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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1351-1354, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888565

ABSTRACT

Thrombopoietin (TPO) can activate hematopoietic cell proliferation by its receptor c-MPL mediated downstream pathways and induce the generation of megakaryocyte. In recent years, domestic and foreign researches have confirmed that TPO/ c-MPL pathway also plays an important role in the self-renewal and quiescence of leukemia stem cell, and its expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also indicates the chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. In this article, the research progress of the roles of TPO/c-MPL pathway in chemotherapy resistance, prognosis of AML patients, and the application of TPO/ c-MPL receptor agonists in AML were summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasm Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cytokine , Receptors, Thrombopoietin , Signal Transduction , Thrombopoietin
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880086

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) to proliferation and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines.@*METHODS@#After the treatment of different concentrations of rhTPO (0, 50, 100 ng/ml) for different time (24,48,72 h),the cell proliferation rates of the AML cell lines (Kasumi-1, Skno-1, HEL, HL-60, THP-1) were determined by CCK-8 method. Apoptosis rate of each cell line cocultured with rhTPO was detected by Annexin V/PI method. The relative expression of TPO receptor c-MPL (myeloproliferative clonal antibody) mRNA in AML cell lines was detected by Q-PCR. The expression of c-MPL protein in each cell line was detected by Western blot. The expression of c-MPL antigen in HL-60 cells treated by different concentrations of rhTPO was detected by Flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#RhTPO showed no promotion to the proliferation of Kasumi-1, Skno-1, HEL, HL-60, THP-1 cell lines,however,it showed inhibitory effect to cell proliferation (72 h 0 ng/ml vs 100 ng/ml, P= 0.029) and pro-apoptotic (48 h 0 ng/ml vs 50 ng/ml, P=0.0143) in HL-60 cells. In Kasumi-1, Skno-1, HEL and THP-1 cells, there showed no statistically significant differences in apoptosis rate among each groups treated by different concentrations of rhTPO. Each AML cell line showed different levels of c-MPL gene and c-MPL protein expression, but HEL cells showed the highest expression in both of them. After HL-60 cells were treated by different concentrations of rhTPO for 48 hours, there showed no statistical difference in c-MPL antigen expression among each groups.@*CONCLUSION@#RhTPO can not promote the proliferation of Kasumi-1, Skno-1, HEL, HL-60 and THP-1 leukemia cell lines. On the contrary, rhTPO can inhibit HL-60 cell proliferation and promote its apoptosis, and this effect is not related to c-MPL gene expression or protein expression.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasm Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Receptors, Cytokine , Thrombopoietin
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement.@*METHODS@#A total of 108 children with B-cell ALL (B-ALL) were diagnosed and systematically treated according to Chinese Children's Leukemia Group (CCLG) -ALL 2008 in our hospital from January 2016 to December 2016. The 108 patients were divided into two groups according to the result of mutiplex polymerase chain reaction: group with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement and group without P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement. The ALL children with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement were all treated by CCLG-ALL 2008 high-risk group (HR) regimens, and the ALL children in group without P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement received different intensity chemotherapy according to clinical risk classification.@*RESULTS@#Five (4 male and 1 female) out of 108 patients with B-ALL had P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement. In the 5 B-ALL patients with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement, the median age of the was 4 (2-6) years old and the median WBC count was 26.2 (2.46-525.1)×10@*CONCLUSION@#The early treatment response and prognosis of ALL children with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement are worse, and more effective protocol is needed for this subtype patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Prognosis , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y/genetics
4.
Immune Network ; : 39-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785822

ABSTRACT

Several gut commensals have been shown to modulate host immune response. Recently, many food derived microbes have also been reported to affect the immune system. However, a mechanism to identify immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory microbes is needed. Here, we successfully established an in vitro screening system and identified an immunoregulatory bacterium, Lactobacillus pentosus KF340 (LP340), present in various fermented foods. LP340 induced a regulatory phenotype in mice Ag presenting cells which, in turn, induced IL-10 and IFN-γ producing Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells) from naïve CD4⁺ T cells. Naïve CD4⁺ T cells co-cultured with LP340 treated dendritic cells highly expressed cytokine receptor IL-27R and were CD49b and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 double positive. Oral administration of LP340 in mice with atopic dermatitis reduced cellular infiltration in affected ear lobes and serum IgE levels, thus, ameliorating the disease symptoms. This suggests a systemic immunoregulatory effect of LP340. These findings demonstrate that LP340, a bacterium derived from food, prevents systemic inflammation through the induction of IL-10 producing Tr1 cells.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Dendritic Cells , Dermatitis, Atopic , Ear , Immune System , Immunoglobulin E , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Lactobacillus , Mass Screening , Mice , Phenotype , Receptors, Cytokine , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1058-1063, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the expression of CRLF2 in bone marrow mononuclear cells from children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) and to explore its clinical significance in pediatric ALL.@*METHODS@#A total of 218 children with newly diagnosed ALL who achieveal the complete remission and had the complete follow-up information were selected, and the expression level of CRLF2 in bone marrow mononuclear cells of these children was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and the significance of CRLF2 expression level in clinical prognosis of ALL children was analyzed by using statistical method.@*RESULTS@#28 cases in 218 children with complete data showed high expression of CRLF2. The cumulative recurrence rate in the CRLF2 high expression group was significantly higher than that in the low expression group (53.6% vs 12.6%) (P<0.01). The predicted 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (RFS) of ALL children with CRLF2 high expression was significantly higher than that of low expression group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the predicted 5-year RFS between ALL children with CRLF2 low and high expression in the standard-risk(SR) group (P>0.05). The predicted 5-year RFS of ALL children with CRLF2 low expression was higher than that of ALL children with CRLF2 high expression in the intermediate-risk (IR) and high-risk (HR) groups. (P<0.05). Cox analysis showed that CRLF2 high expression is an independent risk factor for the relapse of children with ALL.@*CONCLUSION@#The recurrence rate of pediatric ALL with CRLF2 high expression is high, and CRLF2 high expression is an important prognostic factor for high risk of relapse in ALL children with IR and HR. It is necessary to use CRLF2 expression as an indicator of risk stratification in pediatric ALL.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Child , Humans , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Receptors, Cytokine , Metabolism , Recurrence , Risk Factors
6.
Immune Network ; : e13-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740199

ABSTRACT

IL-15 is a cytokine of the common γ-chain family that is critical for natural killer (NK), invariant natural killer T (iNKT), and CD8 memory T cell development and homeostasis. The role of IL-15 in regulating effector T cell subsets, however, remains incompletely understood. IL-15 is mostly expressed by stromal cells, myeloid cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Whether T cells themselves can express IL-15, and if so, whether such T cell-derived IL-15 could play an autocrine role in T cells are interesting questions that were previously addressed but answered with mixed results. Recently, three independent studies described the generation of IL-15 reporter mice which facilitated the identification of IL-15-producing cells and helped to clarify the role of IL-15 both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the findings of these studies and place them in context of recent reports that examined T cell-intrinsic IL-15 expression during CD4 effector T cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Dendritic Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-15 , Memory , Mice , Myeloid Cells , Receptors, Cytokine , Stromal Cells , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells
7.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 10-15, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29476

ABSTRACT

The common gamma chain (gammac) is the central signaling unit for a number of cytokine receptors collectively known as the gammac cytokine receptor family. gammac is critical for ligand binding and signaling by gammac cytokines. gammac cytokine signaling had been thought to be mainly regulated by cytokine-specific receptor alpha chain expression levels with little or no effect by gammac surface levels because gammac expression was presumed to remain unchanged during T-cell activation and development. The extent of gammac cytokine responses is thought to be regulated by cytokine specific receptor subunits and not by the gammac receptor. In contrast to this prevailing view, we have recently reported that gammac itself actively regulates gammac cytokine responses. Interestingly, gammac exerted its regulatory effects not only as a conventional membrane receptor protein but also as a secreted protein whose expression was upregulated upon T-cell stimulation. Here we will review how a soluble form of gammac, which is generated by alternative splicing, regulates gammac cytokine signaling and plays a role in controlling immune activation related to autoimmune disease.


