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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(3): 498-502, 2024-04-24. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554190

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La perforación del recto por trauma cerrado es poco frecuente y se asocia a fracturas pélvicas. En pacientes con perforaciones de recto no traumáticas se ha reportado fascitis necrosante en miembros inferiores, en la mayoría de los casos asociada a alta mortalidad. Caso clínico. Hombre de 36 años con trauma cerrado abdomino-pélvico y perforación de recto inferior, quien recibió manejo quirúrgico mediante derivación intestinal y fijación pélvica. Evolucionó con hematoma escrotal sobreinfectado, inestabilidad hemodinámica, signos de fascitis necrosante y choque séptico 4 días posterior a su ingreso. Resultados. Se tomó muestra para cultivo del hematoma escrotal que reportó E. coli. La patología del desbridamiento escrotal informó necrosis de coagulación en toda la muestra. Conclusión. El tacto rectal debe realizarse siempre ante la presencia de enfisema subcutáneo al examen físico o en la tomografía, para un diagnóstico temprano y manejo quirúrgico multidisciplinario oportuno, según el caso. La presencia de enfisema subcutáneo debe aumentar la sospecha de perforación de recto. Hay pocos reportes de fascitis secundaria a perforación de recto por trauma cerrado, por lo que no se conoce con precisión la mortalidad asociada.


Introduction. Rectal perforation due to blunt trauma is rare and associated with pelvic fractures. Signs of necrotizing fasciitis in lower limbs have been reported in non-traumatic rectal perforations, in most cases associated with high mortality. Case report. A 36-year-old man presents blunt abdomino-pelvic trauma and perforation of the lower rectum. Surgical management by intestinal diversion and pelvic fixation is performed. 4 days after admission, evolves with over-infected scrotal hematoma, hemodynamic instability, signs of necrotizing fasciitis and septic shock. Results. A sample for culture was taken from a scrotal hematoma that reported E. coli. Pathology of scrotal debridement reported coagulation necrosis in the entire specimen. Discussion. Digital rectal examination should always be performed in the presence of subcutaneous emphysema on physical examination or CT scan for early and multidisciplinary diagnosis and surgical management as appropriate. Conclusion. The presence of subcutaneous emphysema should raise the suspicion of rectal perforation. There are few reports of rectal perforation due to blunt trauma and fasciitis, so the associated mortality is not precisely known.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum , Fournier Gangrene , Fasciitis , Wounds and Injuries , Intestinal Perforation
2.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 33-36, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551665

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El traumatismo anorrectal es una causa poco frecuente de consulta al servicio de emergencias, con una incidencia del 1 al 3%. A menudo está asociado a lesiones potencialmente mortales, por esta razón, es fundamental conocer los principios de diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como los protocolos de atención inicial de los pacientes politraumatizados. Método: Reportamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 47 años con trauma anorrectal contuso con compromiso del esfínter anal interno y externo, tratado con reparación primaria del complejo esfinteriano con técnica de overlapping, rafia de la mucosa, submucosa y muscular del recto. A los 12 meses presenta buena evolución sin incontinencia anal. Conclusión: El tratamiento del trauma rectal, basado en el dogma de las 4 D (desbridamiento, derivación fecal, drenaje presacro, lavado distal) fue exitoso. La técnica de overlapping para la lesión esfinteriana fue simple y efectiva para la reconstrucción anatómica y funcional. (AU)


Introduction: Anorectal trauma is a rare cause of consultation to the Emergency Department, with an incidence of 1 to 3%. It is often associated with life-threatening injuries, so it is essential to know the principles of diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial care protocols for the polytrau-matized patient. Methods: We present the case of a 47-year-old man with a blunt anorectal trauma involving the internal and external anal sphincter, treated with primary overlapping repair of the sphincter complex and suturing of the rectal wall. At 12 months the patient presents good outcome, without anal incontinence. Conclusion: The treatment of rectal trauma, based on the 4 D ́s dogma (debridement, fecal diversion, presacral drainage, distal rectal washout lavage) was successful. Repair of the overlapping sphincter injury was simple and effective for anatomical and functional reconstruction. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Anal Canal/injuries , Rectum/surgery , Rectum/injuries , Postoperative Care , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Proctoscopy/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 44(1): 75-79, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558286

