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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 662-667, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951808

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effect of the intracellular microenvironment in the presence of an oxygen vector during expression of a fusion protein in Escherichia coli was studied. Three organic solutions at different concentration were chosen as oxygen vectors for fumarase expression. The addition of n-dodecane did not induce a significant change in the expression of fumarase, while the activity of fumarase increased significantly to 124% at 2.5% n-dodecane added after 9 h induction. The concentration of ATP increased sharply during the first 6 h of induction, to a value 7600% higher than that in the absence of an oxygen-vector. NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH ratios were positively correlated with fumarase activity. n-Dodecane can be used to increase the concentration of ATP and change the energy metabolic pathway, providing sufficient energy for fumarase folding.


Subject(s)
Oxygen/metabolism , Gene Expression , Alkanes/metabolism , Escherichia coli/genetics , Fumarate Hydratase/metabolism , Oxygen/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Protein Folding , Alkanes/chemistry , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Fumarate Hydratase/genetics , Fumarate Hydratase/chemistry , NADP/metabolism , NADP/chemistry
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 647-655, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951810

ABSTRACT

Abstract An intronless endoglucanase from thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus DBINU-1 was cloned, characterized and expressed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The full-length open reading frame of the endoglucanase gene from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1, designated Cel7, was 1383 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 460 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the A. fumigatus Cel7 gene product were 48.19 kDa and 5.03, respectively. A catalytic domain in the N-terminal region and a fungal type cellulose-binding domain/module in the C-terminal region were detected in the predicted polypeptide sequences. Furthermore, a signal peptide with 20 amino acid residues at the N-terminus was also detected in the deduced amino acid sequences of the endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1. The endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1 was successfully expressed in K. lactis, and the purified recombinant enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme was very stable in a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 and a temperature range from 30 to 60 °C. These features make it suitable for application in the paper, biofuel, and other chemical production industries that use cellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Gene Expression , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Kluyveromyces/genetics , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 414-421, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935 bp full-length chitinase I gene. Based on the sequence of the amplified gene fragment, class I barley chitinase shares 93% amino acid sequence homology with class II wheat chitinase. Interestingly, barley class I chitinase and class II chitinase do not share sequence homology. Furthermore, the amplified fragment was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain under the control of T7 promoter in pET 30a vector. Recombinant chitinase protein of 35 kDa exhibited highest expression at 0.5 mM concentration of IPTG. Expressed recombinant protein of 35 kDa was purified to homogeneity with affinity chromatography. Following purification, a Western blot assay for recombinant chitinase protein measuring 35 kDa was developed with His-tag specific antibodies. The purified recombinant chitinase protein was demonstrated to inhibit significantly the important phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae compared to the control at concentrations of 80 µg and 200 µg.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chitinases/pharmacology , Hordeum/enzymology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , Chitinases/chemistry , Chitinases/genetics , Chitinases/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Affinity , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Hordeum/genetics , Molecular Weight , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 205-210, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899280

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, a method for expressing Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 glycoprotein in Escherichia coli for production of polyclonal anti-GP60 IgY in chickens was developed aiming future studies concerning the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis. The full-length nucleotide sequence of the C. hominis gp60 gene was codon-optimized for expression in E. coli and was synthesized in pET28-a vector. Subcloning was performed on several different strains of BL21 E. coli. Temperature, time and inducer IPTG concentration assays were also performed and analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The optimal conditions were observed at a temperature of 37 °C, with overnight incubation and 1 mM of IPTG. Purification was performed by means of affinity chromatography using the AKTA Pure chromatography system and the Hi-Trap™ HP column (GE Healthcare). The recombinant protein GP60 (rGP60) thus generated was used to immunize laying hens owing the production of polyclonal IgY. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence showed that the polyclonal antibody was capable of binding to rGP60 and to Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites, respectively. The rGP60 and the IgY anti-rGP60 generated in this study may be used as templates for research and for the development of diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis.


Resumo Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um método de expressão da glicoproteína GP60 de Cryptosporidium hominis em Escherichia coli visando produzir anticorpos IgY anti-GP60 em galinhas para utilização em estudos futuros com os objetivos de diagnóstico, prevenção e tratamento da criptosporidiose. A sequência completa de nucleotídeos do gene gp60 de C. hominis foi códon-otimizada para expressão em E. coli e sintetizada no vetor pET28-a. A subclonagem foi realizada em várias estirpes diferentes de E. coli BL21. Os ensaios de concentração do indutor IPTG, temperatura e tempo foram realizados e analisados por SDS-PAGE. As condições ótimas de expressão foram observadas em temperatura de 37 °C, incubação durante a noite e 1 mM de IPTG. A purificação da proteína foi realizada por cromatografia de afinidade utilizando o sistema de cromatografia AKTA Pure e a coluna Hi-Trap™ HP (GE Healthcare). A proteína recombinante GP60 (rGP60) foi utilizada para imunizar galinhas poedeiras para produzir IgY policlonal anti-rGP60. Verificou-se por Western blot e por imunofluorescência indireta que o anticorpo policlonal apresentou reatividade com a rGP60 e com esporozoítos de Cryptosporidium parvum, respectivamente. A rGP60 e a IgY anti-rGP60 geradas neste estudo podem ser utilizadas como modelos para o desenvolvimento de ensaios para pesquisa e diagnóstico da criptosporidiose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Chickens/immunology , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Cryptosporidiosis/immunology , Escherichia coli/metabolism
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 535-538, Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788999

ABSTRACT

The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS.


Subject(s)
Baculoviridae/chemistry , Baculoviridae/metabolism , Hepatitis A virus/chemistry , Viral Proteins/biosynthesis , Baculoviridae/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genetic Vectors , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Solubility , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 425-432, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749712

ABSTRACT

The strain JPL-2, capable of degrading fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (FE), was isolated from the soil of a wheat field and identified as Rhodococcus ruber. This strain could utilize FE as its sole carbon source and degrade 94.6% of 100 mg L−1 FE in 54 h. Strain JPL-2 could also degrade other aryloxyphenoxy propanoate (AOPP) herbicides. The initial step of the degradation pathway is to hydrolyze the carboxylic acid ester bond. A novel esterase gene feh, encoding the FE-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase (FeH) responsible for this initial step, was cloned from strain JPL-2. Its molecular mass was approximately 39 kDa, and the catalytic efficiency of FeH followed the order of FE > quizalofop-P-ethyl > clodinafop-propargyl > cyhalofop-butyl > fluazifop-P-butyl > haloxyfop-P-methyl > diclofop-methy, which indicated that the chain length of the alcohol moiety strongly affected the hydrolysis activity of the FeH toward AOPP herbicides.


Subject(s)
Carboxylesterase/genetics , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , Oxazoles/metabolism , Propionates/metabolism , Rhodococcus/isolation & purification , Rhodococcus/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cloning, Molecular , Cluster Analysis , Carboxylesterase/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Phylogeny , /genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Rhodococcus/enzymology , Rhodococcus/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Substrate Specificity , Triticum/growth & development
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 207-217, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748260

ABSTRACT

The practice of refrigerating raw milk at the farm has provided a selective advantage for psychrotrophic bacteria that produce heat-stable proteases and lipases causing severe quality problems to the dairy industry. In this work, a protease (AprX) and a lipase (LipM) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens 041, a highly proteolytic and lipolytic strain isolated from raw milk obtained from a Brazilian farm, have been purified and characterized. Both enzymes were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The AprX metalloprotease exhibited activity in a broad temperature range, including refrigeration, with a maximum activity at 37 °C. It was active in a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. This protease had maximum activity with the substrates casein and gelatin in the presence of Ca+2. The LipM lipase had a maximum activity at 25 °C and a broad pH optimum ranging from 7.0 to 10. It exhibited the highest activity, in the presence of Ca+2, on substrates with long-chain fatty acid residues. These results confirm the spoilage potential of strain 041 in milk due to, at least in part, these two enzymes. The work highlights the importance of studies of this kind with strains isolated in Brazil, which has a recent history on the implementation of the cold chain at the dairy farm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipase/metabolism , Milk/microbiology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Pseudomonas fluorescens/isolation & purification , Brazil , Enzyme Stability , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/chemistry , Lipase/genetics , Lipase/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genetics , Refrigeration , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
8.
Radiol. bras ; 48(2): 111-120, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746615

ABSTRACT

Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.


A avaliação de corpo inteiro em crianças era classicamente realizada com radiografias simples, cintilografia e tomografia por emissão de pósitrons combinada ou não à tomografia computadorizada, estes com a desvantagem de exposição à radiação ionizante. A ressonância magnética de corpo inteiro (RMCI), associada ao desenvolvimento de técnicas metabólicas e funcionais como difusão, trouxe a vantagem de uma avaliação global do paciente pediátrico sem os riscos da radiação ionizante habitualmente presente nos métodos radiológicos convencionais. A RMCI é um método rápido e sensível, com aplicação especial na área de pediatria na detecção e no monitoramento de lesões multifocais no corpo como um todo. Em pediatria, esta técnica é utilizada tanto em oncologia - no diagnóstico e rastreamento de tumores em pacientes portadores de síndromes genéticas, na avaliação da extensão de doenças e estadiamento oncológico, na avaliação da resposta terapêutica e no seguimento pós-terapêutico - como em lesões não neoplásicas - osteomielite multifocal, malformações vasculares e síndromes que comprometam múltiplas regiões do corpo. Esta revisão tem como objetivo mostrar as principais indicações do exame na população pediátrica e técnica de realização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Phosphotransferases/chemistry , Phosphotransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Computer Simulation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Oxidative Stress , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Tuberculosis/microbiology
10.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 219-227, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752507

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: estudio cualitativo que siguió los principios de la teoría fundamentada con el fin de analizar la identidad profesional de docentes de enfermería por medio del análisis de incidentes críticos que más las desestabilizaban. Método: entrevistas semi-estructuradas fueron realizadas a siete enfermeras que actúan como docentes e investigadoras en una universidad privada de Barcelona. Resultados: el material empírico resultante fue organizado en dos categorías: caracterización de los incidentes críticos y reacción de las enfermeras frente a ellos. Conclusión: se concluye que la identidad profesional de estas enfermeras en el campo académico está aún en construcción y que la inexperiencia es el mayor obstáculo que enfrentan para gestionar los incidentes críticos en el trabajo docente. .


RESUMO Objetivo: estudo qualitativo que seguiu os princípios da teoria fundamentada em dados com o objetivo de analisar a identidade profissional de docentes de enfermagem por meio da análise de incidentes críticos que mais as desestabilizaram. Método: entrevistas semiestruturadas foram realizadas com sete enfermeiras que atuam como docentes e pesquisadoras em uma universidade privada de Barcelona. Resultados: o material empírico resultante foi organizado em duas categorias: caracterização dos incidentes críticos e reação das enfermeiras frente a eles. Conclusão: concluiu-se que identidade profissional dessas enfermeiras no campo acadêmico está ainda em construção e a que inexperiência é o maior obstáculo que enfrentam para gerenciar incidentes críticos no trabalho docente. .


ABSTRACT Objective: a qualitative study that followed the principles of the grounded theory in order to analyze the professional identity of nursing academics through the analysis of the most disturbing critical incidents. Method: semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven nurses who worked as professors and researchers in a private university in Barcelona. Results: the resulting empirical material was organized into two categories: characterization of critical incidents and responsiveness to the incident. Conclusion: the professional identity of nurses regarding the academic area is still under construction and inexperience is the major obstacle in the management of critical incidents in the teaching career. .


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/chemistry , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Crystallography, X-Ray , DNA , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Pseudohypoaldosteronism/genetics , Pseudohypoaldosteronism/metabolism , Pseudohypoaldosteronism/pathology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/genetics , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Structural Homology, Protein
11.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(2): 449-460, 02/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742218

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os motivos das faltas às consultas odontológicas em Unidades de Saúde da Família (USF) e implementar estratégias para sua redução por meio da pesquisa-ação. O estudo foi realizado em 12 USF de Piracicaba/SP, de 01 de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2010. A amostra se consistiu de 385 usuários, entrevistados por telefone, sobre os motivos das faltas, além de 12 cirurgiões-dentistas e 12 enfermeiras. Realizaram-se duas oficinas com os profissionais: uma para problematização dos dados coletados nas entrevistas e elaboração de estratégias; e outra após 4 meses, para avaliação. O maior motivo de faltas foi a coincidência do horário de funcionamento das unidades com o de trabalho dos usuários. Dentre as estratégias ressaltou-se a realização de palestras sobre saúde bucal, educação permanente nas reuniões de equipe, capacitação dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, participação em grupos terapêuticos e parcerias entre Equipe de Saúde Bucal e equipamentos sociais da comunidade. A adoção de prontuário único foi a estratégia desafiadora encontrada pelos profissionais. Concluiu-se que as estratégias implementadas levaram à diminuição das faltas em 66,6% e o caráter motivador das oficinas possibilitou a reflexão crítica para o redirecionamento da prática em saúde.


The aim of this study was to analyze the reasons for missed appointments in dental Family Health Units (FHU) and implement strategies to reduce same through action research. This is a study conducted in 12 FHUs in Piracicaba in the State of São Paulo from January, 1 to December, 31 2010. The sample was composed of 385 users of these health units who were interviewed over the phone and asked about the reasons for missing dental appointments, as well as 12 dentists and 12 nurses. Two workshops were staged with professionals: the first to assess the data collected in interviews and develop strategy, and the second for evaluation after 4 months. The primary cause for missed appointments was the opening hours of the units coinciding with the work schedule of the users. Among the strategies suggested were lectures on oral health, ongoing education in team meetings, training of Community Health Agents, participation in therapeutic groups and partnerships between Oral Health Teams and the social infrastructure of the community. The adoption of the single medical record was the strategy proposed by professionals. The strategies implemented led to a 66.6% reduction in missed appointments by the units and the motivating nature of the workshops elicited critical reflection to redirect health practices.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Enzyme Precursors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Biocatalysis , Computer Simulation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Precursors/chemistry , Enzyme Precursors/genetics , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/chemistry , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kinetics , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/chemistry , Leucine/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Stability , Plant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 516-521, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731258

ABSTRACT

In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2) traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.


Neste estudo, foram avaliados quatro métodos de amostragem de carrapatos em vida livre, usados em estudos ecológicos e avaliação do risco de picadas em humanos. Arraste de flanela, armadilhas de gás carbônico (CO2), busca visual e inspeção de serrapilheira foram aplicados em áreas campestres e florestais no Pantanal brasileiro. Dentre três espécies coletadas, a predominância foi de Amblyomma sculptum, seguida por Amblyomma parvum e Amblyomma ovale. O arraste, técnica simples e de baixo custo, resultou em maior número de carrapatos, particularmente de ninfas. A busca visual detectou alto número de carrapatos adultos e forneceu informações sobre altura de espera por hospedeiros. Apesar de trabalhoso, o exame da serrapilheira demonstrou que grande número de carrapatos pode utilizar esse estrato. Armadilhas de CO2 têm custo elevado e são difíceis de manusear, entretanto, são altamente eficientes para carrapatos adultos, em especial para A. parvum. Esses dados indicam que somente um método é incapaz de fornecer amostra representativa da ixodofauna em uma área particular e que, para estudos populacionais, técnicas múltiplas devem ser usadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Catalytic Domain , Crystallography, X-Ray , Folic Acid Antagonists/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , In Vitro Techniques , Macromolecular Substances , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , NADP , Protein Conformation , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Toxoplasma/enzymology
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 677-687, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723134

ABSTRACT

A mesophilic Enterobacter sp. Bn12 producing an alkaline thermostable lipase was isolated from soil in Tehran, Iran. The lipase gene (ELBn12) was identified from a genomic library. Sequence analysis of the DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 879 bp encoding a lipase with a molecular mass of 31.3 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 96% identity with a lipase of Enterobacter sp. Ag1 and the identity of their DNA sequences was 88.9%. ELBn12 belongs to the lipase subfamily I.1 and its catalytic triad consists of Ser82, Asp237 and His259. The lipase was expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21) pLysS and partially purified by anion exchange chromatography. The maximum activity of ELBn12 was obtained at temperature of 60 °C and pH 8.0 towards tricaprylin (C8) and its specific activity was around 2900 U/mg. ELBn12 was stable within a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0. The enzyme showed high stability in both polar and nonpolar organic solvents at 50% (v/v). The lipase activity was enhanced in the presence of 10 mM of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+, while heavy metals (Fe3+ and Zn2+) had strong inhibitory effect. ELBn12 showed high activity in the presence of 1% (w/v) nonionic surfactants, however ionic surfactants inhibited the lipolytic activity. ELBn12 characteristics show that it has a potential to be used in various industrial processes.


Subject(s)
Enterobacter/enzymology , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Base Sequence , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Enterobacter/classification , Enterobacter/genetics , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Enzyme Activators/analysis , Enzyme Inhibitors/analysis , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Iran , Lipase/chemistry , Lipase/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Open Reading Frames , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Soil Microbiology , Temperature
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70516

ABSTRACT

Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Gene Expression , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Serologic Tests/methods , Solubility , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14502

ABSTRACT

Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Chromatography, Affinity , Cloning, Molecular , Cluster Analysis , Conserved Sequence , Dermacentor/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Phylogeny , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210968

ABSTRACT

The mature domain of a cysteine protease of Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid larva (i.e., sparganum) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its value as an antigen for the serodiagnosis of sparganosis was investigated. The recombinant protein (rSepCp-1) has the molecular weight of 23.4 kDa, and strongly reacted with the sparganum positive human or mice sera but not with negative sera by immunoblotting. ELISA with rSepCp-1 protein or sparganum crude antigen (SeC) was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of sparganosis using patient's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA using rSepCp-1 protein were 95.0% (19/20) and 99.1% (111/112), respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with SeC were 100% (20/20) and 96.4% (108/112), respectively. Moreover, in experimentally infected mice, the sensitivity and specificity of both ELISA assays were 100% for the detection of anti-sparganum IgG. It is suggested that the rSepCp-1 protein-based ELISA could provide a highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of sparganosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Helminth/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Mice , Molecular Weight , Parasitology/methods , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Sparganosis/diagnosis , Spirometra/enzymology
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 351-358, 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709455

ABSTRACT

Laccases are blue copper oxidases (E.C. 1.10.3.2) that catalyze the one-electron oxidation of phenolics, aromatic amines, and other electron-rich substrates with the concomitant reduction of O2 to H2O. A novel laccase gene pclac2 and its corresponding full-length cDNA were cloned and characterized from Phytophthora capsici for the first time. The 1683 bp full-length cDNA of pclac2 encoded a mature laccase protein containing 560 amino acids preceded by a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence of PCLAC2 showed high similarity with other known fungal laccases and contained four copper-binding conserved domains of typical laccase protein. In order to achieve a high level secretion and full activity expression of PCLAC2, expression vector pPIC9K with the Pichia pastoris expression system was used. The recombinant PCLAC2 protein was purified and showed on SDS-PAGE as a single band with an apparent molecular weight ca. 68 kDa. The high activity of purified PCLAC2, 84 U/mL, at the seventh day induced with methanol, was observed with 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozin-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for ABTS were 4.0 and 30 ºC, respectively . The reported data add a new piece to the knowledge about P. Capsici laccase multigene family and shed light on potential function about biotechnological and industrial applications of the individual laccase isoforms in oomycetes.


Subject(s)
Laccase/genetics , Laccase/metabolism , Phytophthora/enzymology , Cloning, Molecular , Conserved Sequence , Enzyme Stability , Gene Expression , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Laccase/chemistry , Laccase/isolation & purification , Molecular Weight , Open Reading Frames , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Phytophthora/genetics , Pichia/genetics , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Temperature
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 June; 48(3): 148-153
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135312

ABSTRACT

LeCPK2 (GenBank GQ205414), a versatile calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK or CPK) gene was isolated from tomato in our previous study. In this study, the biochemical properties of LeCPK2 were further investigated. To examine the role of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain (CLD) of LeCPK2 with respect to Ca2+ activation, the kinase activities of recombinant full-length and truncated LeCPK2 were measured by Kinase-Glo® Luminescent kinase assay (Promega). The results showed that LeCPK2 activity was Ca2+-dependent and the C-terminal CLD of 161 residues was essential for the activation of LeCPK2. The activity of LeCPK2 was sharply stimulated by Ca2+ with K0.5 (concentration of Ca2+ for half-maximal activity) of 48.8 and 45.5 nM with substrate histone IIIs and syntide 2, respectively. The optimal concentration of Mg2+ for LeCPK2 activity was 20 and 10 mM for substrate histone IIIs and syntide 2, respectively. The Km value of LeCPK2 towards histone IIIs and syntide 2 was 44.9 μg/ml and 89.52 μM, respectively. The determination of biochemical properties of LeCPK2 would provide some clues on how its activity was regulated in vivo.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzymology , Lycopersicon esculentum/genetics , Magnesium Chloride/chemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Kinases/analysis , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Dec; 47(6): 331-339
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135284

ABSTRACT

While statins, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors, are clinically proven to reduce plasma cholesterol levels, a wide variation in inter-individual response to statin therapy has been observed. Pharmacogenetic studies have identified multiple loci that potentially contribute towards the statin response, including the HMGCR gene. To examine, if a statin-resistant, catalytically-active isoform of the human HMGCR could be generated, we have rationally altered the protein to include additional residues in the flap domain, which has a role in statin binding. Comparative enzyme assays with purified wild-type and mutant isoforms reveal the alteration imposes a slight (38%) decrease in the for the substrate, a near 2-fold increase in turnover number, and a 480% increase in the Ki for lovastatin. Thus, alterations in HMGCR could contribute towards the synergistic effects of multiple loci in the statin response.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , DNA Primers/genetics , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/genetics , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis , Pharmacogenetics , Protein Engineering , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Aug; 47(4): 203-210
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135267

ABSTRACT

A gene encoding a -1,3-1,4-glucanase (CelA) belonging to family 5 of glycoside hydrolases was cloned and sequenced from the Bacillus subtilis A8-8. The open-reading-frame of celA comprised 1499 base pairs and the enzyme was composed of 500 amino acids with a molecular mass of 55 kDa. The recombinant -1,3-1,4 glucanase was purified by GST-fusion purification system. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 8.0 and 60oC, respectively. The enzyme was stable within pH 6.0-9.0. It was stable up to 60oC and retained 30% of its original activity at 70oC for 60 min. It hydrolyzed lichenan, CMC, xylan, laminarin, avicel and pNPC, but was inactive towards cellobiose. The enzyme activity was markedly activated by Co2+ and Mn2+, but was strongly inactivated by Fe3+. The truncated gene, devoid of cellulose-binding domain (CBD) showed 60% of activity and bound to avicel.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Catalytic Domain , Cellulose/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Cobalt/chemistry , Endo-1,3(4)-beta-Glucanase/chemistry , Glucans/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Manganese/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Temperature , Xylans/chemistry
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