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Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 268-274, 20230303. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425199


Introducción. La estenosis colorrectal benigna hace referencia a una condición anatómica caracterizada por una disminución del diámetro de la luz intestinal distal a la válvula ileocecal, ocasionando una serie de signos y síntomas de tipo obstructivo. Es una entidad poco frecuente, secundaria en la gran mayoría de veces a la realización de anastomosis intestinales al nivel descrito. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la utilidad del stentcolónico en estenosis secundaria a patología colorrectal no neoplásica. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte de pacientes que desarrolló estenosis colorrectal de origen benigna confirmada por colonoscopía, en 3 hospitales de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, entre los años 2007 y 2021. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34 pacientes con diagnóstico de estenosis colorrectal de origen benigno, manejados con stents metálicos autoexpandibles. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 19 meses y se obtuvo éxito clínico en el 73,5 % de los casos. La tasa de complicación fue del 41,2 %, dada principalmente por reobstrucción y migración del stent, y en menor medida por perforación secundaria a la colocación del dispositivo. Conclusión. Los stents metálicos autoexpandibles representan una opción terapéutica en pacientes con obstrucción colorrectal, con altas tasas de mejoría clínica en pacientes con patología estenosante no maligna. Cuando la derivación por medio de estoma no es una opción, este tipo de dispositivos están asociados a altas tasas de éxito clínico y mejoría de la calidad de vida de los pacientes

Introduction. Benign colorectal stenosis refers to an anatomical condition characterized by a decrease in the diameter of the intestinal lumen distal to the ileocecal valve, which might cause a series of obstructive signs and symptoms. It is a rare entity, caused in the vast majority of cases due to intestinal anastomosis at the described level. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of colonic stents in the management of non-malignant colorectal strictures. Methods. Descriptive study of a cohort of patients who developed a benign colorectal stenosis confirmed by colonoscopy in three high-complexity hospitals in the city of Medellín, Colombia, between 2007 and 2021. Results. Thirty-four patients diagnosed with benign colorectal stenosis managed with self-expanding metal stents were included in the study. Median follow-up was 19 months, obtaining clinical success in 73.5% of cases, with a complication rate of 41.2%, mainly due to reobstruction and migration of the stent, and to a lesser extent due to perforation secondary to device placement.Conclusion. Self-expanding metallic stents represent a therapeutic option in patients with colorectal obstruction caused by non-malignant stenosing pathology. When diversion through a stoma is not an option, this type of device is associated with high rates of clinical success and improvement in the patients' quality of life

Humans , Rectal Diseases , Anastomosis, Surgical , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Rectum , Colon , Constriction, Pathologic
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(4): 308-314, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430673


Background: The surgery with total mesorectal excision recommended by R. J. Heald in 1982 is the gold standard. Rectal cancer (RC) surgery has a morbidity rate ranging from 6 to 35%, and it can cause functional issues such as sexual, urinary, and bowel dysfunction in the long term. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been gaining ground in patients with lesions in the middle and lower rectum. The aim of the present study is to present the experience of a reference service in the treatment of RC. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study involving 53 patients diagnosed with RC between January 2017 and December 2019 with follow-up until December 2020. We examined tumor location, disease stage, digital rectal exam findings, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), therapeutic modality offered, and follow-up time. Results: A total of 32% of the patients were men and 68% were women, with a mean age of 60 years old. Location: upper rectum in 6 cases, middle rectum in 21 cases, and lower rectum in 26 cases with evolution from 9.8 to 13.5 months. The most frequent complaints were hematochezia and constipation. A total of 36 patients underwent neoadjuvant therapy: 11 complete clinical response (CCR) (30.5%), 20 (55.5%) partial clinical response (PCR), and no response in 5 patients (14%). The follow-up ranged from 12 to 48 months, with a mean of 30.5 months. A total of 25% of the patients had RC that went beyond the mesorectal fascia, and 22.64% had metastases in other parts of the body when they were diagnosed. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radio and chemotherapy present themselves as an alternative in the treatment of rectal cancer. In 36 patients, 30.5% had a complete clinical response, 55.5% had a partial clinical response, and 14% had no response. It was worth doing the "Watch and Wait" (W&W) to sample. A definitive colostomy was avoided. However, it is necessary to expand the study to a larger follow-up and more patients. Additionally, it is necessary to implement a multicenter study. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Rectum/surgery , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Follow-Up Studies , Colon/surgery , Digital Rectal Examination , Neoplasm Staging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(4): 286-289, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430674


