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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787134

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) channel is a nonselective calcium-permeable cation channels. In intestinal smooth muscle cells, TRPC4 currents contribute more than 80% to muscarinic cationic current (mIcat). With its inward-rectifying current-voltage relationship and high calcium permeability, TRPC4 channels permit calcium influx once the channel is opened by muscarinic receptor stimulation. Polyamines are known to inhibit nonselective cation channels that mediate the generation of mIcat. Moreover, it is reported that TRPC4 channels are blocked by the intracellular spermine through electrostatic interaction with glutamate residues (E728, E729). Here, we investigated the correlation between the magnitude of channel inactivation by spermine and the magnitude of channel conductance. We also found additional spermine binding sites in TRPC4. We evaluated channel activity with electrophysiological recordings and revalidated structural significance based on Cryo-EM structure, which was resolved recently. We found that there is no correlation between magnitude of inhibitory action of spermine and magnitude of maximum current of the channel. In intracellular region, TRPC4 attracts spermine at channel periphery by reducing access resistance, and acidic residues contribute to blocking action of intracellular spermine; channel periphery, E649; cytosolic space, D629, D649, and E687.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Binding Sites , Calcium , Cytosol , Glutamic Acid , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Permeability , Polyamines , Receptors, Muscarinic , Spermine , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190041, 2020. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056676

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the presence of a neurotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity isolated from Micrurus lemniscatus venom (Mlx-8) with affinity for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Methods: The purification, molecular mass determination, partial amino acid sequencing, phospholipase A2 activity determination, inhibition of the binding of the selective muscarinic ligand [3H]QNB and inhibition of the total [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in rat hippocampus of the Mlx-8 were determined. Results: Thirty-one fractions were collected from HPLC chromatography, and the Mlx-8 toxin was used in this work. The molecular mass of Mlx-8 is 13.628 Da. Edman degradation yielded the following sequence: NLYQFKNMIQCTNTRSWL-DFADYG-CYCGRGGSGT. The Mlx-8 had phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity. The pKi values were determined for Mlx-8 toxin and the M1 selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in hippocampus membranes via [3H]QNB competition binding assays. The pKi values obtained from the analysis of Mlx-8 and pirenzepine displacement curves were 7.32 ± 0.15, n = 4 and 5.84 ± 0.18, n = 4, respectively. These results indicate that Mlx-8 has affinity for mAChRs. There was no effect on the inhibition ability of the [3H]QNB binding in hippocampus membranes when 1 µM Mlx-8 was incubated with 200 µM DEDA, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. This suggests that the inhibition of the phospholipase A2 activity of the venom did not alter its ability to bind to displace [3H]QNB binding. In addition, the Mlx-8 toxin caused a blockade of 43.31 ± 8.86%, n = 3 and 97.42 ± 2.02%, n = 3 for 0.1 and 1 µM Mlx-8, respectively, on the total [3H]inositol phosphate content induced by 10 µM carbachol. This suggests that Mlx-8 inhibits the intracellular signaling pathway linked to activation of mAChRs in hippocampus. Conclusion: The results of the present work show, for the first time, that muscarinic receptors are also affected by the Mlx-8 toxin, a muscarinic ligand with phospholipase A2 characteristics, obtained from the venom of the Elapidae snake Micrurus lemniscatus, since this toxin was able to compete with muscarinic ligand [3H]QNB in hippocampus of rats. In addition, Mlx-8 also blocked the accumulation of total [3H]inositol phosphate induced by muscarinic agonist carbachol. Thus, Mlx-8 may be a new pharmacological tool for examining muscarinic cholinergic function.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Snakes , Elapid Venoms/adverse effects , Phospholipases A2 , Inositol Phosphates , Acetylcholine , Receptors, Muscarinic/analysis , Sequence Analysis, Protein
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 207-216, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002224

