammatory response during acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We investigated whether nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCOA7) could regulate transcriptional levels of AhR target genes and inflammatory cytokines in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated human bronchial epithelial cells. This study was based on our previous study that NCOA7 was differentially expressed between normal and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lung tissues. METHODS: BEAS-2B and A549 cells grown under serum-free conditions were treated with or without TCDD (0.15 nM and 6.5 nM) for 24 hours after transfection of pCMV-NCOA7 isoform 4. Expression levels of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), IL-6, and IL-8 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The transcriptional activities of CYP1A1 and inflammatory cytokines were strongly induced by TCDD treatment in both BEAS-2B and A549 cell lines. The NCOA7 isoform 4 oppositely regulated the transcriptional activities of CYP1A1 and inflammatory cytokines between BEAS-2B and A549 cell lines. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NCOA7 could act as a regulator in the TCDD-AhR signaling pathway with dual roles in normal and abnormal physiological conditions.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Cytochromes , Cytokines , Dioxins , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins , Transcription Factors , Transfection
18.
Immune Network ; : 278-290, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92652

ABSTRACT

The intestinal immune system maintains oral tolerance to harmless antigens or nutrients. One mechanism of oral tolerance is mediated by regulatory T cell (Treg)s, of which differentiation is regulated by a subset of dendritic cell (DC)s, primarily CD103+ DCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, plays an important role in regulating immunity. The intestines are exposed to various AhR ligands, including endogenous metabolites and phytochemicals. It was previously reported that AhR activation induced tolerogenic DCs in mice or in cultures of bone marrow-derived DCs. However, given the variety of tolerogenic DCs, which type of tolerogenic DCs is regulated by AhR remains unknown. In this study, we found that AhR ligand 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) inhibited the development of CD103+ DCs from mouse bone marrow cells stimulated with Flt3L and GM-CSF. DIM interfered with phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 inhibiting the expression of genes, including Id2, E2-2, IDO-1, and Aldh1a2, which are associated with DC differentiation and functions. Finally, DIM suppressed the ability of CD103+ DCs to induce Foxp3+ Tregs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow Cells , Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Immune System , Intestines , Ligands , Mice , Phosphorylation , Phytochemicals , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Transcription Factors
19.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 719-723, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360492

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In this study, folic acid (FA) was tested for antiteratogenic effects on Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cleft palate in fetal mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the present study, pregnant mice were dosed with TCDD 24 µg/kg and with or without FA 5 mg/kg body weight on gestation day 10. Control group mice received sesame oil 50 ml/kg body weight on gestation day(GD)10. The mice were sacrificed on GD12.5, GD13.5, GD14.5, GD15.5 and GD16.5. From each pregnant mouse on GD16.5, embryos were obtained to examine under a dissecting microscope, and routine histology was performed for detection and classification of palatal clefts. The fetuses were prepared for histologic examination, scanning electron microscope and TdT-mediated X-dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL). On GD12.5, GD13.5, GD14.5 and GD15.5. Meanwhile, real-time (RT)-PCR was employed to detect the mRNA expression levels about arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and transforming growth factor (TGF)β3 in this animal model.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Total frequencies of clefts were 70.2% in TCDD group(group B) and 66.3% in TCDD+FA group(group C) in relation to control fetuses(group A). Filopodia disappeared completely at the medial edge epithelia surface on GD15.5 (group A), GD12.5 (group B) and GD14.5 (group C). the RT-PCR results showed that TGF -β3 expression was down-regulated on GD13.5 and GD14.5 compared to the control.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>It is found that folic acid has no protects agaist 2.3.7.8-TCDD-indued cleft palate in the experiment. Meanwhile, TCDD repressed the TGF-β3 expression during the palatal development. Anormal apoptosis was induced by 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD at the medial edge epithelia (MEE) during the early development stage.</p>


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced , Animals , Apoptosis , Biomarkers , Cell Polarity , Cleft Palate , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fetus , Folic Acid , Therapeutic Uses , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins , Toxicity , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Genetics , Teratogens , Toxicity , Transforming Growth Factor beta3 , Genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140361

ABSTRACT

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can induce drug transporter genes such as the ATP-binding cassette G member 2 (ABCG2), which contributes to multidrug resistance. We investigated the effect of TCDD pretreatment on drug transporters induction from cancer cells of various origins. Cell viabilities after treatment of cisplatin were measured to evaluate acquiring cisplatin resistance by TCDD. Acquring cisplatin resistance was found only in cisplatin senstivie cancer cells including gastric SNU601, colon LS180, brain CRT-MG and lymphoma Jurkat cells which showed a significant increase in cell viability after combined treatment with TCDD and cisplatin. High increase of ABCG2 gene expression was found in SNU601 and LS180 cells with a mild increase in the expression of the ABCC3, ABCC5,and SLC29A2 genes in SNU601 cells, and of major vault protein (MVP) in LS180 cells. The AhR inhibitor kaempferol suppressed the upregulation of ABCG2 expression and reversed the TCDD-induced increase in cell viability in LS180 cells. However, in CRT-MG cells, other transporter genes including ABCC1, ABCC5, ABCA3, ABCA2, ABCB4, ABCG1, and SLC29A1 were up-regulated. These findings suggested the acquiring cisplatin resistance by TCDD associated with cancer cell-type-specific induction of drug transporters.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2/genetics , Humans , Jurkat Cells , K562 Cells , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/pharmacology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles/genetics
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