Subject(s)
Alternative Splicing , Autoimmune Diseases , Cytokines , Humans , Membranes , Receptors, Cytokine , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333613

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of interleukin-27 (IL-27) and its receptor (WSX-1) on the proliferation, transformation and collagen synthesis of the mouse lung fibroblasts.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cultured mouse lung fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β1, recombinant murine IL-27, a IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) overexpression vector IL-27R/pCDNA3.1, IL-27 and IL-27R, or all the 3 combined. MTT assay was used to assess the proliferation of the cells, and RT-PCR and Western blotting were employed to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and types I and III collagen; immunofluorescence assay was used to test the expression and location of α-SMA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TGF-β1 promoted the cell proliferation and obviously enhanced α-SMA expression and types I and III collagen synthesis in the fibroblasts. Both IL-27 and IL-27R significantly inhibited the proliferation of the pulmonary fibroblasts and obviously decreased their α-SMA expression and types I and III collagen synthesis, but when combined,they produced no obvious inhibitory effect on TGF-1-induced proliferation and transformation of pulmonary fibroblasts.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both IL-27 and IL-27R alone can suppress the proliferation, transformation, and collagen synthesis of mouse pulmonary fibroblasts, but their combined treatment produces no such inhibitory effect because of the neutralization of exogenous IL-27 by IL-27R to result in the failure of activating the cell signaling pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Collagen Type III , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Cell Biology , Interleukins , Pharmacology , Lung , Cell Biology , Mice , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, Cytokine , Metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Pharmacology
9.
Recife; s.n; 2014. 90 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719867

ABSTRACT

Estudos indicam que citocinas Th1 (IL-2, TNF-alfa e IFN-gama) reduzem a fibrose na esquistossomose mansônica, enquanto que as Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-13) tem papel crítico na patogênese da doença. O desenvolvimento da resposta Th2 é dependente de IL-4, mas estudos revelaram a IL-13 como a mediadora da fibrose. Os mecanismos de controle da IL-13 estão ligados aos receptores desta citocina. O receptor IL-13Ra2, conhecida como receptor antagonista se liga com alta afinidade a IL-13, e estudos identificaram a sua participação na diminuição da fibrose e tamanho do granuloma. O principal objetivo desse projeto é avaliar o papel do IL-13Ra2 e da resposta imune celular nos diferentes graus de fibrose hepática e nas formas clínicas da esquistossomose mansônica humana. Os pacientes com diversas formas clínicas foram selecionados no Ambulatório de Gastroenterologia do HC- UFPE e avaliados através da ultrassonografia. As citocinas Th1 e Th2 foram dosadas através de citometria de fluxo e ELISA (IL-13 e IFN-gama), para a análise estatística foram utilizados testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de correlação de Spearman considerando um p 0,05 como significativo. Foi encontrado uma correlação negativa (p 0,05) entre o IL-13Ra2 e a IL-13, sugerindo um aumento da citocina no início da fibrose. Foi encontrada correlação inicialmente negativa nos pacientes sem fibrose e posteriormente positiva, nos pacientes com fibrose grave, entre IFN-gama e IL-13, salientando um novo mecanismo de regulação no processo de fibrose periportal na doença. Houve correlação positiva entre as citocinas do perfil Th1 e entre as citocinas do perfil Th2, sugerindo falta de supressão imunológica e presença de ambas às respostas, regulando a doença, com diferentes graus de fibrose periportal. Os resultados contribuirão para um melhor entendimento sobre os mecanismos imunes que controlam o processo de fibrogênese hepática em humanos e poderão ainda permitir um melhor entendimento da relação entre resposta imune celular e esquistossomose mansônica.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/blood , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/blood , Receptors, Cytokine/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis/immunology , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Health Profile , Th1 Cells
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251366