Background: Despite several improvements in surgical techniques, the intracorporeal division of the distal end of the rectum is still challenging, particularly when it is too deep in a narrow pelvis. Even though it helps avoid spillage, the double-stapling technique (DST) raises concerns regarding safety and anastomotic leakage if multiple stapler firings are essential to complete the rectal division. Objective: To assess the feasibility of vertically dividing the rectum and its impact in reducing the number of reloads essential for that division in non-low rectal cancer patients undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME). Materials and Methods A retroprospective study. Results: From January 2017 to November 2021, a total of 123 patients with sigmoid and rectal cancers were enrolled in the present study; their data were collected and analyzed, and 21 patients were excluded. The remaining sample of 102 subjects was composed of 47 male (46%) and 55 female (54%) patients with a median age of 54 years (range: 30 to 78 years). Only 1 reload was enough to complete the rectal division in 82 (80.39%) cases, and 2 reloads were used in the remaining 20 (19.61%) patients. Anastomotic leakage was clinically evident in 4 cases (3.9%). No statically significant difference was observed when firing one or two staplers. No 30-day mortality was recorded in this series. Conclusion: Our early experience indicates that this type of division has a real advantage in terms of decreasing the number of reloads needed and, in turn, lowering the incidence of anastomotic leakage after partial mesorectal excision (PME) or TME when applied with proper patient selection. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Surgical Staplers , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies , Anastomotic Leak
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 203-209, July-Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421977


Objective: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication following colorectal surgery. The present study investigated the risk factors for PONV after colorectal cancer surgery. Methods: A retrospective study of 204 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the clinicopathological factors associated with PONV. Results: The overall incidence of postoperative nausea (PON) and postoperative vomit (POV) was 26.5% (54/204), and 12.3% (25/204), respectively. The univariate analysis showed that female gender (p < 0.001), no current alcohol drinking habit (p = 0.003), and no stoma creation (p = 0.023) were associated with PON. Postoperative vomit was significantly correlated with female gender (p = 0.009), high body mass index (p = 0.017), and right-sided colon cancer (p = 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 4.225; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.170-8.226; p < 0.001) was an independent risk factor for PON. A high body mass index (OR: 1.148; 95%CI: 1.018-1.295; p = 0.025), and right-sided colon cancer (OR: 3.337; 95%CI: 1.287-8.652; p = 0.013) were independent risk factors for POV. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that female gender for PON and a high body mass index and right-sided colon cancer for POV are risk factors after colorectal cancer surgery. An assessment using these factors might be helpful for predicting PONV. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Rectum/surgery , Colon/surgery , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Medical History Taking
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 259-265, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421979


Abstract Background Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a non-tactile ablative therapy that helps to stop rectal bleeding in patients who have developed actinic proctitis after exposure to radiotherapy. This approach seems to be more effective than medications or surgical procedures. Objective To review the literature to verify the effectiveness of APC in the treatment of patients with actinic proctitis induced by radiation therapies. Methods A systematic search was conducted on the following databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We identified 81 studies, and 5 of them fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results In the articles included, a total of 236 patients were evaluated. Most of them were men (67.7%) with a mean age of 66.6 years. Prostate cancer was the main cause of actinic proctitis (67.3%), and control of the bleeding was achieved in 83.3% of the cases, after a mean of 1.67 session of APC. Moreover, 66 patients had complications with the treatment, and rectal pain was the most referred. Conclusions Argon plasma coagulation is a well-tolerated and effective treatment to control rectal bleeding in patients who underwent radiotherapy, and the number of sessions varies from 1 to 2, according to the case. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Proctitis/therapy , Proctitis/etiology , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Rectum , Argon Plasma Coagulation
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 228-233, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421982


Abstract Background It has been observed that there is a high incidence of hemorrhoids in female patients with pelvic organ prolapse. Also, in these patients, hemorrhoidal disease improves after the surgical correction of the pelvic organ prolapse. Objective Our hypothesis was that a cause-effect relationship between pelvic organ prolapse, and hemorrhoids might be the key. The objective of this study was to find an element which connects these two conditions. Study Design We conducted a pilot study which consisted of two parts. An initial part, in which we asked several patients with grades III and IV pelvic organ prolapse and hemorrhoids, who have undergone surgery for prolapse, to determine the impact of the surgical restoration of the prolapsed organs on their hemorrhoidal disease. For the second part, on several patients with uncorrected uterine prolapse grades III and IV, we determined the resistive index of the hemorrhoidal branches within the rectal wall before and after manual reduction of the prolapse. Results First, more than 50% of patients who underwent uterine prolapse correction described an improvement of their hemorrhoidal disease of over 50%. Second, the resistive index of the hemorrhoidal branches was significantly lower after manual reduction of the prolapse. We consider that obstructed veins due to pelvic organ prolapse might induce the dilation of the hemorrhoids. The direct measurement of the resistive index of the hemorrhoidal branches allows us to directly assess the increased resistance in the rectal vascular system. Conclusion Venous stasis and impaired vascular flow might be the pathophysiological explanation for the association between pelvic organ prolapse and hemorrhoids. In these patients, the pathogenic treatment should aim at the restoration of a normal blood flow (prolapse surgical cure) instead of focusing on hemorrhoids only.(AU)

Pelvic Organ Prolapse/surgery , Hemorrhoids/etiology , Rectum/blood supply , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Pelvic Organ Prolapse/complications
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 152-158, Apr.-June 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394421


Objectives: Sometimes, severe adhesion occurs between the rectus abdominis muscle and the ileal intestinal limbs after temporary diverting ileostomy. This can make ileostomy reversal difficult. The aim of the present study is to assess whether absorbable adhesion barrier made of oxidized regenerated cellulose (INTERCEED) could contribute to improved surgical outcomes in stoma reversal. Methods: This was a single-institutional retrospective study. A total of 36 consecutive patients who underwent ileostomy reversal by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. INTERCEED was inserted between the ileal limbs and the rectus abdominis muscle at the time of ileostomy creation in 12 patients. Surgical outcomes of the ileostomy reversal were compared between patients treated with and without INTERCEED. Results:The degree of adhesion formation between the ileal limbs and the rectus abdominis muscles, operating time, and estimated blood loss were significantly reduced in patients treated with INTERCEED compared with those treated by the conventional approach. None of the patients in the INTERCEED group had postoperative complications after the initial surgery and ileostomy reversal. Conclusions: INTERCEED is suitable for insertion between the ileal limbs and the rectus abdominis muscles because of its softness and flexibility. The use of INTERCEED for diverting ileostomy contributes to reduced adhesion formation, operative time, and blood loss in patients, and further research is needed to confirm our results. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ileostomy/methods , Cellulose, Oxidized/therapeutic use , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Anastomotic Leak/prevention & control
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(2): 133-144, jun. 2022. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1387596


RESUMEN Antecedentes: el uso de la proteína C reactiva (PCR) ha adquirido relevancia como identificador de complicaciones posoperatorias La morbilidad en cirugía colorrectal se estima en un 30% de los pacientes operados, lo que demanda medidas para su temprana identificación y terapéutica. Objetivo: describir las curvas de mediciones sucesivas de PCR y su relación con el desarrollo de complicaciones posoperatorias y niveles de glóbulos blancos en una serie de pacientes operados de cirugía colorrectal. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión retrospectiva sobre un registro prospectivo de 2205 pacientes operados por la División de Cirugía Gastroenterológica del Hospital de Clínicas, entre enero de 2019 y julio de 2020. Se incluyeron 69 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de selección. Se consignaron datos del seguimiento clínico y dosaje de PCR, recuento de glóbulos blancos, vía de abordaje y desarrollo de complicaciones. Resultados: el promedio de edad fue de 59 años (DS 13,6; rango 33-85), 31 fueron hombres (43%). La tasa de complicaciones fue del 13,04%; más frecuente fue la fístula anastomótica (fístula, colección), seguida por complicaciones de la herida (hematoma, evisceración). Todos los pacientes mostraron un ascenso inicial del valor de PCR entre el 2° y 3er día, en relación con la lesión quirúrgica, los no complicados presentaron una cinética de descenso y los complicados. curvas de segundo ascenso o no descenso en las mediciones seriadas de PCR, y exhibían valores superiores de PCR cada día Se advirtieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los valores de proteína C reactiva al 5° día posoperatorio en el subgrupo de pacientes complicados con respecto a aquellos con un curso indolente (28 mg/dL vs. 6,1 mg/dL, p < 0,001; IC: 11,24-39,61). hubo diferencia significativa al 5o día entre complicados y no complicados, independientemente de la vía de abordaje. con un valor de corte de PCR de 10,92 mg/dL obtuvimos una sensibilidad del 87,50% y una especificidad del 100% para excluir complicaciones. Conclusiones: la medición de la proteína C reactiva de forma seriada en los posoperatorios de cirugía colorrectal mostró un correlato con la identificación temprana de las complicaciones en nuestra serie, tanto en sus valores absolutos diarios como en la cinética de su comportamiento. se formula el uso de valores de corte para el alta segura.