ABSTRACT

Curcuma longa has biological effects. Its cardiovascular activities are yet to be scientifically studied. Objectives: To investigate the vasorelaxant effects of the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AECL). Methods: Aortic annuli of normotensive rats, with or without endothelium, were set up in a data storage system with nutrient solution in recipients, with scientifically recommended temperature, aeration and tension. Over contraction by Phenylephrine, the AECL (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 µg/mL) was incubated before and after incubation with atropine or L-name or indomethacin. An AECL concentration-response curve was also built over contractions caused by elevation of extracellular K+. Data were significant when p < 0.05, with GraphPad Prism 6.0 software resolutions. Results: The AECL induced 100% vasorelaxation also in the endothelium-free annuli. The part of the endothelium-dependent effect had EC50 = 4.32 ± 0.05 µg/mL. With inhibition of NO production, the EC50 increased to 126.50 ± 2.35 µg/mL; after inhibition of prostacyclin production, to 124.6 ± 0.05 µg/mL; and after muscarinic blockade, to 437.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL. Opening of K+ channels (relaxation of 56.98%) and VOCC blockade (relaxation of 31.56%) were evident. Conclusion: AECL induced significant vasorelaxation, being more significant in the presence of endothelium. The muscarinic pathway seems to be the main one involved in this effect, followed by the NO production and prostacyclin pathways. The activity in K+ channels by AECL was more significant than its VOCC blockade. The use of other models and tools to study action mechanisms will be important and elucidating


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aorta , Phenylephrine , Curcuma/adverse effects , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents , Statistical Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Receptors, Muscarinic , Models, Animal , Crocus , Hypertension , Antioxidants
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764036

ABSTRACT

Xylitol is well-known to have an anti-caries effect by inhibiting the replication of cariogenic bacteria. In addition, xylitol enhances saliva secretion. However, the precise molecular mechanism of xylitol on saliva secretion is yet to be elucidated. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the stimulatory effect of xylitol on saliva secretion and to further evaluate the involvement of xylitol in muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) signaling. For determining these effects, we measured the saliva flow rate following xylitol treatment in healthy individuals and patients with dry mouth. We further tested the effects of xylitol on M3R signaling in human salivary gland (HSG) cells using real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunostaining. Xylitol candy significantly increased the salivary flow rate and intracellular calcium release in HSG cells via the M3R signaling pathway. In addition, the expressions of M3R and aquaporin 5 were induced by xylitol treatment. Lastly, we investigated the distribution of M3R and aquaporin 5 in HSG cells. Xylitol was found to activate M3R, thereby inducing increases in Ca²⁺ concentration. Stimulation of the muscarinic receptor induced by xylitol activated the internalization of M3R and subsequent trafficking of aquaporin 5. Taken together, these findings suggest a molecular mechanism for secretory effects of xylitol on salivary epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 5 , Bacteria , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Candy , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Immunoblotting , Mouth , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Muscarinic , Saliva , Salivary Glands , Xylitol
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, in treatment of asthma have been reported. However, its effect on airway remodeling in chronic asthma of the elderly has not been clearly verified. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tiotropium and expression of muscarinic receptors as its related mechanism in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma with airway remodeling. METHODS: BALB/c female mice age 6 weeks, 9 and 15 months were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) for three months. Tiotropium bromide was administered during the challenge period. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and pulmonary inflammation were measured. Parameters of airway remodeling, and expression levels of M2 and M3 receptors were examined. RESULTS: Total cell with eosinophils, increased in the OVA groups by age, was decreased significantly after treatment with tiotropium bromide, particularly in the age group of 15 months. AHR and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were decreased, after tiotropium administration. In old aged group of 9- and 15-months-treated groups, hydroxyproline contents and levels of α-smooth muscle actin were attenuated. Tiotropium enhanced the expression of M2 but decreased expression of M3 in all aged groups of OVA. CONCLUSION: Tiotropium bromide had anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma. Its effects seemed to be partly mediated by modulating expression M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors. Tiotropium may be a beneficial treatment option for the elderly with airway remodeling of chronic asthma.


Subject(s)
Actins , Aged , Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Hydroxyproline , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Mice , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Pneumonia , Receptors, Muscarinic , Tiotropium Bromide
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 156-166, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775475

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are life-threatening illnesses with high morbidity and mortality. Suppressed vagal (parasympathetic) activity and increased sympathetic activity are involved in these diseases. Currently, pharmacological interventions primarily aim to inhibit over-excitation of sympathetic nerves, while vagal modulation has been largely neglected. Many studies have demonstrated that increased vagal activity reduces cardiovascular risk factors in both animal models and human patients. Therefore, the improvement of vagal activity may be an alternate approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, drugs used for vagus nerve activation in cardiovascular diseases are limited in the clinic. In this review, we provide an overview of the potential drug targets for modulating vagal nerve activation, including muscarinic, and β-adrenergic receptors. In addition, vagomimetic drugs (such as choline, acetylcholine, and pyridostigmine) and the mechanism underlying their cardiovascular protective effects are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Pharmacology , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases , Drug Therapy , Cholinergic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Receptors, Muscarinic , Sympathetic Nervous System , Vagus Nerve
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761804

ABSTRACT

It is known that top-down associative inputs terminate on distal apical dendrites in layer 1 while bottom-up sensory inputs terminate on perisomatic dendrites of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (L2/3 PyNs) in primary sensory cortex. Since studies on synaptic transmission in layer 1 are sparse, we investigated the basic properties and cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in layer 1 and compared them to those in perisomatic dendrites of L2/3 PyNs of rat primary visual cortex. Using extracellular stimulations of layer 1 and layer 4, we evoked excitatory postsynaptic current/potential in synapses in distal apical dendrites (L1-EPSC/L1-EPSP) and those in perisomatic dendrites (L4-EPSC/L4-EPSP), respectively. Kinetics of L1-EPSC was slower than that of L4-EPSC. L1-EPSC showed presynaptic depression while L4-EPSC was facilitating. In contrast, inhibitory postsynaptic currents showed similar paired-pulse ratio between layer 1 and layer 4 stimulations with depression only at 100 Hz. Cholinergic stimulation induced presynaptic depression by activating muscarinic receptors in excitatory and inhibitory synapses to similar extents in both inputs. However, nicotinic stimulation enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission by ~20% in L4-EPSC. Rectification index of AMPA receptors and AMPA/NMDA ratio were similar between synapses in distal apical and perisomatic dendrites. These results provide basic properties and cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission between distal apical and perisomatic dendrites in L2/3 PyNs of the visual cortex, which might be important for controlling information processing balance depending on attentional state.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electronic Data Processing , Dendrites , Depression , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Kinetics , Pyramidal Cells , Rats , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Muscarinic , Synapses , Synaptic Transmission , Visual Cortex
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761784

ABSTRACT

The transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 5 channel, known as a nonselective cation channel, has a crucial role in calcium influx. TRPC5 has been reported to be activated by muscarinic receptor activation and extracellular pH change and inhibited by the protein kinase C pathway. Recent studies have also suggested that TRPC5 is extracellularly activated by englerin A (EA), but the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the EA-interaction sites in TRPC5 and thereby clarify the mechanism of TRPC5 activation. TRPC5 channels are over-expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. TRPC5 mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record TRPC5 currents. Western analysis was also performed to observe the expression of TRPC5 mutants. To identify the EA-interaction site in TRPC5, we first generated pore mutants. When screening the mutants with EA, we observed the EA-induced current increases of TRPC5 abolished in K554N, H594N, and E598Q mutants. The current increases of other mutants were reduced in different levels. We also examined the functional intactness of the mutants that had no effect by EA with TRPC5 agonists, such as carbachol or GTPγS. Our results suggest that the three residues, Lys-554, His-594, and Glu-598, in TRPC5 might be responsible for direct interaction with EA, inducing the channel activation. We also suggest that although other pore residues are not critical, they could partly contribute to the EA-induced channel activation.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Carbachol , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ion Channels , Kidney , Mass Screening , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Mutant Proteins , Protein Kinase C , Receptors, Muscarinic
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia need treatment for remaining storage symptoms after surgery. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the phytotherapeutic agent WSY-1075 on persistent detrusor overactivity (DO) after the relief of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were assigned to 3 groups: control (n=6), persistent DO (n=6), and persistent DO treated with the phytotherapeutic agent WSY-1075 (n=6). Persistent DO after relief of partial BOO was generated in the rat model, and 6 of the rats with this condition were orally administered WSY-1075. After 4 weeks of administration, cystometry was performed. Additionally, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the bladder. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were analyzed, as were the M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors of the bladder. RESULTS: Significantly increased contraction pressure and a decreased contraction interval were observed in the persistent DO group after relief of BOO. Moreover, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and M3 muscarinic receptors were significantly increased. After treatment with WSY-1075, significantly reduced DO was observed by cystometry in comparison with the persistent DO group. Additionally, significantly decreased levels of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and M3 muscarinic receptors in the bladder were observed after treatment with WSY-1075. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with WSY-1075 improved persistent DO after the relief of BOO mediated by antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Further studies are necessary to identify the exact mechanism of the treatment effect of WSY-1075.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Models, Animal , Necrosis , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Receptors, Muscarinic , Superoxide Dismutase , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Overactive
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fermented Laminaria japonica (FL), a type sea tangle used as a functional food ingredient, has been reported to possess cognitive improving properties that may aid in the treatment of common neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the effects of FL on scopolamine (Sco)- and ethanol (EtOH)-induced hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, using the Passive avoidance (PA) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. To examine the underlying mechanisms associated with neuroprotective effects, we analyzed acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, brain tissue expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and immunohistochemical analysis, in the hippocampus of mice, compared to current drug therapy intervention. Biochemical blood analysis was carried out to determine the effects of FL on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. 7 groups (n = 10) consisted of a control (CON), 3 Sco-induced dementia and 3 EtOH-induced dementia groups, with both dementia group types containing an untreated group (Sco and EtOH); a positive control, orally administered donepezil (Dpz) (4mg/kg) (Sco + Dpz and EtOH + Dpz); and an FL (50 mg/kg) treatment group (Sco + FL50 and EtOH + FL50), orally administered over the 4-week experimental period. RESULTS: FL50 significantly reduced EtOH-induced increase in AST and ALT levels. FL50 treatment reduced EtOH-impaired step-through latency time in the PA test, and Sco- and EtOH-induced dementia escape latency times in the MWM test. Moreover, anticholinergic effects of Sco and EtOH on the brain were reversed by FL50, through the attenuation of AChE activity and elevation of ACh concentration. FL50 elevated ERK1/2 protein expression and increased p-CREB (ser133) in hippocampus brain tissue, according to Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that FL may be considered an efficacious intervention for Sco- and EtOH-induced dementia, in terms of reversing cognitive impairment and neuroplastic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cholesterol , Cognition Disorders , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dementia , Drug Therapy , Ethanol , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Functional Food , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Laminaria , Memory , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuroprotective Agents , Receptors, Muscarinic , Scopolamine , Triglycerides , United Nations , Water
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728588

ABSTRACT

Status epilepticus is the most common serious neurological condition triggered by abnormal electrical activity, leading to severe and widespread cell loss in the brain. Lithium has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for decades, and its anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties have been described in several neurological disease models. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying lithium's actions remain poorly understood. The muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine is used to induce status epilepticus, which is followed by hippocampal damage. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium post-treatment on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal neuropathological changes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Status epilepticus was induced by administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride (320 mg/kg, i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. Lithium (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 15 minutes after the pilocarpine injection. After the lithium injection, status epilepticus onset time and mortality were recorded. Lithium significantly delayed the onset time of status epilepticus and reduced mortality compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, lithium effectively blocked pilocarpine-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus as estimated by cresyl violet and Fluoro-Jade B staining. However, lithium did not reduce glial activation following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. These results suggest that lithium has a neuroprotective effect and would be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, in particular status epilepticus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bipolar Disorder , Brain , Hippocampus , Lithium , Mice , Mortality , Nervous System Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Pilocarpine , Receptors, Muscarinic , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Viola
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728587