ABSTRACT

The effect of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on macrophage-derived foam cell formation and the underlying mechanism were studied. Macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice were co-cultured in vitro with different concentrations of TSLP or TSLPR-antibody in the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). The effects of TSLP on macrophage-derived foam cell formation were observed by using oil red O staining and intracellular lipid determination. The expression levels of foam cell scavenger receptors (CD36 and SRA) as well as ABCA1 and TSLPR were detected by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. As compared with the control group, TSLP treatment significantly promoted lipid accumulation in macrophages, significantly increased protein expression of CD36 and TSLPR in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the expression of ABCA1 protein in a dose-dependent manner. No significant differences were noted between the TSLPR-antibody group and the control group. TSLP may down-regulate the expression of cholesterol efflux receptor ABCA1 and up-regulate scavenger receptor expression via the TSLPR signaling pathway, thereby promoting macrophage-derived foam cell formation.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Animals , Antibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Pharmacology , Blotting, Western , CD36 Antigens , Genetics , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cholesterol , Metabolism , Cholesterol Esters , Metabolism , Cytokines , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Foam Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Immunoglobulins , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL , Pharmacology , Macrophages , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptors, Cytokine , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scavenger Receptors, Class A , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267159

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of curcumin on pain threshold and the expressions of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κ B) and CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the rats with sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and twenty male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 220-250 g, were randomly divided into 4 groups. Sham surgery (sham) group: the sciatic nerves of rats were only made apart but not ligated; chronic constrictive injury (CCI) group: the sciatic nerves of rats were only ligated without any drug treatment; curcumin treated injury (Cur) model group: the rats were administrated with curcumin 100 mg/(kg·d) by intraperitoneal injection for 14 days after CCI; solvent control (SC) group: the rats were administrated with the solvent at the same dose for 14 days after CCI. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of rats were respectively measured on pre-operative day 2 and postoperative day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14. The lumbar segment L4-5 of the spinal cord and the L4, L5 DRG was removed at post-operative day 3, 7 and 14. The change of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κ B) p65 expression was detected by Western blotting while the expression of CX3CR1 was determined by immunohistochemical staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the sham group, the TWL and MWT of rats in the CCI group were significantly decreased on each post-operative day (P<0.01), which reached a nadir on the 3rd day after CCI, and the expressions of NF-κ B p65 and CX3CR1 were markedly increased in spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG. In the Cur group, the TWL of rats were significantly increased than those in the CCI group on post-operative day 7, 10 and 14 (P<0.05) and MWT increased than those in the CCI group on post-operative day 10 and 14 (P<0.05). In addition, the administration of curcumin significantly decreased the positive expressions of NF-κ B p65 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord and DRG (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study suggests that curcumin could ameliorate the CCI-induced neuropathic pain, probably through inhibiting CX3CR1 expression by the activation of NF-κ B p65 in spinal cord and DRG.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 , Curcumin , Pharmacology , Ganglia, Spinal , Metabolism , Lumbar Vertebrae , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Pain Threshold , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Cytokine , Metabolism , Receptors, HIV , Metabolism , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Metabolism
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 217-222, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144973

ABSTRACT

The immune hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) fits well with the supposed interaction between genetic and environmental factors in disorders with a complicated etiopathogenesis. It has been suggested that infectious diseases are associated with MDD in that cytokines may play a critical role as a key modulator in the transition between infection and the development of MDD. It has been also suggested that antidepressants have immunomodulatory effects on some cytokines and cytokine receptors, although the exact mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. Among cytokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is especially well known and has attracted considerable interest owing to its immunomodulatory functions. MCP-1 is expressed in highly regionalized neuronal areas in the brain, leading to kind of modulation of neuronal activity and neuroendocrine functions commonly seen in patients with MDD. Additionally, it is involved in the control of other cytokines that have been consistently proposed as associated with the development of MDD. It also has a possible role in the neurodegenerative process of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Hence, this paper draws from the perspective of immunology to offer several suggestions about the role of MPC-1 in the development of MDD.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Antidepressive Agents , Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemokine CCL2 , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Neurons , Receptors, Cytokine
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 217-222, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144960

ABSTRACT

The immune hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) fits well with the supposed interaction between genetic and environmental factors in disorders with a complicated etiopathogenesis. It has been suggested that infectious diseases are associated with MDD in that cytokines may play a critical role as a key modulator in the transition between infection and the development of MDD. It has been also suggested that antidepressants have immunomodulatory effects on some cytokines and cytokine receptors, although the exact mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. Among cytokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is especially well known and has attracted considerable interest owing to its immunomodulatory functions. MCP-1 is expressed in highly regionalized neuronal areas in the brain, leading to kind of modulation of neuronal activity and neuroendocrine functions commonly seen in patients with MDD. Additionally, it is involved in the control of other cytokines that have been consistently proposed as associated with the development of MDD. It also has a possible role in the neurodegenerative process of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Hence, this paper draws from the perspective of immunology to offer several suggestions about the role of MPC-1 in the development of MDD.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Antidepressive Agents , Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemokine CCL2 , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Neurons , Receptors, Cytokine
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 131-139, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123200

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is closely associated with the initiation, progression, and metastasis of many tumors, including those of gastric cancer. In addition, approximately 60% of the world's population is colonized by Helicobacter pylori, which accounts for more than 50% of gastric cancers. While the role of inflammation in intestinal and colonic cancers is relatively well defined, its role in stomach neoplasia is still unclear because of the limited access of pathogens to the acidic environment and the technical difficulties isolating and characterizing immune cells in the stomach, especially in animal models. In this review, we will provide recent updates addressing how inflammation is involved in gastric malignancies, and what immune characteristics regulate the pathogenesis of stomach cancer. Also, we will discuss potential therapeutics that target the immune system for the efficient treatment of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Gastritis/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(1): 145-157, ene.-mar. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639819

ABSTRACT

Hay diversos vínculos entre las parasitosis, especialmente las helmintiasis, y las enfermedades alérgicas, ambas condiciones de importancia epidemiológica en las regiones tropicales. Mientras que se ha especulado con frecuencia los efectos de las enfermedades parasitarias sobre la evolución del sistema inmunitario, no se conocen las fuerzas selectivas que han moldeado la respuesta alérgica y pensamos que incluyen mecanismos evolutivos distintos a los tradicionalmente divulgados. Los helmintos, fuente infecciosa y antigénica inductora de una respuesta parecida a la alérgica, se establecieron como parásitos en huéspedes que ya tenían grupos celulares de inmunidad de tipo 2. Hoy sabemos que un componente esencial en la relación de parasitismo entre los helmintos y sus huéspedes es la inmunosupresión que los primeros inducen, al crear una especie de equilibrio que permite la supervivencia de ambos. El desarrollo de este equilibrio debió incluir adaptaciones de ambos organismos y la supervivencia del parásito podría ser el resultado de la adquisición de mecanismos supresores de la respuesta defensiva, la selección de los huéspedes con menor intensidad de la respuesta de tipo 2, o ambas. Esto, a su vez, sugiere que aunque las infecciones helmínticas hayan influido en la conformación de la inmunidad de tipo 2, no han sido una fuerza selectiva importante en el caso particular de la respuesta alérgica que, a su vez, está más ligada a una exagerada respuesta Th2/IgE.