ABSTRACT Background: The use of C-reactive protein (CRP) has gained relevance as a marker of marker of postoperative complications. As the incidence of complications of colorectal surgery is estimated to be of 30%, measures should for their early identification and treatment. Objective: To describe the performance of consecutive CRP determinations and their relationship with the development of postoperative complications and with white blood cell count in a series of patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed using a prospective registry of 2205 patients operated on at the Department of Digestive Surgery of Hospital de Clínicas, between January 2019 and July 2020. A total of 69 patients fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Clinical follow-up data, CRP levels, white blood cell count, type of approach and development of complications were recorded. Results: Mean age was 59 years (SD 13.6; range 33-85) and 31 were men (43%). The complication rate was 13.04%. Anastomotic leak (fistula, fluid collection) was the most common complication, followed by surgical site complications (hematoma, evisceration). All patients showed an initial increase in CRP values between days 2 and 3, in relation with the surgical lesion, and then decreased in those without complications. Patients with complications had second rise or lack of decrease in serial CRP measurements, and higher CRP values each day. There were statistically significant differences between the CRP levels on postoperative day 5 in the subgroup of patients with complications compared with those with an indolent course (28 mg/dL vs. 6.1 mg/dL, p < 0.001; CI: 11.24-39.61). There was a significant difference on day 5 between patients with and without complications, irrespective of the approach. With a cut-off value of CRP of 10.92 mg/dL on postoperative day 5 we obtained a sensitivity of 87.50% and specificity of 100% to rule out complications. Conclusions: Serial determination of CRP in the postoperative period after colorectal surgery was associated with early identification of complications in our series, both in daily absolute values and in the kinetics of its performance. The use of cut-off values for safe discharge is proposed.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications , Rectum/surgery , C-Reactive Protein , Colon/surgery , Pelvic Exenteration , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Colectomy/adverse effects , Colorectal Surgery , Anastomotic Leak
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 115-119, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394413


Introduction: Pelvic anatomy remains a challenge, and thorough knowledge of its intricate landmarks has major clinical and surgical implications in several medical specialties. The peritoneal reflection is an important landmark in intraluminal surgery, rectal trauma, impalement, and rectal adenocarcinoma. Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the lengths of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection determined with rigid sigmoidoscopy and to determine whether there are any differences in the location of the peritoneal reflection between the genders and in relation to body mass index (BMI) and parity. Design: We prospectively investigated the location of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection via intraoperative rigid sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a mean age of 55.5 years old (57.5% males) who underwent colorectal surgery at the coloproctology service of the Hospital Santa Marcelina, São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. There was substantial agreement between the lengths of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection (Kappa = 0.66). In addition, the peritoneal reflection was significantly lower in overweight patients (p = 0.013 for women and p < 0.005 for men) and in women with > 2 vaginal deliveries (p = 0.009), but there was no significant difference in the length of the peritoneal reflection between genders (p = 0.32). Conclusion: There was substantial agreement between the lengths of the peritoneal reflection and of the middle rectal valve, and the peritoneal reflection was significantly lower in overweight patients and in women with more than two vaginal deliveries. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Peritoneal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Rectum/blood supply , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Health Profile , Body Mass Index , Sex Characteristics , Sigmoidoscopy , Delivery, Obstetric
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 408-416, junio 14, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378695


Introducción. A nivel mundial el cáncer colorrectal es la tercera causa de malignidad y la segunda causa de mortalidad por cáncer. En Colombia, tiene una prevalencia de 8,3 % dentro de las patologías neoplásicas, ubicándolo en el tercer lugar, después del cáncer de próstata y de mama, lo que lo cataloga como un problema de salud pública, por lo que es de gran importancia mantener datos actualizados acerca de su perfil epidemiológico. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal atendidos en el Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia, durante el periodo 2015-2019. Se analizaron las variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, patológicas e histológicas. Resultados. Se encontraron un total de 268 pacientes atendidos por cáncer colorrectal, con predominio femenino en el (54,5 %) de los casos, y edad promedio de 62 años; con comorbilidades en 48,8 % y sintomatología de dolor abdominal en 56,7 %. El adenocarcinoma se encontró en el 82,1 % de los casos y la intervención más realizada fue la hemicolectomía derecha. Conclusión. El perfil epidemiológico del cáncer colorrectal encontrado en este estudio concuerda con los hallazgos de la literatura médica mundial, comprometiendo especialmente mujeres en nuestra institución.