ABSTRACT

Introduction: After the diagnosis of neoplasm of the middle and distal rectum, patients are often submitted to oncological treatment by neoadjuvant therapy. At the end of this treatment, those patients who show complete clinical response can choose, together with their physician, to adopt the watch-and-wait strategy; although it implies lower morbidity for the patient, this strategy is dependent on strict adherence to treatment follow-up for the early identification of any future local injury. Materials and Methods: Survey of data from medical records and description, and discussion of case reports with a literature review in books and databases. Results: We report the case of a 73-year-old patient diagnosed with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the middle rectum, Stage II (cT3bN0M0), who presented complete clinical response after undergoing treatment with neoadjuvant therapy. Together with the assistant team, the watch-and-wait strategy was chosen. During the follow-up, an endoscopic examination showed a vegetating at the proximal limit of the tumor scar. We chose to perform submucosal endoscopic dissection. The report of the anatomopathological examination evidenced a serrated adenoma with narrow margins free of neoplasia. Conclusion: Patient adherence to cancer treatment using the watch-and-wait strategy is essential for the early identification of new local lesions. After resection of the lesion identified in the tumor scar site as a neoplasm-free lesion, it is consistent to think that this lesion would be the origin of the neoplasm, given the adenomatous origin. (AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Aged , Rectum/injuries , Diagnosis, Differential , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Endoscopy
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(4): 261-266, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528949

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the effectiveness of nefopam on postoperative pain control after anorectal surgeries. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent anorectal surgeries from January 2019 to March 2022 at two medical centers. The data were divided into nefopam and conventional groups. The primary outcome was the number of patients who requested additional opioids in the 24-h postoperative period. The secondary outcomes were numeric rating pain scores (NRPS) within a 24-h postoperative period and analgesic drugs-related side effects. Results: Eighty-seven patients in the conventional group and 60 in the nefopam group were recruited. The nefopam group reported less additional opioid consumption than the conventional group in all dimensions of analysis, including overall, adjusted to anesthetic techniques and types of surgery. However, these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.093). Only patients in the nefopam group who underwent hemorrhoidectomy under TIVA or spinal anesthesia significantly required fewer additional opioids (P = 0.016, 60% mean difference). Similarly, the 24-h postoperative morphine consumption was lower in the nefopam group (mean difference = -3.4, 95%CI: 0.72,6.08). Furthermore, significantly lower NRPS were reported in the nefopam group during the 12-18 h postoperative period (P = 0.009). On the other hand, analgesic drugs related side effects were similar in both groups. Conclusions: The administration of nefopam after major anorectal surgery is beneficially evident in reducing postoperative opioid requirements. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rectum/surgery , Colon/surgery , Nefopam/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative , Retrospective Studies , Anesthesia, Rectal
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 191-198, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521143

ABSTRACT

Stomas are essential for colorectal surgery and are widely used not only for selected cases for bowel obstructions but also in rectal cancer operations to divert stool away from low rectal anastomosis. On the other hand, complications with stomas/ stomas reversal are not uncommon. In this study, we aimed at studying the frequency and the predictors of temporary stomas being permanent, and the contributing factors of surgical stoma/stoma closure related complications. In our cohort, only about 40% of the patient closed their initially planned temporary stomas. The occurrence of intestinal leak, wound sepsis, or any type of morbidity with 30 days of operation were significant predictors of permanent stomas. In addition, alarmingly although Hartmann's procedure was uncommon in our practice, only 9% of those who underwent Hartmann's have had it reversed. Moreover, the only factor that significantly increased stoma related complications was having an end colostomy. There was a tendency toward late closure of stomas with median 8.2 months, however early closure did not correlate to complications. In conclusion, further studies are needed to delineate the low rate of stoma closure. Patients who develop postoperative complications, even wound sepsis, would be at a higher risk of living with permanent stomas. Hartmann's procedures are commonly associated with stoma problems, and reluctance to reverse the stomas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectum/surgery , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Surgical Stomas/adverse effects , Health Profile , Retrospective Studies
6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 185-190, July-sept. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521138

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anorectal fistulas are some of the commonest surgical proctologic disorders treated by surgeons. Despite the recent introduction of various sphincter preserving techniques, the search for the optimal operation continues. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of long-term healing for the endorectal advancement flap. Methods: A retrospective review of a single surgeon experience with the endorectal advancement flap for anorectal fistulas over an 18-year period. The impact of various patient and fistula related factors were analyzed for their impact on the primary endpoint of long-term fistula healing. Results: 87 patients underwent endorectal advancement flap (Male/Female 42.5/57.5%). Median age was 41 years. Sixty-nine patients (79.3%) had anal fistula while 18 patients had rectal fistula (20.7%). An anterior based fistula was noted in 45 patients (51.7%). The most common etiology was cryptoglandular disease (87.4%). The median operative time was 75minutes (range 36-250). Postoperative septic complications were noted in 4 patients (4.6%). Fistula healing was documented in 80 patients (93%). During a median follow-up of 4 months (range 1-38, 1 patient lost to follow-up), recurrence was noted in 8 patients (9.3%), yielding an overall long-term success rate of 83.7%. The long-term healing rate was higher in patients with fistulas from cryptoglandular etiology (86.6%) compared to fistulas from other etiologies (63.6%) [p = 0.027]. Conclusions: The endorectal advancement is associated with a high healing rate, a low postoperative septic complication rate, and infrequent risk for recurrence. Long-term healing without recurrence is achieved more frequently in patients with cryptoglandular etiology of the fistula compared to patients with non-cryptoglandular etiology. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Health Profile , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202598, abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418445

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Habitualmente, durante la manometría anorrectal, en lo correspondiente al reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio (RRAI) solo se pesquisa su presencia o ausencia. Estudios han reportado que su análisis detallado puede brindar datos de interés. Nuestra hipótesis es que la medición del RRAI puede dar información para reconocer causas orgánicas (médula anclada, lipoma, etc.) en pacientes en los que previamente se consideró como de causa funcional. Objetivos. Comparar la duración del reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio en la manometría anorrectal de pacientes con constipación funcional refractaria (CFR) y mielomeningocele (MMC). Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, analítico (2004-2019). Pacientes constipados crónicos con incontinencia fecal funcional y orgánica (mielomeningocele). Se les realizó manometría anorrectal con sistema de perfusión de agua y se midió la duración del RRAI con diferentes volúmenes (20, 40 y 60 cc). Grupo 1 (G1): 81 CFR. Grupo 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Se excluyeron pacientes con retraso madurativo, esfínter anal complaciente, agenesia sacra y aquellos no colaboradores. Resultados. Se incluyeron 135 sujetos (62 varones). La mediana de edad fue G1:9,57 años; G2: 9,63 años. Duración promedio G1 vs. G2 con 20 cc: 8,89 vs. 15,21 segundos; con 40 cc: 11.41 vs. 21,12 segundos; con 60 cc: 14,15 vs. 26,02 segundos. La diferencia de duración del RRAI entre ambos grupos con diferentes volúmenes fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0001). Conclusión. La duración del RRAI aumenta a mayor volumen de insuflación del balón en ambas poblaciones. Pacientes con MMC tuvieron mayor duración del RRAI que aquellos con CFR. En los pacientes con RRAI prolongado, debe descartarse lesión medular.


Introduction. Usually, during anorectal manometry, only the presence or absence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is investigated. Studies have reported that a detailed analysis may provide data of interest. Our hypothesis is that RAIR measurement may provide information to detect organic causes (tethered cord, lipoma, etc.) in patients in whom a functional cause had been previously considered. Objectives. To compare RAIR duration in anorectal manometry between patients with refractory functional constipation (RFC) and myelomeningocele (MMC). Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study (2004­2019). Patients with chronic constipation and functional and organic fecal incontinence (myelomeningocele). The anorectal manometry was performed with a water-perfused system, and the duration of RAIR was measured with different volumes (20, 40, and 60 cc). Group 1 (G1): 81 RFC. Group 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Patients with developmental delay, compliant anal sphincter, sacral agenesis and non-cooperative patients were excluded. Results. A total of 135 individuals were included (62 were male). Their median age was 9.57 years in G1 and 9.63 years in G2. Average duration in G1 versus G2 with 20 cc: 8.89 versus 15.21 seconds; 40 cc: 11.41 versus 21.12 seconds; 60 cc: 14.15 versus 26.02 seconds. The difference in RAIR duration with the varying volumes was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. RAIR duration was longer with increasing balloon inflation volumes in both populations. RAIR duration was longer in patients with MMC than in those with RFC. Spinal injury should be ruled out in patients with prolonged RAIR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Rectum/physiopathology , Meningomyelocele/diagnosis , Meningomyelocele/epidemiology , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/epidemiology , Reflex/physiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Manometry/methods
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 268-274, 20230303. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425199

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La estenosis colorrectal benigna hace referencia a una condición anatómica caracterizada por una disminución del diámetro de la luz intestinal distal a la válvula ileocecal, ocasionando una serie de signos y síntomas de tipo obstructivo. Es una entidad poco frecuente, secundaria en la gran mayoría de veces a la realización de anastomosis intestinales al nivel descrito. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la utilidad del stentcolónico en estenosis secundaria a patología colorrectal no neoplásica. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte de pacientes que desarrolló estenosis colorrectal de origen benigna confirmada por colonoscopía, en 3 hospitales de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, entre los años 2007 y 2021. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34 pacientes con diagnóstico de estenosis colorrectal de origen benigno, manejados con stents metálicos autoexpandibles. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 19 meses y se obtuvo éxito clínico en el 73,5 % de los casos. La tasa de complicación fue del 41,2 %, dada principalmente por reobstrucción y migración del stent, y en menor medida por perforación secundaria a la colocación del dispositivo. Conclusión. Los stents metálicos autoexpandibles representan una opción terapéutica en pacientes con obstrucción colorrectal, con altas tasas de mejoría clínica en pacientes con patología estenosante no maligna. Cuando la derivación por medio de estoma no es una opción, este tipo de dispositivos están asociados a altas tasas de éxito clínico y mejoría de la calidad de vida de los pacientes


Introduction. Benign colorectal stenosis refers to an anatomical condition characterized by a decrease in the diameter of the intestinal lumen distal to the ileocecal valve, which might cause a series of obstructive signs and symptoms. It is a rare entity, caused in the vast majority of cases due to intestinal anastomosis at the described level. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of colonic stents in the management of non-malignant colorectal strictures. Methods. Descriptive study of a cohort of patients who developed a benign colorectal stenosis confirmed by colonoscopy in three high-complexity hospitals in the city of Medellín, Colombia, between 2007 and 2021. Results. Thirty-four patients diagnosed with benign colorectal stenosis managed with self-expanding metal stents were included in the study. Median follow-up was 19 months, obtaining clinical success in 73.5% of cases, with a complication rate of 41.2%, mainly due to reobstruction and migration of the stent, and to a lesser extent due to perforation secondary to device placement.Conclusion. Self-expanding metallic stents represent a therapeutic option in patients with colorectal obstruction caused by non-malignant stenosing pathology. When diversion through a stoma is not an option, this type of device is associated with high rates of clinical success and improvement in the patients' quality of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectal Diseases , Anastomosis, Surgical , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Rectum , Colon , Constriction, Pathologic
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 916-920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Dong's extraordinary point needling technique on postoperative complications of anal fistula.@*METHODS@#A total of 241 patients undergoing anal fistula surgery were randomly divided into an observation group (121 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (120 cases, 2 cases dropped off). The patients in the control group were treated with intramuscular injection of compound diclofenac sodium injection and oral administration of tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsules. In addition to the treatment in the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with Daoma needling technique at the "Sanqi points" (Qimen point, Qijiao point, and Qizheng point) combined with Dongqi needling technique at "Sanhuang points" (sub-Tianhuang point, Dihuang point, Renhuang point), with each session lasting 30 min. The treatment in the two groups both started on the first day after surgery, and was given once daily for 14 consecutive days. Visual analog scale (VAS) score was compared between the two groups on postoperative day 1, 7, and 14; bladder residual urine volume, spontaneous voiding volume, and urinary catheterization frequency were assessed after treatment on postoperative day 1; and anorectal dynamic indexes (anal canal resting pressure, rectal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, and minimum rectal sensory threshold) were evaluated before surgery and on postoperative day 4. Clinical efficacy was assessed in both groups one month after surgery.@*RESULTS@#On postoperative day 7 and 14, the VAS scores of both groups were lower than those on postoperative day 1 (P<0.05), and the VAS scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The bladder residual urine volume and urinary catheterization frequency in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), while the spontaneous voiding volume was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). On postoperative day 4, the anal canal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, and the minimum rectal sensory threshold were lower than preoperative values (P<0.05), while the rectal resting pressure was higher than preoperative value (P<0.05) in both groups. The anal canal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, and minimum rectal sensory threshold were lower than those in the control group, and the rectal resting pressure was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The effective rate was 93.2% (110/118) in the observation group, which was higher than 84.7% (100/118) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Dong's extraordinary point needling technique could reduce postoperative pain, alleviate urinary retention, and improve defecation in patients undergoing anal fistula surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Anus Diseases , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Acupuncture Points
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1095-1102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010127