A variety of links occur between parasites, particularly helminths, and allergic diseases--both common conditions of epidemiological importance in tropical regions. Although speculations are often made about the effects of parasitic diseases on the evolution of the immune system, the selective forces that have shaped the allergic response are unknown and probably include evolutionary mechanisms different to those traditionally reported. Helminths, infectious and antigenic sources that induce allergic-like responses, established themselves as parasites in organisms that already had cell groups related to the type 2 immunity. An essential component in the relationship between helminths and their hosts is that the former induce immunosuppression, creating a kind of balance that allows the survival of both. The development of this equilibrium undoubtedly includes adaptations in both organisms, and the survival of the parasite is the result of (a) acquiring immune suppressor mechanisms and (b) finding hosts with lower intensity of the type 2 response. This in turn suggests that although helminth infections have influenced the formation of type 2 immunity, they have not been an important selective force in the particular case of allergic response. The latter is more related to an exaggerated Th2/IgE response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Parasitic Diseases/immunology , /immunology , Adaptation, Physiological/immunology , Allergens/immunology , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Evolution, Molecular , Helminthiasis/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Invertebrates/immunology , Phylogeny , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Species Specificity , Vertebrates/immunology
16.
Botucatu; s.n; 2012. 143 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705195

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that one-third of the total world population is latently infected with M. tuberculosis and only 5-10% of the infected individuals will develop active TB disease during their life-time. The reason why some infected individuals develop active disease, while others do not is not yet entirely understood. Given the central role of TLR-2 in the incitement of inflammation, polymorphisms in its gene might be involved in both infectious and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TLR2 - 16934A/T and GT repeat polymorphisms on the immune response of PTB patients undergoing anti-TB treatment at different time points of anti-tuberculosis treatment: T1 (beginning), T2 (3 months) and T3 (end). For this we genotyped TLR2 -16934 and (GT)n repeats polymorphisms and evaluated the immune response of pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the time of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The present study suggests that TLR2 - 16934A/T and GT repeats polymorphisms can influence differential TLR-2, NF-κB and cytokine levels during anti-TB treatment. We also suggest that PTB patients with TLR2 - 16934 AA genotype may have a worst outcome of the disease, since they have a lower IFN-γ, cytokine essential to initiate the protective immunity to active TB. This association could not be made in our study due to the low number of patients evaluated. Since TLR-2 play a major role in initiating immune response against M...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, Cytokine , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. xiv,46 p. tab, ilus, mapas, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-734174

ABSTRACT

A resposta imune é muito importante para a proteção contra doenças. Estudos têm avaliado a resposta imunológica de pacientes com doença de Chagas na tentativa de explicar a fisiopatologia da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as concentrações das citocinas séricas IL-4, IL- 10, IL-12, TNF- e IFN- em pacientes nas diferentes formas clínicas da doença de Chagas. Foi realizado um estudo caso-controle de 115 indivíduos. Os indivíduos infectados foram divididos em estágios conforme o consenso brasileiro de doença de Chagas: indeterminados ou sem cardiopatia aparente (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma normais); cardíacos A (eletrocardiograma alterado e ecocardiograma normal); cardíacos C (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma alterados com ICC compensável) e cardíacos D (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma alterados com ICC refratária). Também foram incluídos indivíduos não infectados pelo T. cruzi. Foram incluídos 30 pacientes indeterminados; 31 cardíacos A; 14 cardíacos C, 11 cardíacos D e 29 indivíduos não infectados...


Entre as citocinas pró-inflamatórias, o IFN- apresentou maior concentração sérica em relação às citocinas IL-12 e TNF- . Os cardíacos no estágio A apresentaram maiores concentrações de TNF- , entretanto houve uma queda significativa nas concentrações desta citocina à medida que observamos os estágios mais avançados da CCC. Tanto os indeterminados quanto os cardíacos apresentaram altos níveis de TFN- e IFN- e baixos níveis de IL-4 e IL-10, demonstrando um perfil predominante de Th1, com uma resposta imune não balanceada. Este estudo demonstrou uma proporcionalidade direta nas concentrações das citocinas pró-inflamatórias e antiinflamatórias em relação à FEVE, em todos os grupos de pacientes estudados, sugerindo que essa correlação poderia ser utilizada como um possível marcador de evolução para a CCC...


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease , Heart Diseases , Receptors, Cytokine , Trypanosoma cruzi
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1127-1134, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269288

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder characterized by impaired control over drinking. It is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. The recent approach of genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for identifying complex disease-associated susceptibility alleles, however, a few GWASs have been conducted for AD, and their results are largely inconsistent. The present study aimed to screen the loci associated with alcohol-related phenotypes using GWAS technology.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A genome-wide association study with the behavior of regular alcohol drinking and alcohol consumption was performed to identify susceptibility genes associated with AD, using the Affymetrix 500K SNP array in an initial sample consisting of 904 unrelated Caucasian subjects. Then, the initial results in GWAS were replicated in three independent samples: 1972 Caucasians in 593 nuclear families, 761 unrelated Caucasian subjects, and 2955 unrelated Chinese Hans.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Several genes were associated with the alcohol-related phenotypes at the genome-wide significance level, with the ankyrin repeat domain 7 gene (ANKRD7) showing the strongest statistical evidence for regular alcohol drinking and suggestive statistical evidence for alcohol consumption. In addition, certain haplotypes within the ANKRD7 and cytokine-like1 (CYTL1) genes were significantly associated with regular drinking behavior, such as one ANKRD7 block composed of the SNPs rs6466686-rs4295599-rs12531086 (P = 6.51 × 10(-8)). The association of alcohol consumption was successfully replicated with rs4295599 in ANKRD7 gene in independent Caucasian nuclear families and independent unrelated Chinese Hans, and with rs16836497 in CYTL1 gene in independent unrelated Caucasians. Meta-analyses based on both the GWAS and replication samples further supported the observed significant associations between the ANKRD7 or CYTL1 gene and alcohol consumption.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The evidence suggests that ANKRD7 and CYTL1 genes may play an important role in the variance in AD risk.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Genetics , Blood Proteins , Cytokines , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Haplotypes , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proteins , Genetics , Receptors, Cytokine , Genetics
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 190-196, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155724

ABSTRACT

The management of asthma focuses on the reduction of airway inflammation accompany with symptomatic care after recognition. Glucocorticosteroid is the most important drug to reduce airway inflammation, and it has been used inhaled, orally and systemically. New knowledge about the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma has made the development and clinical trial of target or immunomodulator therapy. It includes cytokine, cytokine blockers, specific cytokine receptor blocker, and immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides. These agents are thought to hold the promise for more beneficial outcomes in the future, although it showed limited therapeutic benefits only for patients, especially intractable or severe asthma, until now.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunomodulation , Inflammation , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Receptors, Cytokine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100688

ABSTRACT

Resistance training (RT) is associated with reduced risk of low grade inflammation related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of the data studying cytokines and exercise comes from endurance exercise. In contrast, evidence establishing a relationship between RT and inflammation is more limited. This review focuses on the cytokine responses both following an acute bout, and after chronic RT. In addition, the effect of RT on low grade systemic inflammation such as individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes is reviewed. Cytokines are secreted proteins that influence the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of immune cells and other organ systems. Cytokines function as intracellular signals and almost all cells in the body either secrete them or have cytokine receptors. Thus, understanding cytokine role in a specific physiological situation such as a bout of RT can be exceedingly complex. The overall effect of long term RT appears to ameliorate inflammation, but the specific effects on the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha are not clear, requiring further research. Furthermore, it is critical to differentiate between chronically and acute Interleukin-6 levels and its sources. The intensity of the RT and the characteristics of the training protocol may exert singular cytokine responses and as a result different adaptations to exercise. More research is needed in the area of RT in healthy populations, specifically sorting out gender and age RT acute responses. More importantly, studies are needed in obese individuals who are at high risk of developing low grade systemic inflammatory related diseases. Assuring adherence to the RT program is essential to get the benefits after overcoming the first acute RT responses. Hence RT could be an effective way to prevent, and delay low grade systemic inflammatory related diseases.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cytokines , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Proteins , Receptors, Cytokine , Resistance Training , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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