Introduction. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality. In Colombia, it has a prevalence of 8.3% within neoplastic pathologies, placing it in third place, after prostate and breast cancer, which classifies it as a public health problem, making it of great importance to maintain up-to-date data on its epidemiological profile. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with colorectal cancer treated at the Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia, during the period 2015-2019. Sociodemographic, clinical, pathological and histological variables were analyzed. Results. A total of 268 patients treated for colorectal cancer were found, with a female predominance of 54.5% and an average age of 62 years; comorbidities in 48.8%, and symptoms of abdominal pain in 56.7%. Adenocarcinoma was found in 82.1% of cases and the most performed intervention was right hemicolectomy. Conclusion. The epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer found in this study is consistent with the findings of the world medical literature, especially involving women in our institution.

Humans , Colon , Neoplasms , Rectum , Adenocarcinoma , Epidemiology
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 469-479, junio 14, 2022. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378760


Introducción. En la actualidad, el trauma de recto continúa siendo una situación clínica compleja y temida por ser potencialmente mortal. Su detección y manejo temprano es la piedra angular para impactar tanto en la mortalidad como en la morbilidad de los pacientes. Hoy en día, aún existe debate sobre la aproximación quirúrgica ideal en el trauma de recto y las decisiones de manejo intraoperatorias se ven enormemente afectadas por la experiencia y preferencias del cirujano. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en las bases de datos de PubMed, Clinical Key, Google Scholar y SciELO utilizando las palabras claves descritas y se seleccionaron los artículos más relevantes publicados en los últimos 20 años; se tuvieron en cuenta los artículos escritos en inglés y español. Discusión. El recto es el órgano menos frecuentemente lesionado en trauma, sin embargo, las implicaciones clínicas que conlleva pasar por alto este tipo de lesiones pueden ser devastadoras para el paciente. Las opciones para el diagnóstico incluyen el tacto rectal, la tomografía computarizada y la rectosigmoidoscopía. El manejo quirúrgico va a depender de la localización, el grado de la lesión y las lesiones asociadas. Conclusión. El conocimiento de la anatomía, el mecanismo de trauma y las lesiones asociadas permitirán al cirujano realizar una aproximación clínico-quirúrgica adecuada que lleve a desenlaces clínicos óptimos de los pacientes que se presentan con trauma de recto.

Introduction. Currently, rectal trauma continues to be a complex clinical and potentially fatal situation. Its early detection and management is the cornerstone to avoid both mortality and morbidity of patients. Today there is still debate about the ideal surgical approach in rectal trauma, and intraoperative management decisions are greatly affected by the experience and preferences of the surgeon. Methods. A literature search was performed in the PubMed, Clinical Key, Google Scholar and SciELO databases using the keywords described. The most relevant articles published in the last 20 years were selected. Articles written in English and Spanish were considered.Discussion. The rectum is the organ less frequently injured in trauma; however, the clinical implications of overlooking this injury can be devastating for the patient. Options for diagnosis include digital rectal examination, computed tomography and rectosigmoidoscopy. Surgical management will depend on the location, degree of the injury and the associated injuries. Conclusion. Knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanism of trauma and the associated injuries will allow the surgeon to make an adequate clinical-surgical approach that leads to optimal clinical outcomes in patients presenting with rectal trauma.

