Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 499
Filter
1.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 9(2): e201, dic. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1403135

ABSTRACT

La cirugía del cáncer de recto y ano se ha desarrollado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. En función de dichos avances, se ha observado una disminución en la morbimortalidad operatoria, así como también una mejoría en el pronóstico de estos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es exponer y analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de recto y ano en un servicio universitario. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de todos los pacientes intervenidos por cáncer de recto y ano en el Hospital Español entre 2016 y 2020. Las variables registradas fueron: variables demográficas, clínico-oncológicas, relacionadas a la morbimortalidad operatoria y a la recidiva locorregional, y la sobrevida a 5 años. El procedimiento más realizado fue la resección anterior de recto (RAR) en 11 intervenciones (58%), mientras que las 8 restantes correspondieron a amputaciones abdominoperineales (AAP) (42%). Se diagnosticaron un total de 6 complicaciones intraoperatorias en 5 pacientes, siendo la perforación del tumor la más frecuente, y un total de 18 complicaciones postoperatorias en 11 pacientes, siendo la más frecuente la infección de la herida quirúrgica abdominal. La morbilidad operatoria mayor fue de 31,6% y la mortalidad operatoria a 90 días fue de 0%. La sobrevida global a 5 años fue de 63,2%. Los resultados quirúrgicos en la presente casuística fueron comparables con los de la bibliografía consultada. Destacamos la nula mortalidad a 90 días, con resultados oncológicos similares a los reportados en la literatura.


Rectal and anus surgery have been developed considerably in the last decades. Based on these advancements, it has been observed a decrease in the surgical morbidity and mortality, as well as an improved prognosis of these patients. The aim of the present study is to expose and analyze the results of the anus and rectal surgical treatment in a university service. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed of all the intervened patients for rectum and anus cancer in the Hospital Español between 2016 and 2020. We recorded data about demographic, clinical-oncologic, related to the surgical morbidity and mortality, locoregional relapse and overall 5 year survival. The most performed procedure was the rectum anterior resection in 11 interventions (58%), while the 8 left corresponded to abdominoperineal resection (42%). There was a total of 6 intraoperative complications diagnosed in 5 patients, being the tumor perforation the most frequent one, and a total of 18 postoperative complications diagnosed in 11 patients, being the surgical wound infection the most frequent one. The serious surgical morbidity was 31,6%, while the surgical mortality rate at 90 days was 0%. Overall 5 year survival was 63,2%. The surgical results in the present study about the rectum and anal cancer were comparable with the results reported on the consulted bibliography. We highlight the null mortality within 90 days, with oncologic results similar to the ones reported in the literature.


A cirurgia do câncer retal e anal desenvolveu-se consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Com base nesses avanços, observou-se diminuição da morbimortalidade operatória, bem como melhora no prognóstico desses pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e analisar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de reto e anal em um serviço universitário. Foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo de todos os pacientes operados por câncer de reto e ânus no Hospital Espanhol entre 2016 e 2020. As variáveis ​​registradas foram: variáveis ​​demográficas, clínico-oncológicas, relacionadas à morbidade e mortalidade operatórias e recorrência locorregional. , e sobrevida em 5 anos. O procedimento mais realizado foi a ressecção anterior do reto (RAR) em 11 intervenções (58%) e as 8 restantes corresponderam a amputações abdominoperineais (AAP) (42%). Foram diagnosticadas 6 complicações intraoperatórias em 5 pacientes, sendo a perfuração tumoral a mais frequente, e um total de 18 complicações pós-operatórias em 11 pacientes, sendo a infecção da ferida operatória abdominal a mais frequente. A morbidade operatória maior foi de 31,6% e a mortalidade operatória em 90 dias foi de 0%. A sobrevida global em 5 anos foi de 63,2%. Os resultados cirúrgicos da presente casuística foram comparáveis ​​aos da bibliografia consultada. Destacamos a mortalidade nula em 90 dias, com resultados oncológicos semelhantes aos relatados na literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anus Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Octogenarians , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 159-166, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394419

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The optimal rectal cancer care is achieved by a multidisciplinary approach, with a high-quality surgical resection, with complete mesorectal excision and adequate margins. New approaches like the transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) aim to achieve these goals, maximizing the sphincter preservation ratio, with good oncologic and functional results. This report describes a way to implement TaTME without a proctor, presents the first case series of this approach in a center experienced in rectal cancer, and compares the results with those of the international literature. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of the first 10 consecutive patients submitted to TaTME for rectal cancer at our institution. The primary outcomes were postoperative complications, pathological specimen quality and local recurrence rate. The results and performance were compared with the outcomes of a known structured program with proctorship and with the largest meta-analysis on this topic. Results: All patients had locally advanced cancer; therefore, all underwent neoadjuvant therapy. A total of 30% had postoperative complications, without mortality or re-admissions. In comparison with the structured training program referred, no differences were found in postoperative complications and reintervention rates, resulting in a similar quality of resection. Comparing these results with those of the largest meta-analysis on the subject, no differences in the postoperative complication rates were found, and very similar outcomes regarding anastomotic leaks and oncological quality of resection were registered. Conclusion: The results of this study validate the safety and effectiveness of our pathway regarding the implementation of the TaTME approach, highlighting the fact that it should be done in a center with proficiency in minimally invasive rectal surgery. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time , Neoplasm Staging
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943042

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the mid-term efficacy of laparoscopic-assisted natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) colectomy using the Cai tube in the treatment of left colorectal cancer. Methods: A prospective randomized control trial (China Clinical Trials Registration Number: ChiCTR-OOR-15007060) was performed. Sixty patients with left colorectal cancer at Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of Zhongshan Hospital from September 2015 to August 2017 were prospectively enrolled. Case inclusion criteria: (1) left colorectal adenocarcinoma (rectal cancer with distance ≥ 8 cm from tumor low margin to anal edge, sigmoid colon cancer, descending colon cancer and left transverse colon cancer) confirmed by preoperative pathology; (2) satisfactory conditions of conventional laparoscopic surgery; (3) maximum diameter of the tumor < 4.5 cm confirmed by preoperative abdominal and pelvic CT or MRI; (4) BMI < 30 kg/m2. Case exclusion criteria: (1) benign lesions, mucinous adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma and other special pathological types of tumors confirmed by preoperative pathological examination; (2) multiple or recurrent cancers; (3) with a history of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; (4) obvious regional infiltration or distant metastasis indicated by preoperative imaging examination; (5) intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, etc. Participants were randomly assigned to NOSES group (using the Cai tube) and conventional laparoscopy (CL) group by random number table method. Clinical data between two groups were compared and analyzed, including perioperative conditions, tumor exfoliation cell detection and bacterial culture results of intraperitoneal lavage fluid, postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grading), postoperative pain [visual simulation scoring (VAS) assessment], anal function (Kirwan anal function grading assessment), and postoperative 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), overall recurrence rate, and local recurrence rate. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled, with 30 in the NOSES group and 30 in the CL group. All the patients in the NOSES group successfully completed operation with Cai tube. Baseline data between the two groups were not significantly different (all P>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in conversion rate to open surgery, number of lymph node harivested, proximal and distal resection margin of tumor, negative rate of circumferential margin, operation time, blood loss, inflammatory indexes, postoperative anal function, postoperative hospital stay, hospitalization cost, morbidity of postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade II or above) (all P>0.05). Compared to the CL group, the NOSES group had lower maximum postoperative VAS score (2.5±0.3 vs. 5.1±0.4, t=3.187, P<0.01), and fewer use of additional postoperative analgesia [6.7% (2/30) vs. 33.3% (10/30),χ2=6.670, P=0.02]. The postoperative time to gas passage was shorter in the NOSES group [(2.2±1.4) days vs. (3.1±1.2) days,P=0.026]. No tumor cells and bacterial contamination were found in abdominal lavage fluid before and after operation in either group. The anal function at postoperative 3-month of all the patients in the NOSES group was Kirwan grade I to II, while in the CL group, anal function of 2 cases (6.7%) was Kirwan grade III, and of 28 cases was also Kirwan grade I to II, whose difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the NOSES group and the CL group, 3-year DFS was 96.7% and 83.3% (P=0.090), OS was 100% and 90% (P=0.096), overall recurrence rate was 3.3% and 10.0% (P=0.166), and local recurrence rate was 3.3% and 3.3% (P=0.999), respectively, whose differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). Conclusions: In the treatment of left colorectal cancer, compared with conventional laparoscopic colectomy, NOSES colectomy using Cai tube exhibits less scar, less postoperative pain, shorter recovery of gastrointestinal function, and similar mid-term outcomes. Given proper surgical indications, the surgical procedure is safe and feasible.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Laparoscopy , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Sigmoid Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943034

ABSTRACT

Thanks to the new surgical approach, transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) has a better operative field exposure than laparoscopic-assisted total mesorectal excision (laTME), especially for male patients with obesity, pelvic stenosis or prostate hypertrophy. Nevertheless, whether the urogenital function and quality of life after taTME are better as compared to laTME requires further study. According to the existing studies, taTME and laTME are not significantly different in symptoms of the urology system for male patients, but some large sample clinical studies show that the incidence of urethral mechanical injury after taTME is higher. Unfortunately, there is no elaboration on that for females. The sexual function of male patients after taTME and laTME is both impaired. The sexual function of male patients will be relieved to different degrees over time, but there is no significant difference. Compared with laTME, taTME shows advantages in the sexual function for female patients. There is no significant difference in short-term urogenital system function between taTME and laTME at present. As a new surgical approach, the impact on urogenital system function after taTME is acceptable. However, whether there is a significant difference in urogenital function between taTME and laTME needs further research. In addition, functional results still need comprehensive evaluation, and preoperative baseline evaluation also needs to be enhanced. The functional evaluation for male and female should be carried out separately rather than confused. Questionnaire for evaluation of functional results also needs to be verified.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Operative Time , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943027

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the anatomical architecture of the prostatic part of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) in total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods: A descriptive cohort study and an anatomical observation study were carried out. A total of 38 male patients with rectal cancer who underwent TME in the Department of Colorectal Surgery at the affiliated Union hospital of Fujian Medical University between November 2013 and March 2015 were included. A total of 4 hemipelvis were examined at the Laboratory of Clinical Applied Anatomy, Fujian Medical University. The following outcomes were observed: 1) the clinical significance of bleeding of the prostatic part of NVB: surgical videos were reviewed and the incidence of bleeding was recorded. The urogenital function was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score. The correlation between prostatic part bleeding and postoperative urogenital function was evaluated. 2) anatomical observation: the vessels, nerve fibers, as well as their surrounding fatty tissue from the prostatic part were treated as a whole, namely, the fat pad of the prostatic part. The anatomical architecture of the prostatic part in the surgical videos was reviewed and interpreted with the cadaveric findings. Categorical variables were compared between groups using a Fisher exact probability. while continuous variables with skewed distribution were compared between groups using the Mann-Whiteny U test. Results: The median age of the included 38 patients was 57 years (range, 31-75), and the median tumor distance to the anal verge was 6 cm (range, 1-8). Of them, a total number of 21 (55.3%) patients had bleeding of the prostatic part of NVB (bleeding group), while the rest had not (17 cases, 44.7%, non-bleeding group). 1) the clinical significance of bleeding of the prostatic part of NVB. The urinary function significantly decreased in patients in the bleeding group according to IPSS score after the 3rd month and the 6rd month of the surgery [7 (0-16) vs. 2 (0-3), Z=-1.787, P=0.088; 2 (0-15) vs. 0 (0-2), Z=-2.270, P=0.028]. There was no difference regarding the IPSS score between the two groups after 1 year of the surgery (P>0.05). With a total of 23 patients with normal preoperative sexual activity included, 87.5% (7/8) of patients in the non-bleeding group can expect to return to their preoperative baseline, this incidence was significantly higher than that of only 40% (6/15) in the bleeding group (P=0.029). 2) anatomical observation: for cadaveric observation, the prostatic part of NVB was located in the narrow triangular space composed of anterolateral walls of the rectum, the posterolateral surface of the prostate and the medial surface of the levator ani musculature. The tiny vascular branches and nerve fibers from the prostatic part were hard to identify. The cavernosal nerves cannot reliably be distinguished from the neural supply to the prostate, rectum and levator ani. In the cross-section of levels of prostatic base and mid-prostate in cadaveric hemipelvis specimens, the boundary of the prostatic part fat pad was partly overlapped and merged with the boundary of the mesorectum. Intraoperative observation showed that the areas of overlap referred to the rectal branches from the prostatic part piercing the proper fascia to supply the mesorectum, which carried the largest tension and high risk of bleeding during circumferential dissection toward the perirectal plane. The ultrasonic scalpel was required to pre-coagulate the rectal branches at the point close to the proper fascia of the rectum to prevent bleeding. In the cross-section of the prostatic apex level, the prostatic part approached ventrally and its boundary was away from the boundary of the mesorectum. Conclusions: NVB prostatic part injury is one of the causes of urogenital dysfunction after TME. The nerve fibers from the prostatic part were tiny, and its functional zones cannot be distinguished during operation. Therein, the fat pad of the prostatic part should be protected as a whole. Understanding the morphology of the fat pad of the prostatic part provides invaluable surgical guidance to dissect this critical area. When dissecting around the anterolateral rectal wall, appropriate anti-traction tension should be maintained and the rectal branches from the prostatic part should be coagulated with an ultrasonic scalpel to prevent bleeding.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cadaver , Cohort Studies , Humans , Laparoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Prostate , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/anatomy & histology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943024

ABSTRACT

Intersphincteric resection (ISR), as an ultra-low sphincter-preserving operation, is widely used in clinical practice at present. ISR can allow some patients with very low rectal cancer to avoid the pain of anal resection while ensuring oncological efficacy. However, the procedure of ISR requires wider intersphincteric dissection which may cause nerve damage, and the removal of partial or total internal anal sphincter as an "inherent defect" of ISR can result in poor anal function postoperatively. Based on the in-depth understanding of regional anatomy and physiological function, the author proposed a new functional sphincter preservation operation for very low rectal cancer-conformal sphincter preservation operation (CSPO) which has achieved good outcome in clinical practice. This article will revisit the brief history of rectal cancer surgery and discuss the main mechanisms underlining the poor anal function after ISR. Based on the anatomical study of the pelvic floor and anal canal, CSPO can improve the postoperative anal function of very low rectal cancer patients by reducing the damage of the autonomic nerves, receptor corpuscles and muscle fibers in the intersphincteric space, retaining more dentate line and internal sphincter with the design of resection line of tumor lower border under direct vision, and elevating the anastomosis height. At the same time, the future treatment prospect of low rectal cancer is envisioned.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943023

ABSTRACT

Advances in surgical techniques and treatment concept have allowed more patients with low rectal cancer to preserve sphincter without sacrificing survival benefit. However, postoperative dysfunctions such as fecal incontinence, frequency, urgency, and clustering often occur in patients with low rectal cancer. The main surgical procedures for low rectal cancer include low anterior rectum resection (LAR), intersphincteric resection (ISR), coloanal anastomosis (Parks) and so on. The incidence of major LARS after LAR is up to 84.6%. The postoperative function of ISR is even worse than LAR. Moreover, the greater the extent of resection ISR surgery, the worse the postoperative function. There are few studies on the function of Parks procedure. Current evidence suggests that the short-term function of Parks procedure is inferior to LAR, but function can gradually recovered over time. Colorectal surgeons have attempted to improve postoperative defecation by modifying bowel reconstructions. Current evidence suggests that J pouch or end-to-side anastomosis during LAR does not reduce the incidence of defecation disorders. Pouch reconstruction during ISR cannot reduce the incidence of severe LARS either. In general, the protection of postoperative defecation function in patients with low rectal cancer still has a long way to go.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943022

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the background of Chinese expert consensus on protective ostomy for middle and low rectal cancer in China, interprets some key issues such as unification of relevant terminology and concepts, clinical value and indications of protective stoma, and clarifies surgical principles and details and perioperative ostomy care.


Subject(s)
China , Consensus , Humans , Ostomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Surgical Stomas
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943021

ABSTRACT

The rate of sphincter-preserving surgery for mid-low rectal cancer is increasing, but anastomotic leakage remains to be one of the common serious complications after operation. How to reduce the morbility and mortality of anastomotic leakage is always a hot and difficult point in colorectal surgery. Protective ostomy is a common method to deal with the above problems in clinical practice. However, some problems such as inappropriate stoma and stoma-related complications etc. become the current clinical challenges. The purpose of this consensus focusing on indication of ostomy, clinical value, ostomy skills, prevention of stoma complications, reversion of stoma and stoma nursing aims to provide guidance for the clinical practice of protective ostomy in the operation of mid-low rectal cancer in China.


Subject(s)
Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Consensus , Humans , Ostomy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Surgical Stomas
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936087

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate quality of life (QoL) of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who underwent low anterior resection with protective stoma under neoadjuvant therapy mode, and to explore the changes of QoL of patients from before neoadjuvant therapy to 12 months after stoma reversal. Methods: A descriptive case series study was carried out. A retrospective study was performed on patients with mid and low LARC who received complete neoadjuvant long course radiotherapy and chemotherapy, followed by radical low anterior resection (LAR) combined with protective stoma at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2017 to January 2020. Inclusion criteria: (1) patients with rectal MRI assessment of mT3-4b or mN1-2 without distant metastasis (M0) before neoadjuvant therapy; (2) distance from tumor lower margin to the anal verge <12 cm; (3) rectal adenocarcinoma confirmed by biopsy before neoadjuvant therapy; (4) complete cycle of neoadjuvant therapy; (5) patients undergoing radical LAR with sphincter preservation and protective ostomy; (6) patients receiving follow-up for more than 12 months after stoma reversal. Exclusion criteria: (1) patients as grade Ⅳ to Ⅴclassified by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA); (2) patients with multiple primary colorectal cancer; (3) patients with history of other malignant tumors in the past 5 years; (4) patients of emergency surgery; (5) pregnant or lactating women; (6) patients with history of severe mental illness; (7) patients with contraindication of MRI, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgical treatment. A total of 83 patients were enrolled, including 51 males and 28 females with median age of 59 years and mean BMI of (24.4±3.1) kg/m(2). EORTC QLQ-CR29, international erectile function index (IIEF), Wexner constipation score and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score were applied to investigate the QoL of the patients before neoadjuvant therapy, 3 and 12 months after ostomy reversal, including rectal anal function and sexual function. M (P25, P75) was used for the scores of the scale. Results: (1) EORTC QLQ-CR29 score showed that before neoadjuvant therapy, before surgery, 3 months and 12 months after ostomy reversal, anxiety [64.4 (52, 0, 82.5), 75.3 (66.0, 89.5), 82.6 (78.5, 90.0), 83.6 (78.0, 91.0)] and concern about body image [76.8 (66.0, 92.0), 81.1 (76.5, 91.5), 85.5 (82.5, 94.0), 86.1 (82.0, 92.0)] were improved (all P<0.01); pelvic pain [5.4 (2.0, 8.0), 5, 0 (2.0, 7.8), 3.9 (1.0, 5.0), 3.0 (1.0, 5.0)], urinary incontinence [15.7 (7.0, 22.0), 11.1 (0, 17.5), 10.0 (0, 17.0), 9.9 (0, 16.0)], impotence [14.3 (4.2, 19.0), 12.2 (0, 16.8), 5.6 (0, 10.0), 5.2 (0.2, 8.0)], urinate [26.4 (13.0, 38.5), 13.9 (0, 20.0), 13.4 (2.5, 21.5), 13.2 (2.0, 20.0)] and mucous bloody stool [4.7 (3.0, 6.0), 2.6 (0, 5.0), 2.2 (0, 5.0), 1.9 (0, 4.0)] were improved as well (all P<0.01). The scores fluctuated in the improvement of male sexual function, abdominal pain, dry mouth, worry about body mass change, skin pain and dyspareunia, but the symptoms were significantly improved after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all P<0.05). There were no significant changes in female sexual function, dysuria, dysgeusia and fecal incontinence after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all P>0.05). (2) IIEF scale showed that all scores were similar before and after neoadjuvant therapy (all P>0.05). (3) Rectal and anal function scale revealed that before neoadjuvant therapy, before operation, 3 months and 12 months after stoma reversal, gas incontinence [3.1 (0, 4.0), 2.3 (0, 4.0), 1.8 (0, 4.0), 1.2 (0, 3.0)] and urgent defecation [7.2 (0, 11.0), 5.2 (0, 11.0), 2.9 (0, 9.0), 1.7 (0, 0)] were improved (all P<0.001). In terms of improving incomplete emptying sensation, the symptoms fluctuated, but the symptoms improved significantly after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all P<0.05). While the symptoms of assistance with defecation [0 (0, 0), 0.7 (0, 1.0), 0.6 (0, 1.0), 0.7 (0, 1.0)] and defecation failure [0.2 (0, 0), 1.0 (0, 2.0), 0.8 (0, 1.5), 0.8 (0, 1.0)] showed a worsening trend (all P<0.001). Stratified analysis was performed on patients with different efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy to compare the changes in QoL before and after neoadjuvant therapy. Patients with less sensitive and more sensitive neoadjuvant therapy showed similar changes in function and symptoms. Patients with less sensitive therapy showed significant improvement in dysuria, urinary incontinence, skin pain and dyspareunia (all P<0.05), and the symptom of defecation frequency in more sensitive patients was significantly improved (P<0.05). Conclusions: For patients with LARC, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with radical LAR and protective stoma can improve QoL in many aspects. It is noted that patients show a worsening trend in the need for assistance with defecation and in defecation failure.


Subject(s)
Dyspareunia , Dysuria , Female , Humans , Lactation , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Pain , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Incontinence
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936085

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of pelvic peritoneal reconstruction and its effect on anal function in laparoscopy-assisted anterior resection of low and middle rectal cancer. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Consecutive patients with low and middle rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopy-assisted transabdominal anterior resection at Naval Military Medical University Changhai Hospital from February 2020 to February 2021 were enrolled. Inclusion criteria: (1) the distance from tumor to the anal verge ≤10 cm; (2) laparoscopy-assisted transabdominal anterior resection of rectal cancer; (3) complete clinical data; (4) rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by postoperative pathology. Exclusion criteria: (1) emergency surgery; (2) patients with a history of anal dysfunction or anal surgery; (3) preoperative diagnosis of distant (liver, lung) metastasis; (4) intestinal obstruction; (5) conversion to open surgery for various reasons. The pelvic floor was reconstructed using SXMD1B405 (Stratafix helical PGA-PCL, Ethicon). The first needle was sutured from the left anterior wall of the neorectum to the right. Insertion of the needle was continued to suture the root of the sigmoid mesentery while the Hemo-lok was used to fix the suture. The second needle was started from the beginning of the first needle, after 3-4 needles, a drainage tube was inserted through the left lower abdominal trocar to the presacral space. Then, the left peritoneal incision of the descending colon was sutured, after which Hemo-lok fixation was performed. The operative time, perioperative complications, postoperative Wexner anal function score and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score were compared between the study group and the control group. Three to six months after the operation, pelvic MRI was performed to observe and compare the pelvic floor anatomical structure of the two groups. Results: A total of 230 patients were enrolled, including 58 who underwent pelvic floor peritoneum reconstruction as the study group and 172 who did not undergo pelvic floor peritoneum reconstruction as the control group. There were no significant differences in general data between the two groups (all P>0.05). The operation time of the study group was longer than that of control group [(177.5±33.0) minutes vs. (148.7±45.5) minutes, P<0.001]. There was no significant difference in the incidence of perioperative complications (including anastomotic leakage, anastomotic bleeding, postoperative pneumonia, urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, and intestinal obstruction) between the two groups (all P>0.05). Eight cases had anastomotic leakage, of whom 2 cases (3.4%) in the study group were discharged after conservative treatment, 5 cases (2.9%) of other 6 cases (3.5%) in the control group were discharged after the secondary surgical treatment. The Wexner score and LARS score were 3.1±2.8 and 23.0 (16.0-28.0) in the study group, which were lower than those in the control group [4.7±3.4 and 27.0 (18.0-32.0)], and the differences were statistically significant (t=-3.018, P=0.003 and Z=-2.257, P=0.024). Severe LARS was 16.5% (7/45) in study group and 35.5% (50/141) in control group, and the difference was no significant differences (Z=4.373, P=0.373). Pelvic MRI examination 3 to 6 months after surgery showed that the incidence of intestinal accumulation in the pelvic floor was 9.1% (3/33) in study group and 46.4% (64/138) in control group (χ(2)=15.537, P<0.001). Conclusion: Pelvic peritoneal reconstruction using stratafix in laparoscopic anterior resection of middle and low rectal cancer is safe and feasible, which may reduce the probability of the secondary operation in patients with anastomotic leakage and significantly improve postoperative anal function.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak/surgery , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Laparoscopy , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Prospective Studies , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936083

ABSTRACT

Total mesorectal excision (TME) represents the gold standard for radical resection in rectal cancer. The development in radiology and laparoscopic surgical equipment and the advancement in technology have led to a deepened understanding of the mesorectum and its surrounding structures. Both the accuracy of preoperative staging and the preciseness of the planes of TME surgical dissection have been enhanced. The postoperative local recurrence rate is reduced and the long-term survival of rectal cancer patients is improved. The preservation of the pelvic autonomic nervous system maintains the patient's urinary and sexual functions to the greatest extent possible, which in turn improves the patient's postoperative quality of life. A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the mesorectum and its surrounding structures is a prerequisite for successful TME. Herein, we review the basic concepts and the anatomy of the mesorectum in the current literature. Some important clinical issues are also discussed systematically in terms of imaging, surgery, and pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Mesocolon/surgery , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936082

ABSTRACT

As a treatment of rectal cancer, lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) is still a controversial issue. The argument against LLND is that the procedure is complicated, and consequently results in a high incidence of postoperative urogenital dysfunction. The surgical modality from fascia to space is adopted by lateral lymph node dissection in "two spaces". This operation has significant advantages of clear location of nerves and blood vessels and simplified surgical procedures, so the surgical procedure can be repeated and modulated. The fascia propria of the rectum, urogenital fascia, vesicohypogastric fascia and parietal fascia constitute the dissection plane for lateral lymph node dissection.Two spaces refer to Latzko's pararectal space and paravesical space. During the establishment of fascia plane, the dissection of external iliac lymph node (No.293), commoniliac lymph node (No.273) and abdominal aortic bifurcation lymph node (No.280) can be performed. While in the "space" dissection, internal iliac lymph node (No.263), obturator lymph node (No.283), lateral sacral lymph node (No.260) and median sacral lymph node (No.270) can be removed. LD2 or LD3 lateral lymph node dissection prescribed by the Japanese Society of Colorectal Cancer can be completed according to the needs of the disease. This article describes the anatomical basis and standardized surgical procedures.


Subject(s)
Dissection , Fascia/pathology , Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936070

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize short-term postoperative complications of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) in the treatment of middle-low rectal cancer. Methods: A descriptive case series of cases was constructed. Clinical data of consecutive 83 patients with mid-low rectal cancer who received taTME treatment from November 2016 to April 2021 at Department of General Surgery of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were collected. Among 83 patients, 58 (69.9%) were males, with a mean age of (61.4±11.8) years; 42 (50.6%) were low rectal cancer, 41 (49.4%) were middle rectal cancer. Short-term postoperative complication was defined as complication occurring within 30 days after operation. The complication was graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. At the same time, the morbidity of short-term postoperative complication in the first 40 patients and that in the last 43 patients were compared to understand the differences before and after passing the taTME learning curve. Results: Two patients (2.5%) were converted to laparotomy ; 78 (94.0%) completed anastomosis.While 5 (6.0%) underwent permanent stoma. The total operation time of transabdominal+ transanal procedure was (246.9±85.0) minutes, and the median intraoperative blood loss was 100 (IQR: 100) ml. Seventy-five cases (75 /78, 96.2%) underwent defunctioning stoma, including 74 cases of diverting ileostomy, 1 case of diverting transverse colostomy and 3 cases without stoma. The morbidity of complication within 30 days after operation was 38.6% (32/83), and the morbidity of complication after discharge was 8.4% (7/83). Minor complications accounted for 31.3% (26/83) and major complications accounted for 7.2% (6/83). No patient died within 30 days after operation. The incidence of anastomotic leakage was 15.4% (12/78). Eight patients (9.6%) were hospitalized again due to complications after discharge. The median postoperative hospital stay was 7 (IQR: 3) days. All the patients with minor (I-II) complications received conservative treatment. One patient with grade C anastomotic leakage was transferred to intensive care unit and received a second operation due to sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. Two patients with paralytic ileus (Clavien-Dindo IIIa) underwent endoscopic ileus catheter placement. There were 3 patients with Clavien-Dindo III or above respiratory complications, including 1 patient with pleural effusion and ultrasound-guided puncture, 2 patients with respiratory failure who were improved and discharged after anti-infection and symptomatic treatment. One patient underwent emergency ureteral stent implantation due to urinary infection (Clavien-Dindo IIIb). The morbidity of postoperative complication in the first 40 cases was 50.0% (20/40), and that in the latter 43 cases decreased significantly (27.9%, 12/43), whose difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.270, P=0.039). Conclusions: The procedure of taTME has an acceptable morbidity of short-term postoperative complication in the treatment of mid-low rectal cancer. The accumulation of surgical experience plays an important role in reducing the morbidity of postoperative complication.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Proctectomy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936068

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide reference and evidence for clinical application of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer through multicenter large-scale analysis based on real-world data in China. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter case series study. From January 2017 to October 2021, data of 94 patients with colorectal cancer who received neoadjuvant immunotherapy in Peking University Cancer Hospital (55 cases), Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (19 cases), Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (13 cases) and Changhai Hospital of Navy Medical University (7 cases) were retrospectively collected, including 48 males and 46 females. The median age was 58 years. Eighty-one cases were rectal cancer and 13 cases were colon cancer (2 cases of double primary colon cancer). Twelve cases were TNM staging II and 82 cases were stage III. Forty-six cases were well differentiated, 37 cases were moderately differentiated and 11 cases were poorly differentiated. Twenty-six patients (27.7%) with mismatch repair defects (dMMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI-H) were treated with immunotherapy alone, mainly programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1); sixty-eight cases (72.3%) with mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) and microsatellite stability (MSS) were treated with immune combined with neoadjuvant therapy, mainly CapeOx (capecitabine+oxaliplatin) combined with PD-1 antibody plus long- or short-course radiotherapy, or PD-1 antibody combined with cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody. Analysis and evaluation of adverse events during neoadjuvant immunotherapy were performed according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Standard version 3.0; the surgical complications were evaluated according to the Clavien-Dindo grading standard; the efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant immunotherapy included the following indicators: major pathological remission (MPR) was defined as tumor regression induced by neoadjuvant therapy in pathology residual tumor ≤10%; pathological complete response (pCR) was defined as tumor regression induced by neoadjuvant therapy without residual tumor in pathology; the tumor response rate was disease control rate (DCR), namely the proportion of complete response (CR), partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) in the whole group; the objective response rate (ORR) was CR+PR. Results: The median cycle of neoadjuvant immunotherapy was 4 (1-10) in whole group, and the incidence of immune-related adverse reactions was 37.2% (35/94), including 35 cases (37.2%) of skin-related adverse reactions, 21 cases (22.3%) of thyroid dysfunction and 8 cases (8.5%) of immune enteritis, of which grade III or above accounted for 1.1%. The median interval between completion of neoadjuvant therapy and surgery was 30 (21-55) days. There were 81 cases of radical resection of rectal cancer, 11 cases of radical resection of colon cancer, and 2 cases of colon cancer combined with other organ resection. The primary tumor resection of all the patients reached R0. The incidence of surgical-related complications was 22.3% (21/94), mainly anastomotic leakage (4 cases), pelvic infection (4 cases), abdominal effusion (3 cases), anastomotic stenosis (3 cases ) and abdominal and pelvic hemorrhage (2 cases). Grade I-II complications developed in 13 cases (13.8%), grade III and above complications developed in 8 cases (8.5%), no grade IV or above complications were found. During a median follow-up of 32 (1-46 ) months, DCR was 98.9% (93/94), ORR was 88.3 % (83/94), pCR was 41.5% (39/94), MPR was 60.6% (57/94). The pCR rate of 26 patients with dMMR and MSI-H undergoing simple immunotherapy was 57.7% (15/26), and MPR rate was 65.4% (17/26). The pCR rate of 68 pMMR and MSS patients undergoing combined immunotherapy was 35.3%(24/68), and MPR rate was 58.8% (40/68). Conclusions: Neoadjuvant immunotherapy has favorable tumor control rate and pathological remission rate for patients with initial resectable colorectal cancer. The incidences of perioperative adverse reactions and surgical complications are acceptable.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936067

ABSTRACT

In the radical resection of mid-low rectal cancer, due to the narrow pelvic space and thick mesorectum, it is difficult to expose the operation field. In recent years, with the development of laparoscopic surgery and surgical instruments, the surgeons' requirements for precise anatomical planes, neuroprotection, and functional preservation have become higher and higher. Colorectal surgeons will face more "difficult pelvic" challenges during surgery. Therefore, this article reviews the related research progress of "difficult pelvis" in radical resection of rectal cancer, analyzes the possible anatomical factors leading to the occurrence of "difficult pelvis", and explains the clinical significance of the researches on "difficult pelvis".


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy , Pelvis/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936049

ABSTRACT

Rectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract, and surgery is the main treatment strategy. Disorders of bowel, anorectal and urogenital function remain common problems after total mesorectal resection (TME), which seriously decreases the quality of life of patients. Surgical nerve damage is one of the main causes of the complications, while TME with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation is an effective way to reduce the occurrence of adverse outcomes. Intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) is a promising method to assist the surgeon to identify and protect the pelvic autonomic nerves. Nevertheless, the monitoring methods and technical standards vary, and the clinical use of IONM is still limited. This review aims to summarize the researches on IONM in rectal and pelvic surgery. The electrical nerve stimulation technique and different methods of IONM in rectal cancer surgery are introduced. Also, the authors discuss the limitations of current researches, including methodological disunity and lack of equipment, then prospect the future direction in this field.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Pathways , Humans , Pelvis/surgery , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936047

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of distal rectal transection by using transanterior obturator nerve gateway (TANG) in laparoscopic radical resection for lower rectal cancers. Methods: A descriptive case series study was performed. Inclusion criteria: (1) patients with primary rectal adenocarcinoma, with the distance of 3-5 cm from tumor to anal verge, with normal anal function before surgery and a desire to preserve anus; (2) laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer was performed and the distal rectum was transected using TANG approach. Exclusion criteria: (1) patients with distant metastasis or receiving palliative surgery; (2) the distal rectum was transected using non-TANG approach; (3) patients receiving combined multiple organs resection; (4) patients complicated with other tumors requiring additional treatment during the study. Clinicopathological data of 50 patients with low rectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic resection using TANG approach between January 2019 and December 2020 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively collected. Perioperative conditions, length of specific pelvic lines, additional angle and postoperative short-term outcomes were observed and described. Additional angle was defined as the angle between the simulated stapling line with the traditional approach and the real stapling line with the TANG approach. Data following normal distribution were presented as Mean±SD, or M [quartile range (Q(R))] otherwise. Results: All the patients successfully completed laparoscopic surgery without transferring to open or transanal surgery. The median operative time was 193 (80) min and blood loss was 50 (58) ml. All tumors received R0 resection with the distance from the tumor to distal resection margin of 1.7 (0.4) cm and the anastomotic height of 2.0 (0.1) cm. Rectal transection was completed by one cartridge in 52.0% of the cases (26/50) and two cartridges in 48.0% (24/50). Length of the stapling line was 6.6 (1.5) cm. The time to construct the gateway was 8.0 (6.0) min. The vessel damage occurred in 4.0% of the cases (2/50) and none of the cases encountered obturator nerve damage. Inlets of the pelvis in TANG and traditional approach were (9.9±1.3) cm vs. (7.2±1.1) cm (t=24.781, P<0.001). Additional angle of TANG was (15±2) °. The transecting positions on the midline and right edge of the rectum specimen by TANG were 0.6 (0.2) cm and 1.0 (0.2) cm lower than those by the traditional approach. One case (2.0%) died of pulmonary infection on the 17th day after surgery, 2 cases (4.0%) received re-operation and 14 cases (28.0%) had postoperative complications, including anastomotic leakage (7/50, 14.0%), urinary retention (6/50, 12.0%), pelvic infection (2/50, 4.0%) and ileus (2/50, 4.0%). The median postoperative hospital stay was 12 (6) days. Conclusions: Laparoscopic distal rectal transection by using TANG approach is safe and effective in the treatment of low rectal cancer. As an alternative rectal transecting method, TANG has advantages especially for the obese and those with a contracted pelvis and ultralow rectal cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy , Obturator Nerve , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936042

ABSTRACT

Rectal cancer is a great threat to the health of the Chinese people. With the continuous improvement of surgical treatment level, complication as an important indicator to measure the safety of surgery has received increasing attention from clinicians both at home and abroad. Although there are many studies on postoperative complications of rectal cancer, the morbidity of complication reported by related studies varies greatly. An important reason occurs in the limitations of retrospective research, such as incomplete medical records, unclear diagnostic criteria for some complications, incomplete follow-up records after discharge, and poor communication mechanisms among MDT members. Starting from a retrospective study on postoperative complications of rectal cancer and finding out the defects and problems in the registration of complications in each center, then clarifying the definition of various postoperative complications, so as to establish a sound and standardized registration system, and carry out prospective research, this path could be a reliable method to obtain relatively accurate postoperative complications of rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 402-409, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935228

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the prognostic evaluation value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in rectal cancer patients. Nomogram survival prediction model based on inflammatory markers was constructed. Methods: The clinical and survival data of 585 patients with rectal cancer who underwent radical resection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiao tong University from January 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The optimal cut-off values of NLR, PLR, LMR, and SII were determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The relationship between different NLR, PLR, LMR and SII levels and the clinic pathological characteristics of the rectal cancer patients were compared. Cox proportional risk model was used for univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Nomogram prediction models of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with rectal cancer were established by the R Language software. The internal validation and accuracy of the nomograms were determined by the calculation of concordance index (C-index). Calibration curve was used to evaluate nomograms' efficiency. Results: The optimal cut-off values of preoperative NLR, PLR, LMR and SII of OS for rectal cancer patients were 2.44, 134.88, 4.70 and 354.18, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in tumor differentiation degree between the low NLR group and the high NLR group (P<0.05), and there were statistically significant differences in T stage, N stage, TNM stage, tumor differentiation degree and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level between the low PLR group and the high PLR group (P<0.05). There was statistically significant difference in tumor differentiation degree between the low LMR group and the high LMR group (P<0.05), and there were statistically significant differences in T stage, N stage, TNM stage, tumor differentiation degree and preoperative CEA level between the low SII group and the high SII group (P<0.05). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the age (HR=2.221, 95%CI: 1.526-3.231), TNM stage (Ⅲ grade: HR=4.425, 95%CI: 1.848-10.596), grade of differentiation (HR=1.630, 95%CI: 1.074-2.474), SII level (HR=2.949, 95%CI: 1.799-4.835), and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (HR=2.123, 95%CI: 1.506-2.992) were independent risk factors for the OS of patients with rectal cancer. The age (HR=2.107, 95%CI: 1.535-2.893), TNM stage (Ⅲ grade, HR=2.850, 95%CI: 1.430-5.680), grade of differentiation (HR=1.681, 95%CI: 1.150-2.457), SII level (HR=2.309, 95%CI: 1.546-3.447), and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (HR=1.837, 95%CI: 1.369-2.464) were independent risk factors of the DFS of patients with rectal cancer. According to the OS and DFS nomograms predict models of rectal cancer patients established by multivariate COX regression analysis, the C-index were 0.786 and 0.746, respectively. The calibration curve of the nomograms showed high consistence of predict and actual curves. Conclusions: Preoperative NLR, PLR, LMR and SII levels are all correlated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients, and the SII level is an independent prognostic risk factor for patients with rectal cancer. Preoperative SII level can complement with the age, TNM stage, differentiation degree and postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy to accurately predict the prognosis of rectal cancer patients, which can provide reference and help for clinical decision.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Humans , Inflammation/classification , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Nomograms , Preoperative Period , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL