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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 322-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984725

ABSTRACT

Objective: To produce chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) targeting human hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met (HGF/c-Met) protein and detect its cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells H1975 in vitro. Methods: The whole gene sequence of c-Met CAR containing c-Met single-chain fragment variable was synthesized and linked to lentiviral vector plasmid, plasmid electrophoresis was used to detect the correctness of target gene. HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmid and the concentrated solution of the virus particles was collected. c-Met CAR lentivirus was transfected into T cells to obtain second-generation c-Met CAR-T and the expression of CAR sequences was verified by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot, and the positive rate and cell subtypes of c-Met CAR-T cells were detected by flow cytometry. The positive expression of c-Met protein in NSCLC cell line H1975 was verified by flow cytometry, and the negative expression of c-Met protein in ovarian cancer cell line A2780 was selected as the control. The cytotoxicity of c-Met CAR-T to H1975 was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay at 1∶1, 5∶1, 10∶1 and 20∶1 of effector: target cell ratio (E∶T). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ from c-Met CAR-T co-cultured with H1975. Results: The size of band was consistent with that of designed c-Met CAR, suggesting that the c-Met CAR plasmid was successfully constructed. The results of gene sequencing were consistent with the original design sequence and lentivirus was successfully constructed. CAR molecules expression in T cells infected with lentivirus was detected by western blot and RT-qPCR, which showed c-Met CAR-T were successfully constructed. Flow cytometry results showed that the infection efficiency of c-Met CAR in T cells was over 38.4%, and the proportion of CD8(+) T cells was increased after lentivirus infection. The NSCLC cell line H1975 highly expressed c-Met while ovarian cancer cell line A2780 negatively expressed c-Met. LDH cytotoxicity assay indicated that the killing efficiency was positively correlated with the E∶T, and higher than that of control group, and the killing rate reached 51.12% when the E∶T was 20∶1. ELISA results showed that c-Met CAR-T cells released more IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ in target cell stimulation, but there was no statistical difference between c-Met CAR-T and T cells in the non-target group. Conclusions: Human NSCLC cell H1975 expresses high level of c-Met which can be used as a target for immunotherapy. CAR-T cells targeting c-Met have been successfully produced and have high killing effect on c-Met positive NSCLC cells in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Interleukin-2/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cell Line, Tumor , HEK293 Cells , Lung Neoplasms , Ovarian Neoplasms , Immunotherapy, Adoptive
2.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 577-585, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981902

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to construct and identify the chimeric antigen receptor NK92 (CAR-NK92) cells targeting NKG2D ligand (NKG2DL) (secreting IL-15Ra-IL-15) and verify the killing activity of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells against multiple myeloma cells. Methods The extracellular segment of NKG2D was employed to connect 4-1BB and CD3Z, as well as IL-15Ra-IL-15 sequence to obtain a CAR expression framework. The lentivirus was packaged and transduced into NK92 cells to obtain NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells. The proliferation of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay, IL-15Ra secretion was detected by ELISA and killing efficiency was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The molecular markers of NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, the ratio of apoptotic cell population, CD107a, and the secretion level of granzyme B and perforin were detected using flow cytometry. In addition, the cytotoxic mechanism of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells on the tumor was verified by measuring the degranulation ability. Moreover, after NKG2D antibody inhibited effector cells and histamine inhibited tumor cells, LDH assay was utilized to detect the effect on cell-killing efficiency. Finally, the multiple myeloma tumor xenograft model was constructed to verify its anti-tumor activity in vivo. Results Lentiviral transduction significantly increased NKG2D expression in NK92 cells. Compared with NK92 cells, the proliferation ability of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was weaker. The early apoptotic cell population of NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was less, and NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells had stronger cytotoxicity to multiple myeloma cells. Additionally, IL-15Ra secretion could be detected in its culture supernatant. NKp44 protein expression in NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells was clearly increased, demonstrating an enhanced activation level. Inhibition test revealed that the cytotoxicity of CAR-NK92 cells to MHC-I chain-related protein A (MICA) and MICB-positive tumor cells was more dependent on the interaction between NKG2D CAR and NKG2DL. After stimulating NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells with tumor cells, granzyme B and perforin expression increased, and NK cells obviously upregulated CD107α. Furthermore, multiple myeloma tumor xenograft model revealed that the tumors of mice treated with NKG2D CAR-NK92 cells were significantly reduced, and the cell therapy did not sensibly affect the weight of the mice. Conclusion A type of CAR-NK92 cell targeting NKG2DL (secreting IL-15Ra-IL-15) is successfully constructed, indicating the effective killing of multiple myeloid cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Interleukin-15 , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , Granzymes , Cell Line, Tumor , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Perforin
3.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 397-403, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981879

