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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e43-e48, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353825

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metilD-aspartato es un proceso inmunomediado en el que autoanticuerpos se dirigen contra la subunidad GluN1 del receptor de glutamato del sistema nervioso central. Se caracteriza por la aparición aguda o subaguda de síntomas psiquiátricos, como confusión, pérdida de la memoria a corto plazo, cambios de conducta, catatonía, seguidos por manifestaciones neurológicas, tales como convulsiones, alteraciones del movimiento, disfunciones autonómicas, coma y depresión respiratoria. Es grave y potencialmente mortal. Su asociación con teratoma de ovario como síndrome paraneoplásico fue descrita en mujeres jóvenes. En la población pediátrica, es mucho menos frecuente y se reporta en comunicaciones de 1 o 2 pacientes y en series de pocos casos. Se presenta una paciente de 13 años con encefalitis paraneoplásica por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metil-Daspartato, secundaria a un teratoma ovárico maduro.


The encephalitis due to antibodies against the N-methylD-aspartate receptor is a process immune-mediated in which antibodies are directed against the GluN1 subunit of the glutamate receptor in the central nervous system. It is characterized by an acute or subacute onset of psychiatric symptoms such as confusion, short-term memory loss, behavioral changes, catatonia followed by neurological manifestations such as seizures, movement disturbances, autonomic dysfunctions, coma, and respiratory depression. It is serious and life threatening. Its association with ovarian teratoma as a paraneoplastic syndrome was described in youngwomen. In the pediatric population it is much less frequent and is reported in publications of one or two patients and in series of few cases. We present a 13-year-old patient with encephalitis paraneoplastic due to antibodies against the N-methyl-Daspartate receptor, secondary to a mature ovarian teratoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Teratoma/complications , Teratoma/diagnosis , Encephalitis , Autoantibodies , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1085-1094, mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153818

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the feasibility of including plasma anti-NMDAR antibody screening in the assessment of first-episode psychosis patients in an early intervention programme in the Southern hemisphere. Anti-NMDAR IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 166 patients (64.0% men), 166 matched population-based controls and 76 patients' siblings (30.3% men). Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were performed. Positive anti-NMDAR antibody patients were more often observed in bipolar disorder (10.0%) than schizophrenia (2.4%) or psychotic depression (3.1%), although no significant differences were observed. Our results are not conclusive regarding the inclusion of plasma anti-NMDAR IgG antibodies in differential diagnostic protocols for psychosis.


Resumo Nós investigamos a viabilidade de incluir a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-NMDAR na avaliação de pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico em um programa de intervenção precoce no Hemisfério Sul. Anticorpos IgG anti-NMDAR foram avaliados por ELISA em 166 pacientes (64,0% homens), 166 controles de base populacional pareados e 76 irmãos (30,3% homens). Foram realizados teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Os anticorpos anti-NMDAR positivos foram mais observados no transtorno afetivo bipolar (10,0%) do que na esquizofrenia (2,4%) ou depressão psicótica (3,1%), embora não tenham sido observadas diferenças significativas. Nossos resultados não são conclusivos quanto à inclusão de anticorpos IgG anti-NMDAR no plasma em protocolos de diagnósticos diferenciais para psicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Schizophrenia , Bipolar Disorder , Prevalence , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888078

ABSTRACT

Excitatory toxicity(ET) is an important factor of neuropathic pain(NPP) induced by central sensitization(CS), and the association of pannexin-1(Panx1)-Src-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 B(NMDAR-2 B) is an important new pathway for ET to initiate CS. The present study confirmed whether the central analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma extract(CRE) was achieved through the synchronous regulation of the brain and spinal pathways of Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B. In this study, dynamic and simulta-neo-us microdialysis of the brain and spinal cord in vivo combined with behavioristics, high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-fluorescence detection, microdialysis analysis(ISCUS~(flex)), ultrasensitive multifactorial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ELISA, and Western blot was employed to investigate the protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1, extracellular excitatory amino acids, cytokines, energy metabolites, and substance P in spinal dorsal horn(SDH) and anterior cingulate cortex(ACC) after CRE intervention with the rat model of spared sciatic nerve injury(SNI) as the experimental tool. Compared with the sham group, the SNI group exhibited diminished mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)(P<0.01), increased cold spray scores(P<0.01), glutamate(Glu), D-serine(D-Ser), and glycine(Gly) in extracellular fluids of ACC, and Glu, D-Ser, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and lactic acid(Lac) in extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05), dwindled tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)(P<0.05), and elevated protein levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1 in ACC(P<0.05). Compared with the SNI model rats, high-and medium-dose CRE(CRE-H/M) could potentiate the analgesic activity as revealed by the MWT test(P<0.05) and CRE-M enabled the decrease in cold spray scores(P<0.05). CRE-H/M could inhibit the levels of Glu, D-Ser and Gly in the extracellular fluids of ACC(P<0.05), and the levels of Glu in the extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05) in SNI rats. CRE-M significantly increased the levels of glucose(Gluc), Lac, interferon-gamma(IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant/human growth-regulated oncogenes(KC/GRO), and IL-4 in extracellular fluids of SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). CRE-H/M/L could also inhibit the levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in ACC and SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). The central analgesic effect of CRE is presumedly related to the inhibited release of excitatory amino acid transmitters(Glu, D-Ser and Gly) in ACC and SDH of SNI rats, decreased protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in the two regions, and the regulation of the Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B pathway in the spinal cord and brain. The above findings partially clarified the scientific basis of clinical analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922255

ABSTRACT

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in central nerve system is mostly composed of GluN1 and GluN2 subunits. The classical NMDAR has been intensively studied. However, GluN3‑containing NMDAR is much less expressed and have atypical channel properties. Recently, accumulating evidences have revealed two types of GluN3‑containing NMDAR: glutamate-gated GluN1/GluN2/GluN3 NMDAR and glycine-gated GluN1/GluN3 NMDAR. The former may play important roles in regulating synapse maturation and pruning non-used synapses, and its elevated expression at the adult stage may alter synaptic reorganization in some neuropsychiatric disorders. The latter is expressed in the medial habenula and involves in control of aversion. This article reviews the recent progresses on the expression, functional properties of GluN3‑containing atypical NMDARs and the physiological and pathological relevance.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Synapses
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826359

ABSTRACT

To observe the cell origin of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid(NMDA)receptor expression in skin after chronic ischemic pain modeling in rats and explore the role of NMDA receptor in type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome. Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group(=12),chronic post ischemia pain(CPIP)group(=12),CPIP+normal saline(NS)group(=6),CPIP+NMDA group(=6),and CPIP+MK801 group(=6).Six rats in the sham operation group and CPIP group were sacrificed under deep anesthesia one day after modeling.The plantar skin and L3-L5 spinal cord tissue were used for NR1(NMDA receptor)subunit immunofluorescence detection and for Western blotting of NR1,interleukin(IL)-1β,and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α.For the remaining rats,the mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)values on the 2nd,6th,10th and 14th day after ischemia were recorded,and the corresponding drugs were injected subcutaneously from the 6th day after ischemia.The skin and L3-L5 spinal cords were collected on the 14th day,and the same detection methods were applied. Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly higher expressions of NR1(1.708±0.064;=12.120, <0.001),IL-1β(2.575±0.305;=5.158, =0.003),and TNF-α(2.691±0.217;=7.786, <0.001)in the skin on the first day after modeling.After intervention with NMDA and MK801,the MWT value was [(20.37±0.95)g] in the CPIP+NS group,which was significantly higher than that in CPIP+NMDA group [(15.85±1.09)g;=10.920, <0.001] but significantly lower than that in CPIP+MK801 group[(22.95±0.96)g;=6.421, <0.001] 10 days after modeling.On the 14th day,compared with the MWT of the CPIP+NS group [(21.57±0.96)g],the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly decreased MWT value [(16.53±1.63)g;=12.190, <0.001],and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly increased MWT value [(23.27±1.28)g;=4.094, =0.025].Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly increased NR1 expression(1.708±0.064;=10.910, <0.001)and the CPIP+NS group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(2.518±0.147;=11.010, <0.001)and TNF-α(1.949±0.184;=10.870, <0.001).Compared with the CPIP+NS group,the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(4.816±0.607;=16.670, =0.003)and TNF-α(2.629±0.349;=7.790, <0.001)and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly decreased expressions of IL-1β(1.048±0.257;=10.660, =0.003)and TNF-α(0.790±0.165;=13.280, <0.001). NMDA receptor activation in skin keratinocytes after chronic ischemia in rats hinders the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α,which may be involved in central sensitization and pain conduction of type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Interleukin-1beta , Keratinocytes , Male , Pain , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Spinal Cord , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826346

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal encephalitis is a fatal central nervous system infectious disease,whereas anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)receptor encephalitis(NMDARE)is an autoimmune syndrome associated with psychological symptoms,behavioural abnormalities,seizures,and dyskinesias.Despite their distinct pathologies and pathogenic mechanisms,both of them can lead to cognitive dysfunction and abnormal behaviors,although anti-NMDARE can also have mood and mental disorders as its core manifestations.A patient with nephrotic syndrome accompanied by both cryptococcal encephalitis and anti-NMDARE was treated in our center,which for the first confirmed that these two conditions could coexist in one patient.The underlying mechanism may be similar to that of anti-NMDARE after other infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Antibodies , Humans , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of children with anti-N-methyl--aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis and to provide a basis for early clinical identification of this disease.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 42 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis at Department of Pediatrics, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from January 2015 to March 2018 were collected. The clinical features and followed-up outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#There were 15 cases (35.7%) of males and 27 cases (64.3%) of females in 42 children, with a ratio of 1꞉1.8. They were aged from 4 months to 17 years, with an average of (9.20±4.66) years. The most common initial symptoms were seizures (47.6%, 20/42) and mental behavior disorder (35.7%, 15/42). During the course of the disease, 85.7% patients(36/42) had mental and behavior disorder, 85.7% patients (36/42) had epilepsy, 76.2% (32/42) had speech disorder, 66.7% patients (28/42) had dyskinesia, 66.7% patients (28/42) had the decreased level of consciousness, 61.9% patients (26/42) had autonomic instability, and 57.1% (24/42) patients had sleep disorder. All the children had positive antibody against NMDA receptor resistance encephalitis in cerebrospinal fluid. Head MRI showed the abnormal incidence was 50.0% (21/42), and the lesions involved in parietal lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, midbrain, thalamus, basal ganglia and optic nerve. There was a patient with optic nerve damage combined with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive. Forty cases were examined by electroencephalogram (EEG), 92.5% cases (37/40) were abnormal, mainly showing diffuse slow waves, and δ brushes could be seen in severe cases. And there was 1 patient (2.4%) complicated with mesenteric teratoma. The mRS score (2.14±1.46) at discharge was significantly lower than the highest mRS score (3.88±1.38) during hospitalization (<0.05). After 3-39 months of follow-up, mRS score at 3 months after discharge was only 0.81±1.29, which was still improved compared with that at discharge, 76.2% cases (32/42) experienced complete or near-complete recovery (mRS score≤2), and 4.8% (2/42) cases relapsed. There was no mortality; the initial time of immunotherapy and the highest mRS score in the course of the disease were the factors affecting the prognosis. The earlier the starting time for immunotherapy and the lower mRS score in the course of the disease were, the better the prognosis was.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Seizures, mental and behavior disorder, dyskinesias, speech disorder and autonomic instability are common clinical manifestations of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children. The effect of immunotherapy is significant, and the time to start immunotherapy and the severity of the disease are important factors affecting the prognosis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis can be combined with other autoantibodies, but its clinical significance and mechanism need further study.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Autoantibodies , Child , Child, Preschool , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Retrospective Studies
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 463-474, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827040

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde is one of the simplest organic small molecules containing C, H and O elements in the early stage of earth's evolution; however, it has been found to be existed in every eukaryotic cell and participate in "one carbon metabolism". Recent studies have shown that formaldehyde may act as a signal molecule to regulate memory formation. After electrical stimulation or learning activity, the levels of formaldehyde in rat brains were increased instantly, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was activated to promote the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) or spatial memory. On the contrary, after reducing the levels of formaldehyde in the brains, NMDA receptor could not be activated, which was accompanied by the deficits in both LTP and memory. Moreover, in the brains of normal aged rats and APP/PS1 transgenic mice, the concentrations of formaldehyde were abnormally increased, which directly inhibited NMDA receptor activity and impaired spatial memory. This article reviewed the physiological and pathophysiological functions of endogenous formaldehyde in learning and memory.


Subject(s)
Animals , Formaldehyde , Hippocampus , Long-Term Potentiation , Maze Learning , Memory , Memory Disorders , Mice , Rats , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
9.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(6): 165-168, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054913

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Schizophrenia is a complex and chronic psychiatric disorder. In recent years, studies have found glutamatergic system participation in its etiopathogenesis, especially through aberrant NMDA receptors functioning. Thus, drugs that modulate this activity, as amantadine and memantine, could theoretically be used in its treatment. To perform a systematic literature review about memantine and amantadine use as adjunct in schizophrenia treatment. Methods A systematic review of papers published in English indexed in the electronic database PubMed ® using the terms "memantine", "amantadine" and "schizophrenia" published until October 2016. Results We found 144 studies, 8 selected for analysis due to meet the objectives of this review. Some of these have shown benefits from such drug use, especially in symptoms measured by PANSS and its subdivisions, while others do not. Discussion: The data in the literature about these drugs use for schizophrenia treatment is still limited and have great heterogeneity. Thus, assay with greater robustness are needed to assess real benefits of these drugs as adjuvant therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Amantadine/therapeutic use , Memantine/therapeutic use , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors , Placebos , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Amantadine/adverse effects , Memantine/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , PubMed , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/therapeutic use
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813268

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical features, auxiliary examination and characteristics for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis and its concomitant seizure.
 Methods: A total of 20 patients diagnosed as anti-NMDAR encephalitis were enrolled from January 2016 to September 2018 in Xiangya Hospital. The data including the clinical features, auxiliary examination, characteristics of seizure, treatment and prognosis were collected. The discharged patients were followed up for half a year.
 Results: The initial symptom in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were mainly psychiatric symptom and seizure. Most of the EEG result were diffused slow waves. The mainly type of seizure in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis showed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Patients occurred consciousness during the onset of the disease. MRI showed that patients with temporal lobe were more inclined to occur seizure than patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis (P<0.05). After standardized treatment, 20 patients showed a significant improvement in modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and the seizure was under control within half a year. 
 Conclusion: Patients with temporal lobe affected in MRI should pay attention to the possibility of seizure occurrence. Anti-epileptic drugs and immunotherapy should be used promptly in patient with seizure. After standardized treatment, the prognosis of patients will be mostly good.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Seizures
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781649

ABSTRACT

Neuraxial opioid administration is one of the most common methods of anesthesia and analgesia,while itching is the most troublesome adverse effect.The current treatments for neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus still have certain limitations.This article reviews the current treatments and basic scientific findings(including neurotransmitters,opioid receptors,and signaling pathways)of pruritus caused by neuraxial opioids.Based on our recent findings on N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)receptors and pruritus caused by neuraxial opioids,we provide new ideas for the treatment of itching caused by neuraxial opioids.Since NMDA receptors may play a key role in neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus,NMDA receptor antagonists can have certain therapeutic advantages.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Humans , Pruritus , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 347-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775441

ABSTRACT

Occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BP) induces learning and memory deficits. However, no therapeutic strategies are currently available. Accumulating evidence has suggested that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and neuroinflammation are involved in the cognitive impairments in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate whether the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK801 protects against 1-BP-induced cognitive dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were administered with MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) prior to 1-BP intoxication (800 mg/kg). Their cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The brains of rats were dissected for biochemical, neuropathological, and immunological analyses. We found that the spatial learning and memory were significantly impaired in the 1-BP group, and this was associated with neurodegeneration in both the hippocampus (especially CA1 and CA3) and cortex. Besides, the protein levels of phosphorylated NMDARs were increased after 1-BP exposure. MK801 ameliorated the 1-BP-induced cognitive impairments and degeneration of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex. Mechanistically, MK801 abrogated the 1-BP-induced disruption of excitatory and inhibitory amino-acid balance and NMDAR abnormalities. Subsequently, MK801 inhibited the microglial activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in 1-BP-treated rats. Our findings, for the first time, revealed that MK801 protected against 1-BP-induced cognitive dysfunction by ameliorating NMDAR function and blocking microglial activation, which might provide a potential target for the treatment of 1-BP poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Dizocilpine Maleate , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists , Pharmacology , Hydrocarbons, Brominated , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Male , Maze Learning , Physiology , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Nootropic Agents , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Metabolism , Spatial Memory , Physiology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastric motility, protooncogene c-fos and hippocampus N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in rats with functional dyspepsia (FD), and to discuss the molecular mechanism of hippocampal in EA at "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Weishu" (BL 21) for gastric motility.@*METHODS@#Eighty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a Zhongwan group, a Weishu group, an acupoint combination group and a non-acupoint group, 14 rats in each one. Except for the normal group, FD model were established by moderate tail-clipping infuriation method and irregular feeding. The rats in the Zhongwan group, Weishu group, acupoint combination group and non-acupoint group were treated with EA at corresponding acupoints, 20 min per treatment, once a day for 7 days. The rats in the normal group and the model group received no treatment; grabbing and fixation were applied in the model group. The stress transducer was used to record gastric motion waveforms; immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the expression of c-fos in hippocampus; Western blot method was used to detect the expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B in hippocampus.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the gastric motility range was decreased (0.05). Compared with the model group, the gastric motility range was increased, the expression of hippocampus c-fos and expression of hippocampus NR2A was increased but expressions of NR1 and NR2B were reduced in the Weishu group, Zhongwan group and acupoint combination group (0.05). Compared with the Zhongwan group and the Weishu group, the gastric motility range was increased, the expression of hippocampus c-fos and NR2A was increased but the expression of NR1 and NR2B was reducedin the acupoint combination group (0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA at "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Weishu" (BL 21) could increase gastric motility of FD rats, which is likely to be related with activating hippocampal neurons, upregulating the level of NR2A and downregulating NR1 and NR2B.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
14.
Singapore medical journal ; : 154-160, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777550

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Singapore has a rapidly ageing population and an increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compliance to AD medications is associated with treatment effectiveness. We investigated compliance to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and treatment persistence among patients seen at the General Memory Clinic of National University Hospital, Singapore. We also identified the reasons for non-compliance.@*METHODS@#Patients seen at the General Memory Clinic between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014, who were prescribed AChEIs and NMDA receptor antagonist, were included in this retrospective cohort study. Non-compliance to medications was indirectly measured by failure to renew prescription within 60 days of the last day of medication supplied by the previous prescription. The reasons for non-compliance were identified.@*RESULTS@#A total of 144 patients were included. At one year, 107 patients were compliant to AD medications, while 37 patients were non-compliant. Around 60% of the non-compliant patients discontinued the use of AD medications within the first six months, and the mean persistent treatment period among this group of patients was 10.3 ± 3.5 months. The main reason for non-compliance was patients' and caregivers' perception that memory loss was of lower priority than other coexisting illnesses. Other reasons for non-compliance included side effects of medications (18.9%), perceived ineffectiveness of treatment (16.2%), inability to attend clinic (5.4%) and high cost of medications (2.7%).@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that the reasons for medication non-compliance can be identified early. Better compliance may be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach to patient education.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Psychology , Caregivers , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Costs , Female , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance , Quality of Life , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Retrospective Studies , Singapore , Epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To estimate the detrimental effects of shortwave exposure on rat hippocampal structure and function and explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (25 rats per group) and exposed to 27 MHz continuous shortwave at a power density of 5, 10, or 30 mW/cm2 for 6 min once only or underwent sham exposure for the control. The spatial learning and memory, electroencephalogram (EEG), hippocampal structure and Nissl bodies were analysed. Furthermore, the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B), cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in hippocampal tissue were analysed on 1, 7, and 14 days after exposure.@*RESULTS@#The rats in the 10 and 30 mW/cm2 groups had poor learning and memory, disrupted EEG oscillations, and injured hippocampal structures, including hippocampal neurons degeneration, mitochondria cavitation and blood capillaries swelling. The Nissl body content was also reduced in the exposure groups. Moreover, the hippocampal tissue in the 30 mW/cm2 group had increased expressions of NR2A and NR2B and decreased levels of CREB and p-CREB.@*CONCLUSION@#Shortwave exposure (27 MHz, with an average power density of 10 and 30 mW/cm2) impaired rats' spatial learning and memory and caused a series of dose-dependent pathophysiological changes. Moreover, NMDAR-related CREB pathway suppression might be involved in shortwave-induced structural and functional impairments in the rat hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Electroencephalography , Radiation Effects , Hippocampus , Radiation Effects , Male , Memory , Radiation Effects , Nissl Bodies , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Radio Waves , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Genetics , Metabolism , Spatial Learning , Radiation Effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766286

ABSTRACT

Many neurologic disorders manifest as psychiatric symptoms. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disease of the brain characterized by numerous neurological and psychiatric features. Despite being rare, its prevalence is rapidly increasing and early management is critical in ensuring successful and sustainable recovery. Therefore, the illness should be considered as a differential diagnosis when clinically assessing patients. This report presents a case of a female child who was hospitalized for acute psychiatric manifestations, which was later confirmed as anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. She recovered relatively successfully after combined neurological and psychiatric treatment. This report provides information on the clinical course of early onset anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, including treatment strategy and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Autoimmune Diseases , Brain , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Encephalitis , Female , Humans , Nervous System Diseases , Prevalence , Prognosis , Psychotic Disorders , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Rituximab , Teratoma
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the role of NR2B in a modulated pain process in the painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) rat using various pain stimuli. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8): control, diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and diabetic rats treated with ifenprodil at a lower dose (0.5 µg/day) (I 0.5) or higher dose (1.0 µg/day) (I 1.0). DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg on day 0 of experimentation. Diabetic status was assessed on day 3 of the experimentation. The responses on both tactile and thermal stimuli were assessed on day 0 (baseline), day 14 (pre-intervention), and day 22 (post-intervention). Ifenprodil was given intrathecally for 7 days from day 15 until day 21. On day 23, 5% formalin was injected into the rats' hind paw and the nociceptive responses were recorded for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 72 hours post-formalin injection and an analysis of the spinal NR2B expression was performed. RESULTS: DM rats showed a significant reduction in pain threshold in response to the tactile and thermal stimuli and higher nociceptive response during the formalin test accompanied by the higher expression of phosphorylated spinal NR2B in both sides of the spinal cord. Ifenprodil treatment for both doses showed anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects with lower expression of phosphorylated and total spinal NR2B. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pain process in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat that has been modulated is associated with the higher phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B expression in the development of PDN, which is similar to other models of neuropathic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Formaldehyde , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Male , N-Methylaspartate , Pain Measurement , Pain Threshold , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Spinal Cord , Streptozocin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739533

ABSTRACT

The neuronal activity-dependent change in the manner in which light is absorbed or scattered in brain tissue is called the intrinsic optical signal (IOS), and provides label-free, minimally invasive, and high spatial (~100 µm) resolution imaging for visualizing neuronal activity patterns. IOS imaging in isolated brain slices measured at an infrared wavelength (>700 nm) has recently been attributed to the changes in light scattering and transmittance due to aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-dependent astrocytic swelling. The complexity of functional interactions between neurons and astrocytes, however, has prevented the elucidation of the series of molecular mechanisms leading to the generation of IOS. Here, we pharmacologically dissected the IOS in the acutely prepared brain slices of the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus, induced by 1 s/20 Hz electrical stimulation of Schaffer-collateral pathway with simultaneous measurement of the activity of the neuronal population by field potential recordings. We found that 55% of IOSs peak upon stimulation and originate from postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptors. The remaining originated from presynaptic action potentials and vesicle fusion. Mechanistically, the elevated extracellular glutamate and K⁺ during synaptic transmission were taken up by astrocytes via a glutamate transporter and quinine-sensitive K2P channel, followed by an influx of water via AQP-4. We also found that the decay of IOS is mediated by the DCPIB- and NPPB-sensitive anion channels in astrocytes. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the functional coupling between synaptic activity and astrocytic transient volume change during excitatory synaptic transmission is the major source of IOS.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid , Amino Acid Transport System X-AG , Astrocytes , Brain , Electric Stimulation , Glutamic Acid , Hippocampus , Jupiter , Neurons , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Synaptic Transmission , Water
19.
Hosp. Aeronáut. Cent ; 13(2): 134-138, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1021142

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra receptores N-Metil-D-Aspartato (NMDA) se genera una disfunción neuronal del ácido gamma-aminobutírico (GABA), con desregulación del glutamato y la dopamina. Los teratomas y las infecciones virales se presumen causales de la respuesta autoinmunitaria. La clínica evoluciona por etapas con un pródromo similar a una infección viral con posteriores manifestaciones psiquiátricas y convulsiones, seguidas de disfunción motora, cognitiva y autonómica. El diagnóstico se basa en la clínica y la presencia de anticuerpos del receptor NMDA. El tratamiento incluye inmunoterapia y eventual eliminación del tumor. La enfermedad puede ser letal o provocar daño irreversible en regiones corticales. Objetivo: Destacar la importancia del diagnóstico precoz en los casos de encefalitis autoinmune para una mayor efectividad de los tratamientos postulados. Reporte de caso: Paciente femenina de 13 años de edad, con diagnóstico de diabetes tipo I; presenta dolor y pérdida de fuerza con movimientos involuntarios en miembro superior izquierdo con dificultad en la deambulación, más episodio convulsivo tónico clónico generalizado seguido de manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas. Se sospecha encefalitis autoinmune, se dosan anticuerpos anti ácido glutámico descarboxilasa (GAD) y anti NMDA, con resultados positivos. Recibe corticoterapia, inmunoglobulina endovenosa, rituximab y plasmaferesis. Presenta escasa mejoría clínica, con persistencia de síntomas secuelares psiquiátricos y neurológicos. Discusión: Es importante sospechar esta entidad aunque las manifestaciones clínicas iniciales sugieran otras etiologías. El tratamiento inmunosupresor agresivo no debería demorarse aun cuando no se haya confirmado la positividad de los anticuerpos NMDA. El buen pronóstico depende del inicio precoz del tratamiento.


Introduction: The encephalitis by antibodies against NMDA receptors, a neuronal dysfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is generated, with deregulation of glutamate and dopamine. Teratomas and viral infections are presumed to be the cause to the autoimmune response. The clinic evolves in stages with a prodrome similar to a viral infection with subsequent psychiatric manifestations and seizure, followed by motor, cognitive and autonomic dysfunction. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and the presence of NMDA receptor antibodies. The treatment includes immunotherapy and, eventually, elimination of the tumor. The disease can be lethal or cause irreversible damage in cortical regions. Objective: Highlight the importance of early diagnosis in cases of autoimmune encephalitis for greater effectiveness of postulated treatments. Case report.:13 year old female patient diagnosed with type I diabetes; presents pain, loss of strength and involuntary movements of the upper left limb and ambulation difficulties, associeted with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure episode followed by neuropsychiatric manifestations. Autoinmune encefalitis was suspected so antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and anti-NMDA antibodies were dosed, which throw a positive result. The patient receives corticotherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab and plasmapheresis. Presenting little clinical improvement, with persistence of psychiatric and neurological sequelae symptoms. Discussion: It is important to suspect this entity although the initial clinical manifestations suggests other etiologies. Aggressive immunosuppressive therapy should not be delayed even when the positivity of NMDA antibodies has not been confirmed. The good prognosis depends on the early start of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Early Diagnosis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/prevention & control , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/diagnosis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/therapy
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 237-246, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777063

ABSTRACT

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels, play a central role in epileptogenesis. Recent studies have identified an increasing number of GRIN2A (a gene encoding the NMDAR GluN2A subunit) mutations in patients with epilepsy. Phenotypes of GRIN2A mutations include epilepsy-aphasia disorders and other epileptic encephalopathies, which pose challenges in clinical treatment. Here we identified a heterozygous GRIN2A mutation (c.1341T>A, p.N447K) from a boy with Rolandic epilepsy by whole-exome sequencing. The patient became seizure-free with a combination of valproate and lamotrigine. Functional investigation was carried out using recombinant NMDARs containing a GluN2A-N447K mutant that is located in the ligand-binding domain of the GluN2A subunit. Whole-cell current recordings in HEK 293T cells revealed that the N447K mutation increased the NMDAR current density by ~1.2-fold, enhanced the glutamate potency by 2-fold, and reduced the sensitivity to Mg inhibition. These results indicated that N447K is a gain-of-function mutation. Interestingly, alternative substitutions by alanine and glutamic acid at the same residue (N447A and N447E) did not change NMDAR function, suggesting a residual dependence of this mutation in altering NMDAR function. Taken together, this study identified human GluN2A N447K as a novel mutation associated with epilepsy and validated its functional consequences in vitro. Identification of this mutation is also helpful for advancing our understanding of the role of NMDARs in epilepsy and provides new insights for precision therapeutics in epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Epilepsy, Rolandic , Genetics , Humans , Male , Mutation , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Genetics
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