ABSTRACT

Colonic and anorectal manometry includes anorectal manometry and colonic manometry. Anorectal manometry is a common method to evaluate anorectal function, which can objectively reflect the pathological and physiological abnormalities of outlet obstructive constipation and fecal incontinence, as well as the impact of anorectal surgery on continence. Colonic manometry is a new type of colon motility detection method developed in recent years. It can record the peristalsis and contraction of the whole colon through a pressure measuring catheter, which helps physicians further evaluate various colonic diseases. However, various factors such as testing equipment, operating standards, and evaluation parameters are difficult to unify. There is no consensus on the operation and interpretation of colorectal anal pressure measurement. Under the guidance of the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, in collaboration with Clinical Guidelines Committee, Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Anorectal motility disorders Committee , Colorectal Surgeons Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Colonic Branch of China international exchange and promotive association for medical and healthcare, Tianjin Union Medical Center is leading the organization of domestic experts in this field. Based on searching relevant literature and combining clinical experience at home and abroad, after multiple discussions, the "Chinese expert consensus on colonic and anorectal manometry" has been prepared. This consensus discusses the indications, contraindications, pre examination management and technical procedures, treatment of complications, and interpretation of examination reports for colonic and anorectal manometry , aiming to guide the standardized clinical practice of colonic and anorectal manometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum , Consensus , Constipation , Anal Canal , Rectal Diseases , Fecal Incontinence , Manometry/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications
11.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 915-921, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010124

ABSTRACT

Enterostomy-related complications are common in abdominal surgery. The incidence enterostomy-related complications varies according to the type and location of stoma, surgical procedure, and patient characteristics. Currently, there are no uniform criteria wopldwide for the classification of enterostomy complications. Previous classification of enterostomy-related complications were based on time of occurrence, clinical manifestations, or anatomical changes, etc., lacking uniformity and reproducibility. The concept and diagnostic criteria of complications are not yet clearly defined; and it is difficult to accurately determine the relationship between their severity, intervention, and medical cost. Moreover, surgeons and enterostomal therapists differ significantly in their concerns, cognition, and management principles for stoma-related complications. Therefore,the Chinese Ostomy Collaboration Group (COCG), together with the Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing Committee of Chinese Nursing Association, the Colon and Rectal Surgeon Committee of Surgeon Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, the Committee of Colorectal Cancer of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association, and the Colorectal Surgery Group of Surgery Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, jointly drafted the criteria for the classification and grading of enterostomy complications. We hope this criteria will facilitate prospective data collection, clinical diagnosis, treatment, medical training and education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Enterostomy/adverse effects , Surgical Stomas , Rectum , Colon
12.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 729-739, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010122

ABSTRACT

Although transanal endoscopic surgery has been developed for more than 40 years, it remains relatively unknown to most domestic colleagues. In 2019, the Chinese Society of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (CSTa) and the Chinese Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (CSCRS) organized domestic experts to write and publish the "Chinese Expert Consensus on Transanal Endoscopic Surgery (2019 Edition)", which elaborated on the definition, surgical methods, indications, contraindications, basic principles, key issues and complications of transanal endoscopic surgery, and provided a certain theoretical foundation for the development of transanal endoscopic surgery in China. In the past four years, the scope of application of transanal endoscopic techniques has been expanded, and many prospective and retrospective clinical research have provided more evidence-based medical evidence. Therefore, the Chinese Society of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (CSTa) once again organized domestic experts to write the "Expert Consensus and Operation Guidelines for Transanal Endoscopic Surgery in China (2023 Edition)", updating the expert consensus opinions on the definition, indications, complications and learning curve of transanal endoscopic surgery and adding operation guidelines. The aim is to promote the standardized practices in transanal endoscopic surgery and facilitate a shorter learning curve for surgeons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Consensus , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods
13.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 302-306, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971266

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant therapy has been widely applied in the treatment of rectal cancer, which can shrink tumor size, lower tumor staging and improve the prognosis. It has been the standard preoperative treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer patients varies between individuals, and the results of tumor regression are obviously different. Some patients with good tumor regression even achieve pathological complete response (pCR). Tumor regression is of great significance for the selection of surgical regimes and the determination of distal resection margin. However, few studies focus on tumor regression patterns. Controversies on the safe distance of distal resection margin after neoadjuvant treatment still exist. Therefore, based on the current research progress, this review summarized the main tumor regression patterns after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer, and classified them into three types: tumor shrinkage, tumor fragmentation, and mucin pool formation. And macroscopic regression and microscopic regression of tumors were compared to describe the phenomenon of non-synchronous regression. Then, the safety of non-surgical treatment for patients with clinical complete response (cCR) was analyzed to elaborate the necessity of surgical treatment. Finally, the review studied the safe surgical resection range to explore the safe distance of distal resection margin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Margins of Excision , Treatment Outcome , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 215-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971254

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with advances in pelvic oncology and surgical techniques, surgeons have redefined the boundaries of pelvic surgery. Combined pelvic exenteration is now considered the treatment of choice for some patients with locally advanced and locally recurrent rectal cancer, but it is only performed in a few hospitals in China due to the complexity of the procedure and the large extent of resection, complications, and high perioperative mortality. Although there have been great advances in oncologic drugs and surgical techniques and equipment in recent years, there are still many controversies and challenges in the preoperative assessment of combined pelvic organ resection, neoadjuvant treatment selection and perioperative treatment strategies. Adequate understanding of the anatomical features of the pelvic organs, close collaboration of the clinical multidisciplinary team, objective assessment and standardized preoperative combination therapy creates the conditions for radical surgical resection of recurrent and complex locally advanced rectal cancer, while the need for rational and standardized R0 resection still has the potential to bring new hope to patients with locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 941-946, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982367

ABSTRACT

Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the rectovaginal septum is rare. Its pathogenesis is not clear and there is no standard treatment. One patient with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the rectovaginal septum arising from deep infiltrative endometriosis was admitted to Qingdao Municipal Hospital. The patient presented with incessant menstruation and abdominal distension. She had bilateral ovarian endometriotic cystectomy 6 years ago. Imaging findings suggested a pelvic mass which might invade the rectovaginal septum. Pathological results of primary surgery confirmed endometrioid carcinoma of the pelvic mass arising from the rectovaginal septum. Then she had a comprehensive staged surgery. Postoperative chemotherapy was given 6 times. No recurrence or metastasis was found during the 2-year follow-up. The possibility of deep infiltrating endometriosis and its malignant transformation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a new extragonadal pelvic lesion in a patient with a history of endometriosis, which would avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Endometriosis/surgery , Rectum , Vagina , Cystectomy
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 529-535, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982184

ABSTRACT

Anatomy is the foundation of surgery. However, traditional anatomical concepts based on autopsy are no longer sufficient to guide the development of modern surgery. With the advancement of histology and embryology and application of high-resolution laparoscopic technology, surgical anatomy has gradually developed. Meanwhile, some important concepts and terms used to guide surgery have emerged, including: mesentery, fascia, and space. The confusing, controversial, and even inaccurate definitions and anatomical terms related to colorectal surgery seriously affect academic communication and the training of young surgeons. Therefore, the Chinese Society of Colorectal Surgeons, the Chinese Society of Colorectal Surgery, National Health Commission Capacity Building and Continuing Education Center, and China Sexology Association of Colorectal Functional Surgery organized colorectal surgeons to make consensus on the definition and terminology of mesentery, fascia, and space related to colon and rectum, to promote surgeons' understanding of modern anatomy related to colorectal surgery and promote academic communication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/surgery , Consensus , Mesentery/anatomy & histology , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Colorectal Neoplasms
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 273-278, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969834

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causes and management of long-term persistent pelvic presacral space infection. Methods: Clinical data of 10 patients with persistent presacral infection admitted to the Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2015 to October 2020 were collected. Different surgical approaches were used to treat the presacral infection according to the patients' initial surgical procedures. Results: Among the 10 patients, there were 2 cases of presacral recurrent infection due to rectal leak after radiotherapy for cervical cancer, 3 cases of presacral recurrent infection due to rectal leak after radiotherapy for rectal cancer Dixons, and 5 cases of presacral recurrent infection of sinus tract after adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer Miles. Of the 5 patients with leaky bowel, 4 had complete resection of the ruptured nonfunctional bowel and complete debridement of the presacral infection using an anterior transverse sacral incision with a large tipped omentum filling the presacral space; 1 had continuous drainage of the anal canal and complete debridement of the presacral infection using an anterior transverse sacral incision. 5 post-Miles patients all had debridement of the presacral infection using an anterior transverse sacral incision combined with an abdominal incision. The nine patients with healed presacral infection recovered from surgery in 26 to 210 days, with a median time of 55 days. Conclusions: Anterior sacral infections in patients with leaky gut are caused by residual bowel secretion of intestinal fluid into the anterior sacral space, and in post-Miles patients by residual anterior sacral foreign bodies. An anterior sacral caudal transverse arc incision combined with an abdominal incision is an effective surgical approach for complete debridement of anterior sacral recalcitrant infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reinfection , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Drainage , Anal Canal/surgery , Pelvic Infection
18.
BioSCI. (Curitiba, Online) ; 81(1): 37-43, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442614

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As operações laparoscópicas, assistidas por robô e a abertas são técnicas cirúrgicas comumente utilizadas na vida diária. A viabilidade e os resultados em curto e longo prazos dos procedimentos laparoscópicos e robóticos têm sido amplamente relatados. Objetivos: Comparar os dados clínicos e oncológicos da cirurgia assistida por robô e laparoscópica no câncer retal. Métodos: Foram pesquisados o Pubmed/Medline, Embase, e Cochrane Library para artigos relevantes publicados até 2021. Estudos baseados na comparabilidade entre operação assistida por robô e laparoscópica para câncer retal foram designados. Os parâmetros analisados incluíram tempo operatório, conversão para procedimento aberto, perda estimada de sangue, tempo de recuperação da função intestinal, tempo de internação, vazamento da anastomose e complicações pós-operatórias. Resultados: Operação assistida por robô foi associada com maior tempo operatório (342 vs.192 min na cirurgia laparoscópica, p<0,001), menor conversão para procedimento aberto, menor tempo de internação hospitalar e recuperação mais rápida da função intestinal, menores complicações pós-operatórias de forma significativa (p=0,041). A perda estimada de sangue, a taxa de vazamento da anastomose e os resultados oncológicos, incluindo o número de linfonodos extraídos, não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Conclusão: A cirurgia assistida por robô para câncer retal mostrou maior tempo operatório, menor conversão, taxas de recuperação da função intestinal mais rápidas e menor permanência no hospital. Seus resultados oncológicos forram semelhantes à cirurgia laparoscópica.


Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery, robot-assisted surgery and open surgery are the most commonly used surgical techniques in daily living. The feasibility and short- and long-term results of laparoscopic and robotic procedures have been widely reported. Objectives: To compare the clinical and oncological results of robot-assisted and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Methods: PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles published until 2021. Studies based on comparability between robot-assisted and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer were designed. The parameters analyzed included operative time, conversion to open surgery, estimated blood loss, bowel function recovery time, length of hospital stay, anastomosis leak, and postoperative complications. Results: The robot-assisted surgery group was associated with longer operative time (342 vs. 192 min in laparoscopic surgery,p <0.001), lower conversion to open surgery, shorter length of hospital stay, faster bowel function recovery and lower postoperative complications significantly (p=0.041). Estimated blood loss, anastomosis leak rate, and oncological outcomes including the number of lymph nodes extracted showed no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer showed longer operative time, lower conversion, faster bowel function recovery rates, shorter hospital stay, and similar oncological outcomes compared to laparoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Rectum
19.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 36-42, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430695

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Colonoscopy enables detailed endoscopic evaluation of the interior of the colon. Changes observed via colonoscopy may be subtle or pronounced and can sometimes mimic those of other diseases, such as deep intestinal endometriosis. The diagnosis of endometriosis in the distal sigmoid and rectum by colonoscopy has been described in previous case reports. Objective: We aimed to correlate the endoscopic changes found in the distal sigmoid and rectum with the presence of endometrial deposits confirmed by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Methods: We included 50 female patients referred to the endoscopy department at our institution for colonoscopy, rectosigmoidoscopy, or TRUS, who exhibited one or more symptoms associated with endometriosis. Results: The colonoscopic findings were normal in 36 patients but showed alterations in 14 patients. Among the latter, TRUS revealed involvement of the sigmoid and/or rectal wall in 11 patients. Conclusions: The endoscopic changes in the distal sigmoid or rectum described in this study were strongly associated with endometrial deposits confirmed using TRUS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Endometriosis/diagnostic imaging , Rectum , Colon, Sigmoid , Ultrasonography , Endoscopy
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1035-1040, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify the problems in clinical radiotherapy planning for cervical cancer through quantitative evaluation of the radiotherapy plans to improve the quality of the plans and the radiotherapy process.@*METHODS@#We selected the clinically approved and administered radiotherapy plans for 227 cervical cancer patients undergoing external radiotherapy at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from May, 2019 to January, 2022. These plans were transferred from the treatment planning system to the Plan IQTM workstation. The plan quality metrics were determined based on the guidelines of ICRU83 report, the GEC-ESTRO Working Group, and the clinical requirements of our center and were approved by a senior clinician. The problems in the radiotherapy plans were summarized and documented, and those with low scores were re-planned and the differences were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#We identified several problems in the 277 plans by quantitative evaluation. Inappropriate target volume selection (with scores < 60) in terms of GTV, PGTV (CI) and PGTV (V66 Gy) was found in 10.6%, 65.2%, and 1% of the plans, respectively; and the PGTV (CI), GTV, and PCTV (D98%, HI) had a score of 0 in 0.4%, 10.1%, 0.4%, 0.4% of the plans, respectively. The problems in the organs at risk (OARs) involved mainly the intestines (the rectum, small intestine, and colon), found in 20.7% of the plans, and in occasional cases, the rectum, small intestine, colon, kidney, and the femoral head had a score of 0. Senior planners showed significantly better performance than junior planners in PGTV (V60 Gy, D98%), PCTV (CI), and CTV (D98%) (P≤0.046) especially in terms of spinal cord and small intestine protection (P≤0.034). The bowel (the rectum, small intestine and colon) dose was significantly lower in the prone plans than supine plans (P < 0.05), and targets coverage all met clinical requirements. Twenty radiotherapy plans with low scores were selected for re-planning. The re-planned plans had significantly higher GTV (Dmin) and PTV (V45 Gy, D98%) (P < 0.05) with significantly reduced doses of the small intestines (V40 Gy vs V30 Gy), the colon (V40 Gy vs V30 Gy), and the bladder (D35%) (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Quantitative evaluation of the radiotherapy plans can not only improve the quality of radiotherapy plan, but also facilitate risk management of the radiotherapy process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Rectum , Colon , Kidney , Organs at Risk
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