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate a convenient and quantitative solution to activation levels and functional characterization of CAR-T cells by inserting T cell activity-responsive promoter (TARP) nanoluciferase reporter gene system into a lentiviral plasmid containing the gene encoding the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Methods The recombinant plasmid was constructed by using whole gene synthesis and molecular cloning techniques. The lentivirus was packaged and was infected with human primary T lymphocytes. Flow cytometry was used to detected the positive rate of lentivirus-infected T cells. The functional characterization of CAR-T cells was identified by luciferase reporter gene system, Western blot, flow cytometry, and small animal live imaging techniques. Results The results of enzyme digestion identification and the plasmid sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmids were constructed, and flow cytometry displayed the normal preparation of CAR-T cells. This system could dynamically respond to the activation of CAR-T cells by luciferase reporter gene system. The functional assay in vitro confirmed that the system could reflect the exhaustion of CAR-T cells, and the small animal live imaging results demonstrated that the system can be used as a tracer of CAR-T cells in mice. Conclusion TARP nanoluciferase reporter gene system provides a more convenient, sensitive and quantitative method for evaluating CAR-T cells activation level, exhaustion phenotype and tracing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Line, Tumor , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 127-137, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970062

ABSTRACT

Adoptive therapeutic immune cells, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and natural killer cells, have established a new generation of precision medicine based on which dramatic breakthroughs have been achieved in intractable lymphoma treatments. Currently, well-explored approaches focus on autologous cells due to their low immunogenicity, but they are highly restricted by the high costs, time consumption of processing, and the insufficiency of primary cells in some patients. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are cell sources that can theoretically produce indefinite well-differentiated immune cells. Based on the above facts, it may be reasonable to combine the iPSC technology and the CAR design to produce a series of highly controllable and economical "live" drugs. Manufacturing hypoimmunogenic iPSCs by inactivation or over-expression at the genetic level and then arming the derived cells with CAR have emerged as a form of "off-the-shelf" strategy to eliminate tumor cells efficiently and safely in a broader range of patients. This review describes the reasonability, feasibility, superiority, and drawbacks of such approaches, summarizes the current practices and relevant research progress, and provides insights into the possible new paths for personalized cell-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Killer Cells, Natural , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 279-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929636

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting CD52 (CD52 CAR-T) and validate the effect of CD52 CAR-T cells on CD52-positive leukemia. Methods: A second-generation CD52-targeting CAR bearing 4-1BB costimulatory domain was ligated into a lentiviral vector through molecular cloning. Lentivirus was prepared and packaged by 293 T cells with a four-plasmid system. Fluorescein was used to label cell surface antigens to evaluate the phenotype of CD52 CAR-T cells after infection. Flow cytometry and ELISA were used to evaluate the specific cytotoxicity of CD52 CAR-T cells to CD52-positive cell lines in vitro. Results: ①A pCDH-CD52scFv-CD8α-4-1BB-CD3ζ-GFP expressing plasmid was successfully constructed and used to transduce T cells expressing a novel CD52-targeting CAR. ②On day 6, CD52-positive T cells were almost killed by CD52-targeted CAR-T post lentivirus transduction [CD52 CAR-T (4.48 ± 4.99) %, vs Vector-T (56.58±19.8) %, P=0.011]. ③T cells transduced with the CAR targeting CD52 showed low levels of apoptosis and could be expanded long-term ex vivo. ④The CD52 CAR could promote T cell differentiation into central and effector memory T cells, whereas the proportion of T cells with a CD45RA(+) effector memory phenotype were reduced. ⑤CD52 CAR-T cells could specifically kill CD52-positive HuT78-19t cells but had no killing effect on CD52-negative MOLT4-19t cells. For CD52 CAR-T cells, the percentage of residual of HuT78-19t cells was (2.66±1.60) % at an the E:T ratio of 1∶1 for 24 h, while (56.66±5.74) % of MOLT4-19t cells survived (P<0.001) . ⑥The results of a degranulation experiment confirmed that HuT78-19t cells significantly activated CD52 CAR-T cells but not MOLT4-19t cells[ (57.34±11.25) % vs (13.06± 4.23) %, P<0.001]. ⑦CD52 CAR-T cells released more cytokines when co-cultured with HuT78-19t cells than that of vector-T cells [IFN-γ: (3706±226) pg/ml, P<0.001; TNF-α: (1732±560) pg/ml, P<0.01]. Conclusions: We successfully prepared CD52 CAR-T cells with anti-leukemia effects, which might provide the foundation for further immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , CD52 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Lentivirus/genetics , Leukemia , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 229-234, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929562

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to create a type of CAR-T cells that targets LMP1 antigen and study its immunotherapeutic effect on LMP1-positive hematological malignancies. Methods: To generate LMP1 CAR-T cells, a plasmid expressing LMP1 CAR was created using molecular cloning technology, and T cells were infected with LMP1 CAR lentivirus. The effects of LMP1 CAR-T cells on specific cytotoxicity against LMP1-positive tumor cell lines infected with the EB virus had been confirmed. Results: ① LMP1 protein expressing on EB virus-positive lymphoma cells surface was verified. ② The LMP1 CAR-expressing plasmid was created, and LMP1 CAR-T cells were obtained by infecting T cells with a lentivirus packaging system, with an infection efficiency of more than 80% . ③LMP1 CAR-T cells have a 4∶1 effect-to-target ratio in killing LMP1-positive lymphoma cells. The killing effect of LMP1 CAR-T cells on Raji cells was enhanced after 48 h of coculture, but there was no significant killing effect on Ramos, which are LMP1-negative lymphoma cells. ④After coculture with LMP1-positive lymphoma cells at a ratio of 1∶1 for 5 h, the degranulation effect was enhanced. The proportion of CD107a(+) T cells in the LMP1 CAR-T cell treatment group was significantly higher than that in the vector-T cell group [ (13.25±2.94) % vs (1.55±0.05) % , t=3.972, P=0.017]. ⑤After coculture with LMP1-positive lymphoma cells, the proportion of CD69(+) and CD25(+) T cells in the LMP1 CAR-T cell group was significantly higher than that in vector-T cell group [ (7.40±0.41) % vs (3.48±0.47) % , t=6.268, P=0.003; (73.00±4.73) % vs (57.67±2.60) % , t=2.842, P=0.047]. ⑥After coculture with LMP1-positive lymphoma cells, cytokine secretion in the LMP1 CAR-T cell group was higher than that in the vector-T cell group [interferon-gamma: (703±73) ng/L vs (422±87) ng/L, t=2.478, P=0.068; tumor necrosis factor-alpha: (215±35) ng/L vs (125±2) ng/L, t=2.536, P=0.064]. Conclusion: In this study, we found that the LMP1 protein is only found on the surface of the EBV-positive tumor cell. Simultaneously, we created an LMP1 CAR-expressing plasmid and obtained LMP1 CAR-T cells by infecting T cells with a lentivirus packaging system. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LMP1 CAR-T cells could specifically kill LMP1-positive tumor cells in vitro. The degranulation and activation effects of LMP1 CAR-T cells were enhanced after coculture with LMP1-positive tumor cells, indicating a potential clinical application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lentivirus , Lymphoma/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Viral Matrix Proteins
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