ABSTRACT

Conflicting evidence has been obtained regarding whether transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC) are store-operated channels (SOCs) or receptor-operated channels (ROCs). Moreover, the Ca/Na permeability ratio differs depending on whether the current-voltage (I-V) curve has a doubly rectifying shape or inward rectifying shape. To investigate the calcium permeability of TRPC4 channels, we attached GCaMP6s to TRPC4 and simultaneously measured the current and calcium signals. A TRPC4 specific activator, (–)-englerin A, induced both current and calcium fluorescence with the similar time course. Muscarinic receptor stimulator, carbachol, also induced both current and calcium fluorescence with the similar time course. By forming heteromers with TRPC4, TRPC1 significantly reduced the inward current with outward rectifying I-V curve, which also caused the decrease of calcium fluorescence intensity. These results suggest that GCaMP6s attached to TRPC4 can detect slight calcium changes near TRPC4 channels. Consequently, TRPC4-GCaMP6s can be a useful tool for testing the calcium permeability of TRPC4 channels.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Carbachol , Fluorescence , Permeability , Receptors, Muscarinic
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300829

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. In the cellular level, several types of epilepsy are believed to be associated with aberrant metabotropic muscarinic receptors in several different brain areas, while the mutations of ionotropic nicotinic receptors have been reported to result in a specific type of epilepsy-autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. In the network level, cholinergic projection neurons as well as their interaction with other neurons may regulate the development of epilepsy, especially the cholinergic circuit from basal forebrain to hippocampus, while cholinergic local interneurons have not been reported to be associated with epilepsy. With the development of optogenetics and other techniques, dissect and regulate cholinergic related epilepsy circuit has become a hotspot of epilepsy research.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Physiology , Basal Forebrain , Pathology , Brain Chemistry , Genetics , Physiology , Cholinergic Neurons , Chemistry , Classification , Pathology , Physiology , Epilepsy , Genetics , Pathology , Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe , Genetics , GABAergic Neurons , Physiology , Hippocampus , Pathology , Humans , Mutation , Genetics , Physiology , Neurons , Non-Neuronal Cholinergic System , Genetics , Physiology , Receptors, Muscarinic , Genetics , Physiology , Receptors, Nicotinic , Genetics , Physiology , Synaptic Transmission , Genetics , Physiology
15.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 38(2): 165-171, jul.-dez. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-2774

ABSTRACT

The effects of atropine (non selective muscarinic antagonist) and ZM241385 (A2A receptors antagonist) in the cisatracurium-induced drastic (100%) level of fade at 50 Hz (10 s) (100% Fade) were compared in the phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations of rats indirectly stimulated at a physiological tetanic frequency (50 Hz). The lowest dose and the instant cisatracurium caused 100% Fade were investigated. Cisatracurium induced 100% Fade 15 min after being administered. Atropine reduced the cisatracurium-induced 100% Fade, but the administration of ZM241385 separately, or combined with atropine, did not cause any effect in the cisatracurium-induced 100% Fade. Data indicate that the simultaneous blockage of M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors on motor nerve terminal by atropine is more efficient than the blockage of presynaptic A2A receptors for a safer recovery of patients from neuromuscular blockade caused by cisatracurium.


Os efeitos de atropina e ZM241385 (antagonistas de receptores A2A) no drástico (100%) nível de fadiga (100% Fadiga) produzido pelo cisatracúrio a 50 Hz (10 s) foram comparativamente investigados em preparações nervo frênico músculo diafragma isolado de ratos indiretamente estimuladas com a frequência fisiológica tetanizante de 50 Hz. A menor dose e o instante no qual cisatracúrio causou 100% Fadiga foram pesquisados. O cisatracúrio induziu 100% Fadiga 15 min depois de ser administrado. A atropina reduziu a fadiga de 100% causada pelo cisatracúrio, mas ZM241385, ou a administração combinada de atropina com ZM241385, não causou qualquer efeito na 100% Fadiga produzida pelo cisatracúrio. Os dados indicam que o bloqueio simultâneo dos receptores muscarínicos M1 e M2 no terminal nervoso motor pela atropina é mais eficiente do que o bloqueio dos receptores pré-sinápticos A2A no auxilio da recuperação mais segura do bloqueio da transmissão neuromuscular causada por cisatracúrio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine , Atropine , Muscle Fatigue , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Receptors, Muscarinic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-625148

ABSTRACT

Background: The contribution of histamine (H1) receptors inhibitory and/or β-adrenoceptors stimulatory mechanisms in the relaxant property of Ferula assa-foetida. (F. asafoetida) was examined in the present study. Methods: We evaluated the effect of three concentrations of F. asafoetida extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL), a muscarinic receptors antagonist, and saline on methacholine concentration-response curve in tracheal smooth muscles incubated with β-adrenergic and histamine (H1) (group 1), and only β-adrenergic (group 2) receptors antagonists. Results: EC50 values in the presence of atropine, extract (5 and 10 mg/mL) and maximum responses to methacholine due to the 10 mg/mL extract in both groups and 5 mg/mL extract in group 1 were higher than saline (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0477, and P = 0.0008 in group 1 and P < 0.0001, P = 0.0438, and P = 0.0107 in group 2 for atropine, 5 and 10 mg/mL extract, respectively). Values of concentration ratio minus one (CR-1), in the presence of extracts were lower than atropine in both groups (P = 0.0339 for high extract concentration in group 1 and P < 0.0001 for other extract concentrations in both groups). Conclusion: Histamine (H1) receptor blockade affects muscarinic receptors inhibitory property of F. asafoetida in tracheal smooth muscle


Subject(s)
Receptors, Muscarinic
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202848

ABSTRACT

Urinary incontinence (UI) has been a serious health problem which can significantly affect quality of life. UI may occur at any age but more common in the elderly population. Many conditions may leak to UI and differential diagnosis is critical to guide appropriate manage strategy. After a brief description of the pathophysiology, classification, and diagnostic evaluation of UI, this review highlights oral pharmacological therapy mainly in clinical point of view. For urge UI, antimuscarinic are the most commonly used medication supported with high level of evidence. Antimuscarinics competitively block muscarinic receptors with variations in selectivity for the different subtypes. Common adverse effects are dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision. High caution for cognitive function should be applied in the use of antimuscarinics in the elderly. Mirabegron, a beta3-agonist, is a new class of drug targeting urge UI, which reported similar efficacy with antimuscarinics and favorable adverse effect profile. For stress UI, various type of medications have been clinically investigated but so far none showed satisfactory resolution of stress UI. Duloxetine is the only medication approved for stress UI in European countries but not in US Food and Drug Administration and Korean Food and Drug Administration due to low benefit-risk profile for UI. Conclusively, pharmacological therapy should be tailored to the type of UI. Recent options of medications may give further treatment possibilities for the optimal treatment for each patient.


Subject(s)
Aged , Classification , Constipation , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Delivery Systems , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Humans , Medication Therapy Management , Mouth , Muscarinic Antagonists , Quality of Life , Receptors, Muscarinic , United States Food and Drug Administration , Urinary Incontinence , Urinary Incontinence, Stress , Urinary Incontinence, Urge
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. METHODS: Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. RESULTS: Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 muM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 muM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P carbon monoxide > hydrogen sulfide.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adrenergic Neurons , Aminooxyacetic Acid , Anal Canal , Atropine , Autonomic Pathways , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Gases , Guanethidine , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen , Indomethacin , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nitric Oxide , Norepinephrine , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Purinergic Antagonists , Receptors, Muscarinic , Receptors, Purinergic , Relaxation , Suramin , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Zinc
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728431