Humans , Rectum , Multiple Trauma , Sigmoidoscopy , Wounds and Injuries , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Colorectal Surgery , Diagnosis
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 85-98, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375753


Malignant neoplasms are increasingly prevalent in the daily clinical practice. Up to 61% of patients with pelvic malignancies undergo pelvic radiotherapy in different doses, which may cause intestinal damage, and the rectum is the segment most frequently affected due to its fixed position in the pelvis. Currently, there are several strategies to minimize the effects of radiation on the tissues surrounding the neoplastic site; despite those strategies, radiotherapy can still result in serious damage to organs and structures, and these injuries accompany patients throughout their lives. One of the most common damages resulting from pelvic radiotherapy is acute proctitis.The diagnosis is confirmed by visualizing the rectal mucosa through rigid or flexible rectosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. The objective of the present study was to review the forms of radiation-induced proctopathytherapy, and to evaluate the results of each method to propose a standardization for the treatment of this pathology. Despite the prevalence of radiation-induced proctopathy, there is no definitive standardized treatment strategy so far. The first approach can be tried with local agents, such as mesalazine and formalin. For refractory cases, control can usually be achieved with argon plasma coagulation, hyperbaric oxygen, and radiofrequency ablation therapies. Regarding the study of radiation-induced proctopathy, there is a lack of robust studies with large samples and standardized therapies to be compared. There is a lack of double-blinded, randomized controlled studies to determine a definitive standard treatment algorithm. (AU)

Proctitis/etiology , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Colitis/therapy , Pelvic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Rectum , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Formaldehyde/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 68-76, Jan.-Mar. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375751


Introduction: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Even though it can be found in any location of the digestive tract, the colorectal GIST is rare. With this study, we aim to review the current knowledge regarding the prognosis and management of colorectal GIST. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, and 717 articles were collected. After analyzing these studies, 60 articles were selected to use in this review. Results: The mitotic index, as well as tumor size and location were identified as good discriminators of prognosis in various studies. Surgery remains the only curative therapy for potentially resectable tumors. However, even after surgical resection, some patients develop disease recurrence and metastasis, especially those with highrisk tumors. Therefore, surgical resection alone might be inadequate for the management of all colorectal GISTs. The discovery of GIST's molecular pathway led to a shift in its therapy, insofar as tyrosine kinase inhibitors became part of the treatment schemes for this tumor, revolutionizing the treatment's outcome and prognosis. Discussion/Conclusion: The controversy concerning colorectal GIST prognosis and treatment can be, in part, attributed to the limited number of studies in the literature. In this review, we gathered the most recent knowledge about the prognosis and management of GIST in this rare location and propose two algorithms for its approach. Lastly, we highlight the importance of an individualized approach in the setting of a multidisciplinary team. (AU)

Humans , Rectum , Colon , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/therapy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/secondary , Prognosis , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/surgery , Neoplasm Metastasis
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 38-46, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375754


Introduction: A higher rate of anastomotic leakage (AL) is reported after ileosigmoid anastomosis (ISA) or ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) in total or subtotal colectomy (TSC) compared with colonic or colorectal anastomosis. Themain aimof the present studywas to assess potential risk factors for AL after ISA or IRA and to investigate determinants of morbidity. Methods: We identified 180 consecutive patients in a prospective referral, single center database, in which 83 of the patients underwent TSC with ISA or IRA. Data regarding the clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and outcome were assessed to determine their association with the cumulative incidence of AL and surgical morbidity. Results: Ileosigmoid anastomosis was performed in 51 of the patients (61.5%) and IRA in 32 patients (38.6%). The cumulative incidence of ALwas 15.6% (13 of 83 patients). A higher AL rate was found in patients under 50 years-old (p=0.038), in the electivelaparoscopic approach subgroup (p=0.049), and patients in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) subgroup (p=0.009). Furthermore, 14 patients (16.9%) had morbidity classified as Clavien-Dindo ≥ IIIA. Discussion: A relatively high incidence of AL after TSC was observed in a relatively safe surgical procedure. Our findings suggest that the risk of AL may be higher in IBD patients. According to our results, identifying risk factors prior to surgerymay improve short-term outcomes. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anastomosis, Surgical , Colectomy/adverse effects , Anastomotic Leak/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications , Rectum/surgery , Risk Factors , Morbidity , Ileum/surgery
Rev. venez. cir ; 75(1): 35-40, ene. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1391610


La preparación intestinal se ha utilizado en cirugía de colon y recto por una variedad de razones, se cree que un colon limpio facilita la manipulación del intestino, permite el paso y disparo de engrapadoras quirúrgicas y permite la colonoscopia intraoperatoria, si es necesario. Sin embargo, el aspecto más estudiado y debatido de la preparación intestinal es su papel en la reducción de la morbilidad quirúrgica, es decir, las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico (ISQ). La cirugía de colon y recto tiene una de las tasas más altas de ISQ reportadas para todos los tipos de cirugía electiva, con revisiones recientes que muestran tasas que varían del 5,4% al 23,2%, con una media ponderada del 11,4%. (1). La preparación mecánica del intestino (PMI) se usó como un medio para disminuir la concentración bacteriana intraluminal con la esperanza de reducir las tasas de infección. Eventualmente, se agregaron antibióticos no absorbibles a las preparaciones intestinales para reducir aún más el contenido bacteriano intestinal(AU)

Bowel preparation has been used in colon and rectal surgery for a variety of reasons. A clean colon is thought to facilitate bowel manipulation, enable passage and firing of surgical staplers, and allow for intraoperative colonoscopy, if needed. The most studied and debated aspect of bowel preparation, however, is its role in reducing surgical morbidity, namely surgical site infections(SSIs). Colon and rectal surgery has among the highest rates of SSIs reported for all types of elective surgery, with recent reviews demonstrating rates varying from 5.4% to 23.2%, with a weighted mean of 11.4%(AU)

Rectum/surgery , Colonoscopy , Colon/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection , Antisepsis , Morbidity , Colitis, Ischemic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936083


Total mesorectal excision (TME) represents the gold standard for radical resection in rectal cancer. The development in radiology and laparoscopic surgical equipment and the advancement in technology have led to a deepened understanding of the mesorectum and its surrounding structures. Both the accuracy of preoperative staging and the preciseness of the planes of TME surgical dissection have been enhanced. The postoperative local recurrence rate is reduced and the long-term survival of rectal cancer patients is improved. The preservation of the pelvic autonomic nervous system maintains the patient's urinary and sexual functions to the greatest extent possible, which in turn improves the patient's postoperative quality of life. A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the mesorectum and its surrounding structures is a prerequisite for successful TME. Herein, we review the basic concepts and the anatomy of the mesorectum in the current literature. Some important clinical issues are also discussed systematically in terms of imaging, surgery, and pathology.

Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Mesocolon/surgery , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936081


Tumor spreading through the lymphatic drainage is an important metastatic pathway for rectum and sigmoid colon carcinoma. Regional lymph node dissection, as an important part of radical resection of colorectal cancer, is the main way for patients with colorectal cancer to achieve radical resection and acquire tumor-free survival. The regional lymph nodes of sigmoid cancer include paracolic lymph nodes, intermediate lymph nodes, and central lymph nodes locating at the root of blood vessel, and radical surgery should include lymph node dissection at the above three stations. The lymphatic pathways of metastasis for rectal cancer include longitudinal metastasis within the mesorectum and lateral metastasis beyond the mesorectum. The standard surgical method of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME) at present, and the resection range includes the metastatic lymph nodes within the mesorectum through the longitudinal pathway. However, there are many different opinions about lateral lymph node dissection(LLND) aiming at the metastatic lymph nodes locating at the lateral space of rectum. The range of lymph node dissection for rectum and sigmoid cancer is a vital factor that determines the prognosis of patients. Insufficient range of dissection can lead to residual metastatic lymph nodes and have serious impacts on the prognosis of patients. Excessive range of dissection can result in greater surgical trauma, prolonged operation time, more blood loss, and higher rate of complication without oncological benefits. Individualizating the appropriate resection range of rectum and sigmoid colon cancer on the basis of standardization and according to the clinical stage and invasion range of tumor demonstrates great significance of ensuring the radical operation, reducing trauma, promoting rehabilitation, protecting the function and improving the prognosis.

Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Reference Standards , Sigmoid Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936077


There are still controversies as to the location of ligating the inferior mesenteric artery and the central lymph node dissection during rectal cancer surgery. The reason is that the level of evidence in this area is low. Existing studies are mostly retrospective, analyses or small-sample randomized controlled trials. These results showed no significant differences between high-ligation and low-ligation, in terms of anastomotic leakage and other short-term postoperative complications. Low-ligation seems better for the recovery of postoperative genitourinary function. Due to the low rate of central lymph node metastasis and many other confounding factors that affect the survival rate, it is difficult to conclude the survival benefits of ligation site or central node dissection. It is necessary to carry out some targeted, well-designed, large-scale randomized controlled trials to explain the related issues of inferior mesenteric artery ligation site and extent of central lymphadenectomy.

Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Ligation/methods , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Mesenteric Artery, Inferior/surgery , Mesentery , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies