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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 324-329, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362983

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En el espacio retrorrectal o presacro pueden desarrollarse lesiones tumorales, tanto benignas como malignas. La mayoría de los pacientes son asintomáticos y, cuando presentan síntomas, éstos son inespecíficos. Entre los tumores retrorrectales se destaca el grupo de origen neurogénico, donde el Schwannoma es el más frecuente.Caso clínico. Mujer de 32 años, con tumor retrorrectal, que producía una sintomatología escasa e imprecisa, diagnosticado durante una intervención quirúrgica por mioma uterino, que finalmenteresultó ser un Schawnnoma. Conclusión. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética son importantes para el diagnóstico y para establecer el nivel de la lesión en relación con el sacro. La piedra angular del tratamiento es la resección quirúrgica. El abordaje puede ser anterior (abdominal), posterior (perineal, transsacro o parasacrococígeo) o combinado, de acuerdo con su localización al nivel S4


Introduction. Both benign and malignant tumors can develop in the retrorectal or presacral space. Most patients are asymptomatic and, when they do present symptoms, they are nonspecific. Among retrorectal tumors, the group of neurogenic origin stand out, where Schwannoma is the most frequent one. Clinical case. A 32-year-old woman with a retrorectal tumor, which present with imprecise symptoms, diagnosed during a surgical procedure due to a uterine myoma, which finally turned out to be a Schawnnoma. Conclusion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are important for diagnosis and for establishing the level of the lesion in relation to the sacrum. The cornerstone of treatment is surgical resection. The approach can be anterior (abdominal), posterior (perineal, transsacral or parasacrococcygeal), or combined, according to its location at the S4 level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Surgery , Neurilemmoma , Rectal Neoplasms , Sacrum , Neoplasms
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 411-418, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356428

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has revolutionized the surgical techniques for lower-third rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcomes of quality indicators of TaTME for rectal cancer compared with laparoscopic TME (LaTME). Methods: A cohort prospective study with 50 (14 female and 36male) patients, with a mean age of 67 (range: 55.75 to 75.25) years, who underwent surgery for rectal cancer. In total, 20 patients underwent TaTME, and 30, LaTME. Every TaTME procedure was performed by experienced colorectal surgeons. The sample was divided into two groups (TaTME and LaTME), and the quality indicators of the surgery for rectal cancer were analyzed. Results: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the patients and the main characteristics of the tumor (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score, body mass index [BMI], tumoral stage, neoadjuvant therapy, and distance from the tumor to the external anal margin) between the two groups. The rates of: postoperativemorbidity (TaTME: 35%; LaTME: 30%; p=0.763);mortality (0%); anastomotic leak (TaTME: 10%; LaTME: 13%; p=0.722); wound infection (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.409); reoperation (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 6.6%; p=0.808); and readmission (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 0%; p=0.400), as well as the length of the hospital stay (TaTME: 13.5 days; LaTME: 11 days; p=0.538), were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of positive circumferential resection margin (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.989) and positive distal resection margin (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.400), the completeness of the TME (TaTME: 100%; LaTME: 100%), and the number of lymph nodes harvested (TaTME: 15; LaTME: 15.5; p=0.882) between two groups. Conclusion: Transanal total mesorectal excision is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for middle/lower-third rectal cancer. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Proctectomy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Laparoscopy
3.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1387, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357302

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la reestadificación del paciente con tumor de recto irradiado, la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico puede identificar la fibrosis y diferenciarla del tumor residual. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado. Métodos: Estudio observacional y descriptivo (serie de casos), en 31 pacientes con tumor de recto irradiado, reestadificados mediante elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico. Para determinar la utilidad de la elastografía se calcularon: sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, índice de Youden y concordancia diagnóstica según índice kappa, de la elastografía y del ultrasonido endoscópico por separado, estos resultados fueron comparados en ambas pruebas diagnósticas. El estudio histológico de la pieza quirúrgica fue el estándar de referencia. Resultados: El índice de concordancia del ultrasonido endoscópico (77,4 por ciento), por elastografía (87,1 por ciento). El ultrasonido endoscópico mostró mayor sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo que la elastografía, por lo que la posibilidad de descartar presencia de tumor con un resultado negativo fue superior. La elastografía tuvo mayor especificidad (77,78 por ciento) y valor predictivo positivo (90,91 por ciento) que el ultrasonido endoscópico (22,22 y 75,86 por ciento); fue más útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de tumor. Conclusiones: La utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa asociada al ultrasonido endoscópico, en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado, consiste en incrementar la especificidad del estudio y discernir mejor entre la fibrosis y el tumor residual(AU)


Introduction: Qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography can identify fibrosis and differentiate it from residual tumor in the re-staging of patients with irradiated rectal tumors. Objective: To determine the usefulness of qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor. Methods: An observational and descriptive study (series of cases) was carried out in 31 patients with irradiated rectal tumor, restaged by means of Qualitative elastography by endoscopic ultrasound. To determine the usefulness of elastography, the following were calculated: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index and diagnostic agreement according to kappa, elastography and endoscopic ultrasound separately; these results were compared in both diagnostic tests. The histological study of the surgical specimen was the reference standard. Results: The concordance index of endoscopic ultrasound (77.4 percent), that obtained by elastography (87.1 percent). Endoscopic ultrasound showed greater sensitivity and negative predictive value than elastography, so the possibility of ruling out the presence of a tumor with a negative result was higher. Elastography had greater specificity (77.78 percent) and positive predictive value (90.91 percent) than endoscopic ultrasound (22.22 and 75.86 percent); it was most helpful in confirming the tumor diagnosis. Conclusions: The usefulness of qualitative elastography associated with endoscopic ultrasound, in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor, consists in increasing the specificity of the study, thus allowing a better discernment between fibrosis and residual tumor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Neoplasm, Residual , Endosonography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Neoplasm Staging/methods
4.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 696-702, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291256

ABSTRACT

Los tumores neuroendocrinos se definen como un grupo heterogéneo de neoplasias de origen epitelial, provenientes de células enterocromafines diseminadas por todo el organismo, y representan alrededor del 1 al 4 % de todas las neoplasias. Su mayor distribución se encuentra en el tracto gastrointestinal, donde se localiza el 75 % de los tumores neuroendocrinos, siendo los ubicados en el recto, el 27 % de todos los que afectan el tracto gastrointestinal. A propósito de esta revisión de tema, presentamos el caso de un paciente de 71 años de edad, que consultó por sangrado rectal rojo rutilante, sin otra sintomatología asociada, y se le diagnosticó un tumor neuroendocrino grado 1, que se comportaba como una lesión benigna del recto


Neuroendocrine tumors are defined as a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of epithelial origin from enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the body, and represent about 1% to 4% of all neoplasms. Its largest distribution is found in the gastrointestinal tract, where 75% of neuroendocrine tumors are located, being 27% of those in the rectum. We present the case of a 71-year-old patient who consulted for bright red blood per rectum, with no other associated symptoms, and was diagnosed with a grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor, which behaved as a benign lesion of the rectum


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectal Neoplasms , Enterochromaffin Cells , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Diagnosis
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 193-197, June 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286994

ABSTRACT

Abstract The postoperative outcome of rectal cancer has been improved after the introduction of the principles of total mesorectal excision (TME). Total mesorectal excision includes resection of the diseased rectum and mesorectum with non-violated mesorectal fascia (en bloc resection). Dissection along themesorectal fascia through the principle of the "holy plane" minimizes injury of the autonomic nerves and increases the chance of preserving them. It is important to stick to the TME principle to avoid perforating the tumor; violating the mesorectal fascia, thus resulting in positive circumferential resection margin (CRM); or causing injury to the autonomic nerves, especially if the tumor is located anteriorly. Therefore, identifying the anterior plane of dissection during TME is important because it is related with the autonomic nerves (Denonvilliers fascia). Although there are many articles about the Denonvilliers fascia (DVF) or the anterior dissection plane, unfortunately, there is no consensus on its embryological origin, histology, and gross anatomy. In the present review article, I aim to delineate and describe the anatomy of the DVF inmore details based on a review of the literature, in order to provide insight for colorectal surgeons to better understand this anatomical feature and to provide the best care to their patients.


Resumo O resultado pós-operatório do câncer retal foi melhorado após a introdução dos princípios da excisão total do mesorreto (TME, na sigla em inglês). A excisão total do mesorreto inclui a ressecção do reto e do mesorreto afetados com fáscia mesorretal não violada (ressecção em bloco). A dissecção ao longo da fáscia mesorretal pelo princípio do "plano sagrado" minimiza a lesão dos nervos autônomos e aumenta a chance de preservá-los. É importante seguir o princípio da TME para evitar: a perfuração do tumor; a violação da fáscia mesorretal, resultando em margem de ressecção circunferencial (CRM) positiva; ou a lesão aos nervos autônomos, especialmente se o tumor estiver localizado anteriormente. Portanto, a identificação do plano anterior de dissecção durante a TME é importante, pois está relacionada comos nervos autonômicos (fáscia de Denonvilliers). Embora existammuitos artigos sobre a fáscia de Denonvilliers (DVF, na sigla em inglês) ou o plano de dissecção anterior, infelizmente não há consenso sobre sua origem embriológica, histologia e anatomia macroscópica. No presente artigo de revisão, retendo delinear e descrever a anatomia da DVF em mais detalhes com base em uma revisão da literatura, a fim de fornecer subsídios para os cirurgiões colorretais entenderemmelhor esta característica anatômica e fornecer o melhor cuidado para seus pacientes.


Subject(s)
Rectal Neoplasms , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Rectum/surgery , Rectum/pathology
6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 131-137, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286993

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Colorectal resection anastomosis is the commonest cause of rectal strictures. Anastomotic site ischemia, incomplete doughnuts from stapled anastomosis and pelvic infection, are some of the risk factors that play a role in the development of postoperative rectal strictures. However, the role of diverting stoma in the development of rectal strictures has not been studied extensively. Objectives To study the difference in the occurrence of anastomotic strictures (AS) in patients submitted to low anterior resection (LAR) with covering ileostomy (CI), and to LAR without CI for carcinoma rectum. Methods This was a prospective, comparative case control study carried out at a tertiary care referral center. Low anterior resection with covering ileostomy was performed in patients with rectum carcinoma in the study group, while LAR without covering ileostomy was performed in the control group. The study group had 29 patients, while the control group had 33 patients with rectum carcinoma. Results During themean follow-up period of 9.1months, 8 (28%) patients in the study group and 2 (6%) patients in the control group developed AS (p =0.019). Out of these 8 patients with AS in the study group, 50% had Grade-I AS, 25% had Grade-II AS, while 25% of the patients had Grade-III (severe) AS. However, both patients who developed AS in the control group had a mild type (Grade I) of AS. Conclusion Covering ileostomy increases the chances of AS formation after LAR for rectum carcinoma. Also, the SKIMS Clinical Grading of Rectal Strictures is a simple and


Resumo Introdução A anastomose de ressecção colorretal é a causa mais comum de estenoses retais. A isquemia do local da anastomose, donuts (anéis) incompletos de anastomose grampeada e infecção pélvica são alguns dos fatores de risco que desempenham um papel no desenvolvimento de estenoses retais pós-operatórias. No entanto, o papel do estoma de desvio no desenvolvimento de estenoses retais não foi estudado extensivamente. Objetivos Estudar a diferença na ocorrência de estenoses anastomóticas (EA) em pacientes submetidos à ressecção anterior baixa (LAR) com ileostomia de proteção e a LAR sem ileostomia de proteção para carcinoma de reto. Métodos Este foi um estudo prospectivo e comparativo de caso-controle realizado em um centro de referência de atenção terciária. A ressecção anterior baixa com ileostomia de proteção foi realizada em pacientes com carcinoma de reto no grupo de estudo, enquanto LAR sem ileostomia de proteção foi realizada no grupo controle. O grupo de estudo tinha 29 pacientes, enquanto o grupo controle tinha 33 pacientes com carcinoma de reto. Resultados Durante o período de acompanhamento médio de 9, 1 meses, 8 (28%) pacientes no grupo de estudo e 2 (6%) pacientes no grupo controle desenvolveram EA (p=0,019). Destes 8 pacientes com EA no grupo de estudo, 50% tinham EA de Grau I, 25% tinhamEA de Grau II, enquanto 25% dos pacientes tinham EA de Grau III (grave). No entanto, ambos os pacientes que desenvolveram EA no grupo de controle tinham um tipo leve (Grau I) de EA. Conclusão A ileostomia de proteção aumenta as chances de formação de AS após LAR para carcinoma de reto. Além disso, o SKIMS Clinical Grading of Rectal Strictures é uma ferramenta simples e útil disponível para cada cirurgião para graduar, classificar e monitorar as estenoses retais pós-operatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anastomosis, Surgical , Ileostomy , Proctectomy , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum/surgery , Carcinoma , Anastomotic Leak
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 210-213, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: A common site of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is the rectum. The technique most often used is endoscopic mucosal resection with saline injection. However, deep margins are often difficult to obtain because submucosal invasion is common. Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (UEMR) is a technique in which the bowel lumen is filled with water rather than air, precluding the need for submucosal lifting. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UEMR for removing small rectal neuroendocrine tumors (rNETs). METHODS: Retrospective study with patients who underwent UEMR in two centers. UEMR was performed using a standard colonoscope. No submucosal injection was performed. Board-certified pathologists conducted histopathologic assessment. RESULTS: UEMR for small rNET was performed on 11 patients (nine female) with a mean age of 55.8 years and 11 lesions (mean size 7 mm, range 3-12 mm). There were 9 (81%) patients with G1 rNET and two patients with G2, and all tumors invaded the submucosa with only one restricted to the mucosa. None case showed vascular or perineural invasion. All lesions were removed en bloc. Nine (81%) resections had free margins. Two patients had deep margin involvement; one had negative biopsies via endoscopic surveillance, and the other was lost to follow-up. No perforations or delayed bleeding occurred. CONCLUSION: UEMR appeared to be an effective and safe alternative for treatment of small rNETs without adverse events and with high en bloc and R0 resection rates. Further prospective studies are needed to compare available endoscopic interventions and to elucidate the most appropriate endoscopic technique for resection of rNETs.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Um local comum de tumores neuroendócrinos (TNEs) é o reto. A técnica mais utilizada é a ressecção endoscópica da mucosa com injeção de solução salina. No entanto, as margens profundas costumam ser difíceis de ressecar porque a invasão da submucosa é comum. A ressecção endoscópica sob imersão d'água (RESI) é uma técnica em que o lúmen intestinal é preenchido com água em vez de ar, evitando a necessidade de elevação submucosa. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e segurança da RESI para a remoção de pequenos TNEs retais (rTNEs). MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes que realizaram RESI em dois centros. RESI foi realizada usando um colonoscópio padrão. Nenhuma injeção submucosa foi realizada. Patologistas certificados conduziram avaliação histopatológica. RESULTADOS: RESI foi realizada para pequenos rTNEs em 11 pacientes (nove mulheres) com média de idade de 55,8 anos e 11 lesões (tamanho médio de 7 mm, variando de 3-12 mm). Havia 9 (81%) pacientes com G1 rTNEs e dois pacientes com G2, sendo que todos os tumores invadiam a submucosa sendo apenas um restrito a mucosa. Nenhum caso mostrou invasão vascular ou perineural. Todas as lesões foram removidas em bloco. Nove (81%) ressecções tiveram margens livres. Dois pacientes tiveram envolvimento de margens profundas; um teve biópsias negativas por meio de vigilância endoscópica e o outro perdeu o acompanhamento. Não ocorreram perfurações ou sangramento tardios. CONCLUSÃO: A RESI parece ser uma alternativa eficaz e segura para o tratamento de pequenos rTNEs sem eventos adversos e com altas taxas de ressecção em bloco e R0. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para comparar as intervenções endoscópicas disponíveis e para elucidar a técnica endoscópica mais adequada para ressecção de rTNEs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Neuroendocrine Tumors/surgery , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Intestinal Mucosa/surgery , Middle Aged
8.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 198-205, June 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286989

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rectal cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The most effective and curative treatment is surgery, and the standard procedure is total mesorectal excision, initially performed by open surgery and posteriorly by minimally invasive techniques. Robotic surgery is an emerging technology that is expected to overcome the limitations of the laparoscopic approach. It has several advantages, including a stable camera platform with high definition three-dimensional image, flexible instrumentswith seven degrees of freedom, a third arm for fixed retraction, fine motion scaling, excellent dexterity, ambidextrous capability, elimination of physiological tremors and better ergonomics, that facilitate a steady and precise tissue dissection. The main technical disadvantages are the loss of tactile sensation and tensile feedback and the complex installation process. The aim of the present study is to review the importance and benefits of robotic surgery in rectal cancer, particularly in comparison with the laparoscopic approach. Intraoperative estimated blood loss, short and long-term outcomes as well as pathological outcomes were similar between robotic and laparoscopic surgery. The operative time is usually longer in robotic surgery and the high costs are still itsmajor drawback. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer demonstrated lower conversion rate to open surgery and benefits in urinary and sexual functions and has been established as a safe and feasible technique.


Resumo O cancro do reto é uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. O único tratamento curativo e mais eficaz é a cirurgia, sendo que o procedimento padrão é a excisão total do mesoreto, inicialmente realizada por cirurgia aberta e mais tarde por técnicas minimamente invasivas. A cirurgia robótica é uma tecnologia emergente que pretende ultrapassar as limitações da laparoscopia. As vantagens incluem plataforma de câmera estável, imagem tridimensional com alta definição, instrumentos flexíveis com sete graus de liberdade, terceiro braço para retração fixa, movimentos finos, excelente destreza, ambidestria, eliminação do tremor fisiológico e maior conforto ergonômico, que facilitam uma disseção firme e precisa dos tecidos. As principais desvantagens técnicas são a perda da sensação táctil e feedback tensional e o complexo processo de instalação. O objetivo deste estudo é fazer uma revisão bibliográfica da importância e dos benefícios da cirurgia robótica no cancro do reto, particularmente em comparação coma cirurgia laparoscópica. A perda estimada de sangue intraoperatória, os outcomes a curto e longo-prazo e os outcomes patológicos foram equivalentes entre a cirurgia robótica e laparoscópica. O tempo operatório é geralmente mais longo na cirurgia robótica e os elevados custos são a sua principal desvantagem. A cirurgia robótica no cancro do reto demonstrou menor taxa de conversão para cirurgia aberta e benefícios nas funções urinária e sexual e está estabelecida como uma técnica segura e viável.


Subject(s)
Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy
9.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 163-167, June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286988

ABSTRACT

Background: Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is a surgical technique used for the excision of rectal neoplasia that gained popularity during the last decade. Due to the technical difficulty (non-articulated instruments, reduced workspace) and the long learning curve associated with this technique, the use of robotic platforms to improve resection results has been suggested and reported, at the same time that the learning curve decreases and the procedure is facilitated. Materials and Methods: From March 2017 to December 2019, all patients with rectal lesions eligible for TAMIS were offered the possibility to receive a robotic TAMIS (RTAMIS). We used a transanal GelPoint Path (Applied Medical Inc., Santa Margarita, CA, USA) in the anal canal to be able to do the Da Vinci Si (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) robotic platform docking, which we used to perform the excision of the rectal lesion as well as the resection site defect. Results: Five patients between 34 and 79 years of age underwent R-TAMIS. The mean distance to the anal verge was 8.8 cm. There were no conversions. The mean surgery time was 85 minutes, and the mean docking time was 6.6minutes. Conclusions: Robotic TAMIS is a feasible alternative to TAMIS, with a faster learning curve for experienced surgeons in transanal surgery and better ergonomics. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-benefit relationship. (AU)


Introdução: A cirurgia transanal minimamente invasiva (TAMIS, na sigla em inglês) é uma técnica que se tornou popular na última década para a excisão local de neoplasias no reto. Devido à dificuldade técnica (instrumentos não articulados, espaço de trabalho reduzido) e à longa curva de aprendizado representada por essa técnica, o uso de plataformas robóticas para melhorar os resultados da ressecção tem sido sugerido e relatado, aomesmo tempo emque a curva de aprendizado diminui e o procedimento é facilitado. Materiais e Métodos: De março de 2017 a dezembro de 2019, foi oferecida aos pacientes comlesões retais candidatos aoTAMIS a possibilidade de ressecção transanal robótica (R-TAMIS). Foi utilizada uma porta de acesso transanal GelPoint Path (Applied Medical Inc. Santa Margarita, CA, EUA), que foi introduzida no canal anal para posteriormente criar pneumoperitônio e realizar o acoplamento do sistema robótico Da Vinci Si (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, EUA) para realizar a ressecção e o fechamento do defeito por robótica. Resultados: Cinco pacientes entre 79 e 34 anos foram submetidos à R-TAMIS. A distânciamédia àmargemanal foi de 8,8 cm. Não houve conversões. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 85 minutos, e o tempo médio de acoplamento foi de 6,6 minutos. Conclusões: A R-TAMIS é uma alternativa à TAMIS convencional, com menor curva de aprendizado para cirurgiões experientes em cirurgia transanalminimamente invasiva e melhor ergonomia para ressecção e fechamento. Outros estudos são necessários para avaliar a relação custo-benefício. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy
10.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 111-116, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288180

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El riesgo de insuficiencia hepática posoperatoria es la limitante de mayor importancia para el trata miento de pacientes con tumores hepáticos malignos primarios o secundarios. Entre las diferentes técnicas para incrementar la resecabilidad de tumores hepáticos se desarrolló una estrategia para pa cientes con tumores previamente considerados como irresecables, técnica conocida como ALPPS (as sociating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy). Informamos acerca de una cirugía ALPPS en terapia reversa en un hombre referido a nuestro centro con diagnóstico sincrónico de cáncer rectal con metástasis hepáticas múltiples consideradas irresecable al momento del diagnóstico.


ABSTRACT The risk for postoperative liver failure is the most important limitation for the treatment of patients with primary or secondary liver cancer. Among the different strategies used to increase resectability in liver tumors, a technique known as ALPPS (associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy) was developed for patients with tumors previously considered unresectable. We report the case of a male patient referred to our center with a diagnosis of synchronous multiple liver metastases of colorectal cancer considered unresectable who underwent ALPPS using liver-first reverse approach.


Subject(s)
Rectal Neoplasms , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Patients , Therapeutics , Colorectal Neoplasms , Risk , Health Strategies , Liver Failure , Hepatic Insufficiency , Diagnosis , Research Report , Hepatectomy , Ligation , Liver
11.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 42-46, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286973

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Colorectal cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the third leading cause ofmortality due to cancers. Anastomosis leak after proctectomy is a dangerous complication that must be managed carefully. The aim of the present study was to assess the procedure of resection and pull-through of the new rectum after anastomosis leak in patients after proctectomy. Methods and Materials This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who visited the Firoozgar Hospital between 2015 and 2018 for rectal cancer surgery and had anastomosis leak entered the study. All patients underwent resection of the residue of rectum and pull-through of colon. Results In the present study, out of the 110 cases who underwent proctectomy, 12 patients with postoperative anastomosis leak were reported. Five (41.7%) were male and 7 (58.3%) were female. Themean age of the patients was 41.5 ± 4.3 years (33-51). Resection of the new rectum and pull-through anastomosis were performed for these 12 patients. No major intraoperative complication occurred. Postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. Discussion Resection of residue of rectum and pull-through in patients with anastomosis leak can be done after rectal cancer surgery. This method is superior to abdominopelvic resection in many aspects, especially regarding accessibility to the new rectum by rectal exam or endosonography to assess recurrence or a relative continence after closure of ostomy.


Resumo Introdução O câncer colorretal é o segundo tipo de câncer mais comum, e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade por câncer. O vazamento da anastomose após a proctectomia é uma complicação perigosa, que deve ser tratada com cuidado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o procedimento de ressecção e abaixamento do novo reto após vazamento de anastomose em pacientes submetidos à proctectomia. Métodos e Materiais Este foi um estudo transversal que incluiu pacientes que compareceram ao Firoozgar Hospital entre 2015 e 2018 submetidos a cirurgia de câncer retal e com vazamento de anastomose. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a ressecção do resíduo do reto e abaixamento do cólon. Resultados No presente estudo, dos 110 casos submetidos a proctectomia, 12 pacientes tiveram vazamento de anastomose pós-operatório: 5 (41,7%) do sexo masculino e 7 (58,3%) do sexo feminino. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 41,5 ± 4,3 anos (gama: 33 a 51 anos). A ressecção do reto novo e a anastomose por abaixamento foram realizadas nesses 12 pacientes. Nenhuma complicação intraoperatória mais grave ocorreu. No pós-operatório, não houve intercorrências em nenhum dos pacientes. Discussão A ressecção de resíduo retal e o abaixamento em pacientes com vazamento de anastomose pode ser feita após cirurgia de câncer retal. Este método é superior à ressecção abdominopélvica em muitos aspectos, especialmente quanto à acessibilidade ao novo reto por exame retal ou endossonografia para avaliar a recorrência ou uma continência relativa após o fechamento da ostomia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Rectum/surgery , Treatment Failure , Colon/surgery , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/complications , Anastomosis, Surgical , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922128

ABSTRACT

The preservation of left colonic artery (LCA) has been accepted by more and more surgeons in the radical resection of rectal cancer, but whether it can reduce anastomotic complications and affect the oncology efficacy remains controversial. This consensus elaborates the significance, anatomical structure, key points of operation techniques, indications and contraindications, and surgical approaches of LCA preservation. Each statement and recommendation was recognized by most experts in the field of colorectal surgery. The purpose of this consensus is to improve the cognitive level of Chinese colorectal surgeons on LCA preservation, so as to standardize the surgical strategies and methods of LCA preservation and furthermore practice, and promote it. The pending issues in this consensus need further high-quality clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Arteries , China , Consensus , Humans , Laparoscopy , Mesenteric Artery, Inferior , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921550

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the expression and correlation of Runt-related transcription factor 3(RUNX3)and enhancer of zeste homolog 2(EZH2)in rectal cancer,and to reveal the relationship between the expression of RUNX3 and EZH2 and the sensitivity of XELOX regimen to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods The carcinoma and paracancerous tissues of 31 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and no preoperative antitumor therapy were selected as cancer group and paracancer group,respectively.The relative mRNA levels of RUNX3 and EZH2 in the two groups were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,and the protein levels were determined by immunohistochemical assay.The expression of RUNX3 and EZH2 was compared between cancer tissue and paracancerous tissue.The pre-treatment wax blocks of 26 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received 3 cycles of XELOX regimen as neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery were selected as the pre-neoadjuvant therapy group,and the postoperative pathological wax blocks were selected as the post-neoadjuvant treatment group.Tumor regression grade(TRG)was determined to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy.Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the protein levels of RUNX3 and EZH2 in the two groups,and then the relationship between the expression patterns of the two proteins and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed. Results Compared with paracancerous tissue,the cancer tissue showed down-regulated mRNA level and reduced positive protein expression rate of RUNX3,while up-regulated mRNA level(


Subject(s)
Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit/genetics , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein/genetics , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Transcription Factor 3
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 164-171, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postoperative chylous ascites is an infrequent condition after colorectal surgery and is easily treatable. However, its effect on the long-term oncological prognosis is not well established. This study aimed to investigate the short-term and long-term impact of chylous ascites treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by rectal cancer surgery and to evaluate the incidence of chylous ascites after different surgical approaches.@*METHODS@#A total of 898 locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery between January 2010 and December 2018 were included. The clinicopathological data and outcomes of the patients with chylous ascites were compared with those of the patients without chylous ascites. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). To balance baseline confounders between groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was performed for each patient with a logistic regression model.@*RESULTS@#Chylous ascites was detected in 3.8% (34/898) of the patients. The incidence of chylous ascites was highest after robotic surgery (6.9%, 6/86), followed by laparoscopic surgery (4.2%, 26/618) and open surgery (1.0%, 2/192, P = 0.021). The patients with chylous ascites had a significantly higher number of lymph nodes harvested (15.6 vs. 12.8, P = 0.009) and a 3-day longer postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.017). The 5-year RFS rate was 64.5% in the chylous ascites group, which was significantly lower than the rate in the no chylous ascites group (79.9%; P = 0.007). The results remained unchanged after PSM was performed. The chylous ascites group showed a nonsignificant trend towards a higher peritoneal metastasis risk (5.9% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.120). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis confirmed chylous ascites (hazard ratio= 3.038, P < 0.001) as an independent negative prognostic factor for RFS.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Considering the higher incidence of chylous ascites after laparoscopic and robotic surgery and its adverse prognosis, we recommend sufficient coagulation of the lymphatic tissue near the vessel origins, especially during minimally invasive surgery.


Subject(s)
Chylous Ascites/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2196-2204, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have demonstrated different predominant sites of distant metastasis between patients with and without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). This study aimed to explore whether NCRT could influence the metastasis pattern of rectal cancer through a propensity score-matched analysis.@*METHODS@#In total, 1296 patients with NCRT or post-operative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) were enrolled in this study between January 2008 and December 2015. Propensity score matching was used to correct for differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. After propensity score matching, the metastasis pattern, including metastasis sites and timing, was compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#After propensity score matching, there were 408 patients in the PCRT group and 245 patients in the NCRT group. NCRT significantly reduced local recurrence (4.1% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.004), but not distant metastases (28.2% vs. 27.9%, P = 0.924) compared with PCRT. In both the NCRT and PCRT groups, the most common metastasis site was the lung, followed by the liver. The NCRT group developed local recurrence and distant metastases later than the PCRT group (median time: 29.2 [18.8, 52.0] months vs. 18.7 [13.3, 30.0] months, Z = -2.342, P = 0.019; and 21.2 [12.2, 33.8] vs. 16.4 [9.3, 27.9] months, Z = -1.765, P = 0.035, respectively). The distant metastases occurred mainly in the 2nd year after surgery in both the PCRT group (39/114, 34.2%) and NCRT group (21/69, 30.4%). However, 20.3% (14/69) of the distant metastases appeared in the 3rd year in the NCRT group, while this number was only 13.2% (15/114) in the PCRT group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The predominant site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by the liver, for both the NCRT group and PCRT group. NCRT did not influence the predominant site of distant metastases, but the NCRT group developed local recurrence and distant metastases later than the PCRT group. The follow-up strategy for patients with NCRT should be adjusted and a longer intensive follow-up is needed.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Propensity Score , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888619

ABSTRACT

In 1982, total mesorectal excision(TME) was proposed by Professor R. J. Heald, which was a milestone-style for rectal cancer surgery. The concept of TME has reduced the local recurrence rate of mid-low rectal cancer (MLRC) significantly, thus becomes the gold standard for MLRC surgery. However, the incidence of urogenital dysfunction after TME remains high, among which urinary dysfunction reaches 30%-60%, and sexual dysfunction reaches 50%-70%. In recent years, studies have shown that the removal of Denonvilliers' fascia (DVF) during TME is an important cause of postoperative urination and sexual dysfunction. Therefore, DVF preserving total mesorectal excision (iTME) has been recognized by more and more surgical experts. On the basis of existing literature and clinical practice, we organize experts to discuss and vote, put forward recommendations for several issues of iTME, and finally formulate this expert consensus. The formulation of this consensus aims to increase surgeons' awareness of the value and functional protection of DVF during TME surgery, clarify the indications and contraindications of iTME, and standardize the procedure of iTME, so as to reduce postoperative urination and sexual dysfunction and improve the quality of life of patients with MLRC. The level of evidence and recommendation of this consensus is determined by Grading Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), and the consensus content is determined through expert voting and Delphi method.


Subject(s)
China , Consensus , Fascia , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery
17.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 321-323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878279

ABSTRACT

At present, preoperative assessment of rectal cancer stage mainly relies on imaging examination, and the results of imaging reading will directly determine the treatment. In order to alleviate the reading pressure of the radiologist and improve the efficiency and accuracy of imaging diagnosis, there are related studies on using artificial intelligence automatic recognition system to assist the imaging assessment of rectal cancer staging now. Colorectal Surgery Group, Chinese Society of Surgery of the Chinese Medical Association, along with Beihang University, proposed the expert's advice on the surgical clinical application of rectal cancer staging recognition system based on artificial intelligence platform, so as to guide the standard application of this technology and promote the automation and intelligence of imaging reading.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Diagnostic Imaging , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Staging , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 821-828, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Colorectal cancer is harmful to the patient's life. The treatment of patients is determined by accurate preoperative staging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) played an important role in the preoperative examination of patients with rectal cancer, and artificial intelligence (AI) in the learning of images made significant achievements in recent years. Introducing AI into MRI recognition, a stable platform for image recognition and judgment can be established in a short period. This study aimed to establish an automatic diagnostic platform for predicting preoperative T staging of rectal cancer through a deep neural network.@*METHODS@#A total of 183 rectal cancer patients' data were collected retrospectively as research objects. Faster region-based convolutional neural networks (Faster R-CNN) were used to build the platform. And the platform was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.@*RESULTS@#An automatic diagnosis platform for T staging of rectal cancer was established through the study of MRI. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were 0.99 in the horizontal plane, 0.97 in the sagittal plane, and 0.98 in the coronal plane. In the horizontal plane, the AUC of T1 stage was 1, AUC of T2 stage was 1, AUC of T3 stage was 1, AUC of T4 stage was 1. In the coronal plane, AUC of T1 stage was 0.96, AUC of T2 stage was 0.97, AUC of T3 stage was 0.97, AUC of T4 stage was 0.97. In the sagittal plane, AUC of T1 stage was 0.95, AUC of T2 stage was 0.99, AUC of T3 stage was 0.96, and AUC of T4 stage was 1.00.@*CONCLUSION@#Faster R-CNN AI might be an effective and objective method to build the platform for predicting rectal cancer T-staging.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR1900023575; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=39665.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Staging , Neural Networks, Computer , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic modified Parks operation on the patients with ultra-low rectal cancer.@*METHODS@#According to the preoperative stage and intraoperative anastomotic position, 98 patients with ultra-low rectal cancer above T2 stage underwent laparoscopic Dixon operation, modified Parks operation and Miles operation, respectively. All patients were divided into 3 groups: a Dixon operation group (@*RESULTS@#The patients were more obese, the distance between tumor and anal margin was closer, and the operation time was longer in the modified Parks operation group than those in the Dixon operation group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Laparoscopic modified Parks operation is a safe, economical and effective anus preservation operation, which can not only save the anus for some patients who had to perform Miles operation, but also recover better and faster after operation. Although the early anal function of patients performed with the modified operation is poor, it can gradually recover to the same level as the patients performed with the Dixon operation.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , Humans , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radical surgery has become the treatment model for locally advanced rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of postoperative mFOLFOX6 regimen chemotherapy for locally resectable advanced rectal cancer.@*METHODS@#This was a prospective study. A total of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer admitted to Affiliated Nanhua Hospital, University of South China from February 2015 to December 2017 were selected as the subjects. The patients received 4 courses of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy and underwent surgery within 4-6 weeks after chemotherapy. The incidences of chemotherapy-related adverse reactions, postoperative complications, and clinical pathological reactions were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In the period from mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy to preoperative, 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer was reported chemotherapy-related adverse reactions, including Grade 4 neutropenia (2.4%), catheter related infection (2.4%), and anorexia (2.4%), Grade 3 nausea (2.4%) and anorexia (2.4%), Grade 2 neutropenia (14.6%) and peripheral neuropathy (7.3%). Finally, 76 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer completed surgery, including 56 (73.7%) with anterior rectum resection, 16 (21.1%) with abdominal perineal resection, and 72 (94.7%) with pelvic nerve preservation. A total of 22 (28.9%) patients had surgical complications, including 8 (10.5%) with complications of Grade 3 or above. The complications with high incidence were intestinal obstruction, anastomotic leakage, and sepsis. Among the 76 patients who completed chemotherapy and surgery, T stage was decreased in 28 (36.8%) and N stage was decreased in 44 (57.9%); forty-two (55.3%) were in pathological Stage I, 20 (26.3%) in Stage IIA, 12 (15.8%) in Stage IIB, and 2 (2.6%) in Stage IIIA. Ten patients were suspected of tumor invasion of surrounding organs before chemotherapy, of which 4 patients did not need to extend the resection of surrounding organs after chemotherapy and achieved R0 resection of tumor; 2 in T@*CONCLUSIONS@#Preoperative mFOLFOX6 regimen chemotherapy for locally resectable advanced rectal cancer is a safe and feasible treatment strategy, and it is worthy of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , China , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
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