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to investigate whether the spinal cholinergic and serotonergic analgesic systems mediate the relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold allodynia in rats. The cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by immersing the rat's tail into cold water (4℃) and measuring the withdrawal latency. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 0.3-ms pulse duration, 0.2~0.3 mA) at the acupoint ST36, GV3, or LI11 all showed a significant anti-allodynic effect, which was stronger at ST36. The analgesic effect of EA at ST36 was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine, 1 mg/kg), but not by nicotinic (mecamylamine, 2 mg/kg) receptor antagonist. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of M(2) (methoctramine, 10 µg) and M(3) (4-DAMP, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, but not M(1) (pirenzepine, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, blocked the effect. Also, spinal administration of 5-HT(3) (MDL-72222, 12 µg) receptor antagonist, but not 5-HT(1A) (NAN-190, 15 µg) or 5-HT(2A) (ketanserin, 30 µg) receptor antagonist, prevented the anti-allodynic effect of EA. These results suggest that EA may have a signifi cant analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, which is mediated by spinal cholinergic (M(2), M(3)) and serotonergic (5-HT(3)) receptors.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acupuncture Points , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Hyperalgesia , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neuralgia , Rats , Receptors, Muscarinic , Serotonin , Tail , Water
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 404-409, July-Sep. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761957

ABSTRACT

Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivoas well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats.Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined.Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (p<0.05). Micturition contraction amplitude (34.6±4.7mmHg versus 49.6±2.5mmHg), duration (14.5±1.7 seconds versus 23.33±4.6 seconds) and interval (87.5±17.02 seconds versus 281.11±20.24 seconds) were significantly greater in alloxan diabetic rats. Voided urine volume per micturition contraction was also significantly higher in diabetic animals. However the post-voiding residual volume was not statistically different. Bethanechol potency (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) and maximal effect (31.2±5.9g/g versus 36.1±6.8g/g) in isolated bladder strips as well as number (169±4fmol/mg versus 176±3fmol/mg protein) and affinity (0.69±0.1nM versus 0.57±0.1nM) of bladder muscarinic receptors were also not statistically different.Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors.


Objetivo Reestudar o funcionamento da bexiga in vivo e determinar as características funcionais e bioquímicas dos receptores muscarínicos vesicais de ratos com diabetes crônico induzido por aloxana.Métodos Ratos Wistar de dois meses de idade receberam injeção de aloxana, e os animais que apresentaram glicemia >300mg/dL foram mantidos por 11 meses junto de outros não tratados e pareados por idade. Nos dois grupos de animais, peso corpóreo, peso da bexiga, glicemia e volume urinário de 24 horas foram medidos. Em ambos os grupos, realizou-se a cistometria miccional em animais não anestesiados. Foram determinados os seguintes parâmetros: pressão máxima de micção, intervalo e contração de micção, bem como o volume de esvaziamento e o volume residual pós-miccional. Além disso, foram determinadas as curvas de concentração-resposta a betanecol em preparações isoladas de bexiga e também as características dos sítios de ligação da [3H]-N-metil-escopolamina em homogenatos de bexiga.Resultados O peso médio da bexiga foi de 162,5±21,2mg versus290±37,9mg nos animais controles e tratados, respectivamente (p<0,05). A amplitude de contração (34,6±4,7mmHg versus 49,6±2,5mmHg), a duração (14,5±1,7 segundos versus 23,33±4,6 segundos) e o intervalo (87,5±17,02 segundos versus 281,11±20,24 segundos) de micção foram significantemente maiores nos ratos tratados com aloxana. O volume de urina eliminada durante a contração miccional também foi maior nos animais diabéticos. Contudo, o volume residual pós-miccional não foi estatisticamente diferente. Não foram observadas diferenças na resposta ao betanecol (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) e no seu efeito máximo (31,2±5,9g/g versus 36,1±6,8g/g) em preparações isoladas de bexiga, bem como no número total (169±43fmol/mgversus 176±3fmol/mg) e na afinidade (0,69±0,1nMversus 0,57±0,1nM) dos receptores muscarínicos da bexiga.Conclusão O funcionamento da bexiga in vivo está alterado no diabetes crônico induzido por aloxana, porém sem alterações funcionais e bioquímicas nos receptores muscarínicos da bexiga.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Receptors, Muscarinic/metabolism , Urinary Bladder/metabolism , Alloxan/administration & dosage , Bethanechol/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , N-Methylscopolamine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Muscarinic/drug effects , Time Factors , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology
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