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1.
Más Vita ; 3(1): 32-41, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253306

ABSTRACT

Las actividades humanas producen un fuerte impacto en la degradación del ambiente. Por tanto, es necesario considerar que, si bien es cierto que en general, los residuos que genera no son tóxicos, su volumen es considerable, produciendo contaminación visual y la rápida colmatación de los vertederos. Objetivo: la presente propuesta de estudio tiene como objetivo validar un instrumento de investigación con el fin de obtener los datos necesarios para diseño de un plan de manejo ambiental y la búsqueda de estrategias para clasificar, reducir, y reutilizar los desechos. Y que autoevalúe el sistema de gestión ambiental, teniendo en cuenta aquellos aspectos relacionados con la normatividad de medio ambiente. Materiales y métodos: El instrumento fue sometido a consideración por juicio de expertos en el tema en el que intervinieron 3 PhDs y 2 especialistas del tema y determinó el grado pertinencia, la validez y la confiabilidad, aplicando el método Delphi que permite encontrar el coeficiente de competencia en forma y contenido. Resultados: Se evidencia que tanto los PhD y los especialistas indican que el instrumento está en la categoría de excelente, por tanto, se puede afirmar que es un instrumento pertinente, válido y confiable para ser aplicado en una prueba piloto. Conclusión: El instrumento presenta validez y confiabilidad aceptable para medir el manejo de las estrategias de conservación ambiental con el fin de reducir, reciclar y reutilizar los desechos sólidos(AU)


Human activities produce a strong impact on the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to consider that, although it is true that in general, the waste generated is not toxic, its volume is considerable, producing visual pollution and the landfills rapid clogging. Objective: The purpose of this study proposal is to validate a research instrument in order to obtain the necessary data for the design of an environmental management plan and the search for strategies to classify, reduce and reuse waste. In addition, to self-evaluate the environmental management system, taking into account those aspects related to environmental regulations. Materials and methods: The instrument was submitted to the judgment of experts in the subject, in which three PhDs and two specialists in the subject participated and determined the degree of relevance, validity and reliability, applying the Delphi method that allows finding the coefficient of competence in form and content. The results: It is evident that both the PhDs and the specialists indicate that the instrument is in the excellent category; therefore, it can be affirmed that it is a pertinent, valid and reliable instrument to be applied in a pilot test. Conclusion: The instrument presents acceptable validity and reliability to measure the management of environmental conservation strategies to reduce, recycle and reuse solid waste(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Solid Waste/analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Validation Study , Recycling , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Environmental Pollution
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2688-2702, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887834

ABSTRACT

Plastics are widely used in daily life. Due to poor management and disposal, about 80% of plastic wastes were buried in landfills and eventually became land and ocean waste, causing serious environmental pollution. Recycling plastics is a desirable approach, but not applicable for most of the plastic waste. Microbial degradation offers an environmentally friendly way to degrade the plastic wastes, and this review summarizes the potential microbes, enzymes, and the underpinning mechanisms for degrading six most commonly used plastics including polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyurethane. The challenges and future perspectives on microbial degradation of plastics were proposed.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Plastics , Polyurethanes , Recycling
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248347

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Verificar a associação da distância da habitação em relação a sítios de reciclagem sobre habilidades cognitivas em escolares. Métodos: Estudo transversal, no qual aplicou-se a escala Wechsler Abreviada de Inteligência em 100 escolares de 6 a 14 anos. As crianças foram divididas em um grupo de estudo (expostos), cujas residências estavam situadas a menos de 100 metros de sítios de reciclagem, em um bairro da cidade de Caxias do Sul. Houve um grupo controle, cujas residências estavam a mais de 150 metros de algum sítio de reciclagem, no mesmo bairro ou adjacências. Resultados: A habitação próxima a sítios de reciclagem aumentou a chance de apresentar quociente de inteligência baixo nos escolares na análise univariada (OR 2,19; IC95% 1,21­3,95). No quociente de inteligência total, o escore obtido foi de 84 no grupo exposto e 95 no grupo controle (p≤0,01). Quando ajustadas para outras variáveis potencialmente prejudiciais, a escolaridade materna elevada mostrou-se um fator atenuador do impacto da distância (OR 0,28; IC95% 0,11­0,72). A diferença encontrada entre os escores de quociente de inteligência verbal foi de 14 pontos (p<0,01); no quociente de inteligência de execução a diferença foi de 4 pontos (p=0,04). Conclusões: A distância entre a habitação e os sítios de reciclagem de resíduos pode reduzir habilidades cognitivas em escolares, mas esse efeito parece ser atenuado pela escolaridade materna. Essa associação reforça as preocupações sobre o impacto do manejo inadequado de resíduos urbanos, podendo vir a subsidiar a criação de políticas públicas que visem diminuir exposições ambientais potencialmente danosas.


Aims: We verified the association of housing distance in relation to recycling sites on schoolchildren's cognitive abilities. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, in which the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was applied to 100 schoolchildren aged 6 to 14 years. Children were divided into a study group (exposed), whose households were located less than 100 meters from recycling sites in a neighborhood in the city of Caxias do Sul, and a control group, whose homes were located more than 150 meters from a recycling site in the same neighborhood or nearby. Results: Residences located more than 150 meters away from a recycling site can reduce the chance of low intelligence quotient in schoolchildren in the univariate analysis (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.21-3.95). The full-scale intelligence quotient score was 84 in the exposed group and 95 in the control group (p≤0.01). When adjusted for other potentially harmful variables, higher maternal education was a mitigating factor of distance impact (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.72). The difference found among verbal intelligence quotient scores was 14 points (p<0.01); in the performance intelligence quotient, the difference was 4 points (p=0.04). Conclusions: Living close to waste recycling sites can reduces cognitive abilities in schoolchildren, and this effect seems to be attenuated by maternal education. This association reinforces concerns about the impact of inadequate urban waste management, and may subsidize the creation of public policies that aim to reduce potentially harmful environmental exposures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cognitive Dysfunction , Solid Waste , Growth and Development , Recycling , Intelligence Tests
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 94 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362400

ABSTRACT

A Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, aprovada em 2010, tem como destaque a integração dos catadores de materiais recicláveis nas ações que envolvem a responsabilidade compartilhada pelo ciclo de vida dos produtos e a logística reversa. Com o estabelecimento de metas de reciclagem, definidos nos termos de compromisso e acordos setoriais de embalagens em geral, os fabricantes, importadores, distribuidores e comerciantes devem implementar o sistema de logística reversa para realizar e comprovar a redução de embalagens dispostas em aterros sanitários, o que corresponde ao acréscimo da taxa de recuperação (reciclagem) da fração seca. Como uma forma de apoio, surgem os programas de crédito de logística reversa destinados principalmente às organizações de catadores, propiciando a elas comercializar créditos dos resíduos recicláveis originários de notas fiscais de venda. Como contrapartida, variados investimentos são realizados por parte dos programas. Esta pesquisa buscou avaliar os efeitos sociais e econômicos desses programas em cooperativas de catadores no município de São Paulo. Para isso, elaborou-se um questionário abordando temas como o processo de parceria entre as cooperativas e programas de créditos de logística reversa, remuneração versus produção, segurança do trabalho, saúde, qualificação, formalização e impacto da pandemia de COVID-19. Realizaram-se entrevistas com as lideranças de 10 cooperativas de catadores previamente selecionadas. De modo geral, com base na análise dos dados, constatou-se que os efeitos causados pelos programas nas cooperativas de catadores foram tímidos. No entanto, houve efeitos positivos como o aumento da remuneração e melhorias nos processos ergonômicos. E efeitos negativos no que tange à quantidade de resíduos recicláveis comercializados mensalmente e na falta de investimento para contribuição da previdência social, falta de oferta para planos de saúde e de cursos profissionalizantes para os cooperados. Os resultados evidenciaram que tais programas necessitam de melhorias em diversos pontos e devem avançar no que se refere ao pagamento pelo serviço ambiental.


The Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste, approved in 2010, highlights the integration of waste pickers in actions that involve shared responsibility for the life cycle of products and reverse logistics. The establishment of recycling goals, defined in the terms of commitment and sectorial agreements for packaging in general, manufacturers, importers, distributors and traders must implement the reverse logistics system implement and prove the reduction of packaging disposed in sanitary landfills, the which corresponds to the increase in the recovery rate (recycling) of the dry fraction. As a form of support, reverse logistics credit programs arise, mainly aimed at waste picker organizations, enabling them to sell credits from recyclable waste originating from sales invoices and, in return, several investments are made by the programs. It is the social and economic effects of these programs on waste picker cooperatives in the city of São Paulo that this research sought to assess. For this, a survey was elaborated addressing topics such as the partnership process between cooperatives and reverse logistics credit programs, remuneration versus production, occupational health, health, education, legalization and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were carried out with the leaders of 10 previously selected waste picker cooperatives. In general, data analysis found that the effects that the reverse logistics credit programs had on waste picker cooperatives were small. However, there were positive effects such as increased compensation and improvements in ergonomic processes. Although negative effects on the amount of recyclable waste monthly sales, the lack of investment to contribute to social security, lack of offer for health plans and professional training courses for cooperative members. The results showed that such programs need improvement in several points and should advance in terms of payment for the environmental service.


Subject(s)
Solid Waste Collection , Solid Waste Segregators , Recycling , Remuneration , Reverse Logistics
5.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1282061

ABSTRACT

Objective: The recycling of heat pressed lithium disilicate glass-ceramic leftover material has been reported to be done by dental laboratories. The effect of this procedure on the fracture resistance of single crowns is unknown, especially when it is functioning inside the oral cavity with subsequent exposure to temperature changes and cycles of mastication. Material and Methods: A total of 28 lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns (IPS emax Press) were constructed and randomly assigned into two groups (n = 14); Group (P): Included crowns fabricated from new e.max ingots. Group (R): Included crowns fabricated from repressed e.max buttons. Specimens of each group were divided into two equal subgroups (n = 7) according to whether the aging of specimens will be performed or not before fracture resistance testing. Subgroup (N), samples were subjected to fracture resistance without thermo-mechanical aging, while subgroup (A), samples were subjected to thermo-cycling and cyclic loading before being subjected to fracture strength testing. Different methods; SEM, XRD, EDAX were used to characterize the properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics before and after repressing. Results: The highest statistically significant fracture resistance value was recorded for the subgroup (RN) repressed/non-aged, followed by the subgroup repressed/aged (RA), while the lowest statistically significant mean value was recorded for the subgroup pressed/aged (PA). There was no significant difference between pressed/non-aged (PN) and repressed/aged (RA) subgroups. Conclusion: Repressing of leftover buttons may increase the fracture resistance of IPS emax Press crowns. Thermo-mechanical aging may negatively affect the fracture resistance of IPS emax Press crowns, yet Repressing may decrease this effect. Clinical implications:This is a novel approach that targets a point of research that has not been investigated before. It elaborates how repressing may decrease the effect of aging and increase the fracture resistance of lithium disilicate crowns. Thus, recycling of lithium disilicate glass ceramics might decrease its failure and prolong their serviceability (AU)


Objetivo: A reutilização de material residual de vitrocerâmicas de dissilicato de lítio prensadas a quente tem sido realizada pelos laboratórios de prótese. O efeito deste procedimento na resistência à fratura de coroas unitárias é desconhecido, especialmente quando estão em função na cavidade oral com subsequente exposição às variações de temperatura e ciclos mastigatórios. Material e Métodos: Vinte e oito coroas de dissilicato de lítio (IPS e.max Press) foram confeccionadas e divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n = 14); Grupo (P): Incluiu coroas fabricadas de pastilhas novas de e.max; Grupo (R): Incluiu coroas fabricadas de e.max reprensado. As amostras de cada grupo foram divididas em dois subgrupos iguais (n = 7) de acordo com a realização de envelhecimento dos espécimes antes do teste de resistência à fratura. As amostras do subgrupo (N) foram submetidas ao teste de resistência à fratura sem envelhecimento termomecânico, enquanto as amostras do subgrupo (A) foram submetidas ao envelhecimento termomecânico antes do teste de resistência à fratura. Diferentes métodos (MEV, DRX e EDS) foram usados para caracterizar as propriedades da cerâmica de dissilicato de lítio antes e depois da reprensagem. Resultados: O maior valor de resistência à fratura estatisticamente significativo foi do subgrupo (RN) reprensado/não envelhecido, seguido pelo subgrupo reprensado/envelhecido (RA), enquanto o menor valor médio estatisticamente significativo foi do subgrupo prensado/envelhecido (PA). Não houve diferença estatística entre os subgrupos prensado/não envelhecido (PN) e reprensado/envelhecido (RA). Conclusão: A reprensagem de material residual pode aumentar a resistência à fratura de coroas de IPS e.max Press. O envelhecimento termomecânico pode afetar negativamente na resistência à fratura deste material, enquanto a reprensagem pode diminuir este efeito. Relevância clínica: Esta é uma nova abordagem que busca estudar um tema que não havia sido investigado anteriormente. Este estudo demonstrou como a reprensagem pode diminuir o efeito do envelhecimento e aumentar a resistência à fratura de coroas de dissilicato de lítio. Assim, a reutilização de vitrocerâmicas de dissilicato de lítio pode diminuir o risco à falha e aumentar o tempo de vida útil (AU)


Subject(s)
Crowns , Recycling , Flexural Strength , Mouth
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 551-556, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144208

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma obtained from the peripheral, autologous blood of the patients in pain complaints reduction and functional improvement of knee osteoarthritis compared with the standard treatment with injectable corticosteroid, such as triamcinolone. Methods The patients were followed-up clinically at the preinfiltrative visit, with quantitative evaluation using the Knee Society Score (KSS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and the Kellgren and Lawrence scales. In addition, they were reevaluated with the same scales after 1 month and 6 months of intervention with 2.5 mL of triamcinolone acetate or 5 mL of platelet-rich plasma. The study was performed on 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated at the Medical Specialty Center and randomly divided into equivalent samples for each therapy. Results The present study verified the reduction of pain scores, such as the WOMAC score, and elevations of functional scales, such as the KSS, evidenced in 180 days when using platelet-rich plasma, a therapy that uses the autologous blood of the patient and has fewer side effects. Conclusion Although both platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid therapies have been shown to be effective in the reduction pain complaints and functional recovery, there was a statistically significant difference between them at 180 days. According to the results obtained, platelet-rich plasma presented longer-lasting effects within 180 days in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a eficácia do uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, obtido do sangue periférico e autólogo dos pacientes, na redução das queixas álgicas e melhoria funcional dos pacientes portadores de osteoartrite de joelhos, em comparação com o tratamento padrão com injeção de corticosteroides de depósito, como a triancilonola. Métodos Os pacientes foram acompanhados clinicamente na consulta pré-infiltrativa, com avaliação quantitativa através das escalas Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), e Kellgren and Lawrence. Além disso, os pacientes foram reavaliados com as mesmas escalas após 1 mês e 6 meses de intervenção com 2,5 mL de acetato de triancinolona ou 5 mL de plasma rico em plaquetas. O estudo foi feito em 50 pacientes portadores de osteoartrite de joelhos atendidos no Centro de Especialidades Médicas, divididos em amostras equivalentes randomizadas para cada terapia. Resultados No presente estudo, verificaram-se redução dos valores em escalas álgicas, como a WOMAC, e elevação das pontuações em escalas funcionais, como a KSS, evidenciadas em 180 dias após o uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, uma terapia feita a partir do sangue autólogo do paciente e com menos efeitos colaterais. Conclusão Embora ambas as terapias com plasma rico em plaquetas e corticosteroides tenham se mostrado eficazes na redução das queixas álgicas e na recuperação funcional, houve diferença significativa entre as terapias aos 180 dias. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, no tratamento da osteoartrite do joelho, o plasma rico em plaquetas demonstrou efeitos mais duradouros em 180 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoarthritis , Blood , Triamcinolone , Efficacy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Recycling , Injections
7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 836-847, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138621

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Actualmente se generan grandes cantidades de sub-productos agroindustriales como residuos, aun cuando pueden ser fuente importante de variados compuestos antioxidantes. Una de las formas de aprovechar esta funcionalidad es concentrar los antioxidantes mediante la elaboración de extractos, siendo las "extracciones verdes", que usan solventes como agua o etanol, que por ser más amigables con el medio ambiente y la salud humana, han sido las más estudiadas en los últimos años. Sin embargo, uno de los principales problemas de reutilizar este tipo de compuestos bioactivos es mantener su estabilidad, debido a que luego de ser extraídos desde su matriz biológica son muy sensibles a distintas condiciones medioambientales y de almacenamiento. Una tecnología que puede reducir la inestabilidad de los compuestos antioxidantes es la encapsulación, la cual también reduce las alteraciones organolépticas que se pudieran producir cuando son incorporados en alimentos. Según nuestro conocimiento no existen revisiones de encapsulación de extractos de sub-productos agroindustriales (en donde se puede encontrar una gran variedad de compuestos antioxidantes) y la información existente se basa en compuestos antioxidantes específicos encapsulados. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta revisión fue recopilar información actualizada respecto a la encapsulación de extractos antioxidantes obtenidos a partir de sub-productos agroindustriales vegetales y su incorporación como ingredientes en alimentos.


ABSTRACT Currently large quantities of agro-industrial by-products are generated as waste even when they can be used as important sources of various antioxidant compounds. One of the ways to take advantage of this functionality is to concentrate antioxidants via the preparation of extracts. Due to their lower impact on the environment and human health "green extractions" using solvents such as water or alcohol have been the most studied in recent years. However, one of the main problems in re-using these bioactive compounds is maintaining stability after being extracted from their biological matrix. Instability relates to different environmental and storage conditions. One technology that can reduce antioxidants instability is encapsulation, which also reduces organoleptic alterations that could occur when they are incorporated into food. To our knowledge there are no reviews of encapsulation of agroindustry by-product extracts (where a wide variety of antioxidant compounds can be found) and existing information is based on specific encapsulated antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the objective of this review was to gather up-to-date information regarding the encapsulation of antioxidant extracts obtained from vegetable agro-industrial by-products and their incorporation as ingredients in food.


Subject(s)
Humans , Waste Products , Functional Food , Antioxidants , Plants , Agribusiness , Recycling
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786081

ABSTRACT

The heart faces the challenge of adjusting the rate of fatty acid uptake to match myocardial demand for energy provision at any given moment, avoiding both too low uptake rates, which could elicit an energy deficit, and too high uptake rates, which pose the risk of excess lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity. The transmembrane glycoprotein cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a scavenger receptor (B2), serves many functions in lipid metabolism and signaling. In the heart, CD36 is the main sarcolemmal lipid transporter involved in the rate-limiting kinetic step in cardiac lipid utilization. The cellular fatty acid uptake rate is determined by the presence of CD36 at the cell surface, which is regulated by subcellular vesicular recycling from endosomes to the sarcolemma. CD36 has been implicated in dysregulated fatty acid and lipid metabolism in pathophysiological conditions, particularly high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, in conditions of chronic lipid overload, high levels of CD36 are moved to the sarcolemma, setting the heart on a route towards increased lipid uptake, excessive lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and eventually contractile dysfunction. Insight into the subcellular trafficking machinery of CD36 will provide novel targets to treat the lipid-overloaded heart. A screen for CD36-dedicated trafficking proteins found that vacuolar-type H⁺-ATPase and specific vesicle-associated membrane proteins, among others, were uniquely involved in CD36 recycling. Preliminary data suggest that these proteins may offer clues on how to manipulate myocardial lipid uptake, and thus could be promising targets for metabolic intervention therapy to treat the failing heart.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Endosomes , Glycoproteins , Heart , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , R-SNARE Proteins , Receptors, Scavenger , Recycling , Sarcolemma
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180408, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Waste produced by the construction sector is a problem that has grown over the last few years. Construction and demolition waste makes up about 50% by mass of the total solid waste produced in Brazil. One alternative by which to reduce this volume is recycling this material in the form of aggregates. However, it is necessary to analyze the environmental risk that the use of recycled aggregates can entail for adjacent soil and the water table. The purpose of this work was to evaluate pervious concrete samples that contained recycled aggregates and to subject them to leaching tests. The results were compared with the limits established by the Italian methodology. Aggregates with 10, 25, 50, and 100% ceramic were used, as well as a recycled concrete aggregate and a natural aggregate. With the exception of the 25% ceramic trial, all the treatments introduced chromium to the water in which they were immersed, with accumulated concentrations varying from 0.009 to 0.099 mg L-1. Cadmium was found in higher quantities, with cumulated concentrations between 0.104 and 0.417 mg L-1. Sulfate concentrations were higher after 24 h of immersion, with a maximum release of 71.7 mg L-1. The concrete made with 100% ceramic aggregate leached more chromium and sulfate than the other aggregates.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Solid Waste , Construction Industry , Percolation/methods , Ceramics/chemistry , Environmental Hazards , Brazil , Recycling , Italy
12.
Afr. j. disabil. (Online) ; 9: 1-9, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256856

ABSTRACT

Background: Plaster of Paris (POP) is being used in different ways in the field of medicine, dentistry and rehabilitation. One of its uses is in the manufacture of models of body segments in prosthetics and orthotics. It is used as a one-off procedure in which the used material is dismantled and discarded. The disposal of discarded materials does not allow easy decomposition which then pollutes the environment. It is not known whether this material could be reused if recycled. Objectives: The main objective of the study was to recycle POP models and determine its reuse in producing models with identical qualities, and thus reduce environmental pollution. Method: The procedure adopted was to break discarded models into small pieces, remove impurities and dirt; then the sample models were milled, washed, dried and pulverised. The POP models were heated to evaporate crystalline water in order to determine for how many times it could be recycled while retaining the desired strength, setting time and working characteristics. Results: The recycled POP reached higher setting temperatures and was stronger in terms of compressive strain and strength than the virgin POP. The highest temperature recorded for recycled POP was 40°C, which was higher than that for virgin powder (32.5°C). Testing compressive strength of all cylinders in all groups showed that the average compressive strength of the recycled powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 2407 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 1028 KN/m², whereas the average compressive strength of virgin POP powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 1807 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 798 KN/m². There were no differences in working properties between the recycled POP and the virgin POP. Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that under controlled conditions, such as grinding size, heating temperature, time and avoidance of contamination, used POP could be continuously recycled, resulting in stronger and workable casts


Subject(s)
Agnosia , Calcium Sulfate , Compressive Strength , Recycling
13.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(3): e2019529, 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124742

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a prevalência de doenças respiratórias e diarreia em trabalhadores de cooperativas de materiais recicláveis do município de São Paulo, Brasil, e fatores associados. Métodos: estudo transversal, realizado em três cooperativas, com dados coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas e medição da concentração fúngica ambiental; utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para estimar razões de prevalência (RP). Resultados: foram entrevistados 156 indivíduos; as maiores prevalências de asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e diarreia ocorreram nas cooperativas de maior concentração fúngica total; observou-se maior prevalência ajustada de asma na cooperativa A (RP=8,44 - IC95% 1,09;65,37) e de diarreia na C (RP=2,09 - IC95% 1,11;3,94), em relação à cooperativa B; a maior prevalência de DPOC foi observada em fumantes e ex-fumantes (RP=8,66 - IC95% 2,84;26,35). Conclusão: medidas de controle fúngico devem ser adotadas como prevenção de doenças em cooperativas de materiais recicláveis.


Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de enfermedades respiratorias y diarrea en trabajadores de cooperativas de materiales reciclables en São Paulo, Brasil, y factores asociados. Métodos: estudio transversal en tres cooperativas, con datos recopilados por entrevistas estructuradas y medición de la concentración fungica ambiental; se usó la regresión de Poisson para estimar las razones de prevalencia (RP). Resultados: 156 personas fueron entrevistadas; la mayor prevalencia de asma, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y diarrea se produjo en cooperativas con la mayor concentración fúngica total; se observó una mayor prevalencia ajustada de asma en la cooperativa A (RP=8,44 - IC95% 1,09;65,37) y diarrea en C (RP=2,09 - IC95% 1,11;3,94), en comparación con la cooperativa B; la mayor prevalencia de EPOC se observó en los fumadores y ex fumadores (RP=8,66 - IC95% 2,84;26,35). Conclusión: se deben adoptar medidas de control fúngica como prevención de enfermedades en cooperativas de materiales reciclables.


Objective: to analyze the prevalence of respiratory diseases and diarrhea among recyclable material cooperative workers in São Paulo City, Brazil, and associated factors. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted in three cooperatives, with data collected through structured interviews and measurement of environmental fungal concentration; Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). Results: 156 individuals were interviewed; the highest asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and diarrhea prevalence rates occurred in cooperatives with higher total fungal concentration; highest adjusted prevalence of asthma was found in Cooperative A (PR=8.44 - 95%CI 1.09;65.37), and highest adjusted prevalence of diarrhea was found in Cooperative C (PR=2.09 - 95%CI 1.11;3.94), compared to Cooperative B; the highest COPD prevalence was found in smokers and former smokers (PR=8.66 - 95% CI 2.84;26.35). Conclusion: fungal control measures must be adopted for disease prevention in recyclable material cooperatives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Risks , Solid Waste Segregators , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Recycling , Social Determinants of Health
14.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 50(1-2): 97-104, Diciembre 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118417

ABSTRACT

La Seguridad Industrial en el INHRR nace con la conformación del primer Comité de Higiene y Seguridad Industrial en el año 1997, cumpliendo con la Norma COVENIN 2270-95 "Conformación de Comités de Seguridad Industrial". En el año 1999, se asigna la creación de la Unidad de Seguridad Laboral y Ambiente a partir del Programa de Seguridad Laboral y Ambiente. Esta Unidad estaba adscrita a la Gerencia de Recursos Humanos del INHRR. El personal que conformó esta Unidad desde sus inicios hasta la actualidad, se ha caracterizado por ser un equipo multidisciplinario con experiencia en distintas áreas técnicas de la Institución y con conocimientos sólidos en trabajos como seguridad de laboratorio químico y biológico, entre otros. Profesionales altamente capacitados, comprometidos, con entrega, ética, mística de trabajo, calidad de servicio y sentido de pertenencia por la Institución. Posteriormente se integra al equipo de trabajo un Médico Ocupacional y una Enfermera Laboral con la finalidad de prestar la atención a los trabajadores y trabajadores de la Institución. En el año 1999, aproximadamente se crea la Brigada de Control de Emergencias de la Institución cumpliendo con la normativa nacional vigente. Dichos integrantes de esta brigada siempre han contado con capacitación o actualización continua en áreas de Combate y Supresión de Incendio Nivel I y II, Materiales Peligrosos Nivel Respondedor y Operaciones, Rescate Básico Nivel I, Primeros Auxilios Nivel I, Técnicas de Desalojo, Reanimación Cardio Pulmonar, entre otros. El 1ero de septiembre del 2013, mediante Punto de Cuenta al Consejo N° 01, Sesión N° 30 de fecha 10/10/2013, fue creada funcional y organizacionalmente la Gerencia de Seguridad Industrial, Ambiente e Higiene Ocupacional, adscrita a la Presidencia del Instituto, cuya función principal es velar por la seguridad laboral, industrial y ambiental tanto de las trabajadoras, trabajadores como instalaciones y el entorno de la Institución, enfatizando en las acciones preventivas, promoviendo la cultura de seguridad y prevención en la Institución, asesorando a las diferentes unidades en materia de seguridad laboral, salud y ambiente, realizando gestiones de manejo de desechos bioinfecciosos, planes de reciclaje de papel, capacitando al personal de la Institución en materia de seguridad, laboral y ambiente, apoyo e intercambio de saberes con Organismos del Estado, en otras actividades, todas estas enmarcadas en el fiel cumplimiento de las leyes, normativas y reglamentaciones vigentes en el País.


The Industrial Safety in the INHRR was born with the conformation of the first Committee of Hygiene and Industrial Safety in the year 1997, fulfilling with the Norm COVENIN 2270-95 "Conformation of Committees of Industrial Security". In 1999, the creation of the Occupational Safety and Environment Unit was assigned based on the Workplace Safety and Environment Program. This Unit was attached to the Human Resources Management of the INHRR. The staff that made up this Unit from its beginnings to the present, has been characterized as a multidisciplinary team with experience in different technical areas of the Institution and with solid knowledge in safe chemical and biological laboratory work, among others. Highly trained professionals, committed, with dedication, ethics, work mystique, quality of service and sense of belonging by the Institution. Later, an Occupational Physician and a Labor Nurse were integrated into the work team in order to provide care to the workers and workers of the Institution. In 1999 approximately the Emergency Control Brigade of the Institution was created, complying with the current national regulations. These members of this Brigade have always had training or continuous updating such areas of Combat and Suppression of Fire Level I and II, Hazardous Materials Level Responder and Operations, Basic Rescue Level I, First Aid Level I, Techniques of Eviction, Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation among others. On September 1, 2013, through Point of Account to the Board N ° 01, Session N ° 30 dated 10/10/2013 the Management of Industrial Safety, Environment and Occupational Hygiene was created functionally and organizationally, attached to the Presidency of the Institute , whose main function is to ensure the occupational, industrial and environmental safety of both workers, workers and facilities and the environment of the institution, emphasizing preventive actions, promoting the culture of safety and prevention in the institution, advising the different units in matters of occupational safety, health and environment, carrying out management of bioinfectious waste management, paper recycling plans, training the staff of the institution on safety, labor and environment, support and exchange of knowledge with the State Agency, in other activities, all activities framed in faithful compliance with the laws, regulations and regulations in force in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Occupational Health/history , Academies and Institutes/history , Venezuela , Waste Management , Search and Rescue , Industrial Safety/history , Recycling , Fire Extinguishing Systems , First Aid
15.
Odontol. vital ; (30): 73-78, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1091416

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tema de la ecología en los últimos años ha sido de gran interés para la población en general, más aún en las empresas para disminuir el impacto ambiental generado, y la práctica odontológica no está exenta, ya que como es de conocimiento, se genera gran cantidad de basura mucha de la cual es infecciosa y altamente contaminante, por lo que la tendencia actual es de generar menos impacto ambiental en todos los aspectos del diario vivir y eso está retomando fuerza. Se abordó el tema de la carbono neutralidad, ya que es un complemento para entender el daño y la huella de carbono que se genera en la actualidad. De igual manera parte del trabajo se basó en la indagación sobre la cantidad de información que poseen los odontólogos acerca del tema de las clínicas dentales ecológicas, asimismo como de los requisitos necesarios para el proyecto, y se enlistaron las principales dificultades que ellos consideraban impedimento para aplicar esta modalidad en su práctica profesional.


Abstract The research intends open a gate between the dental industry and ecofriendly practices, now that the tendency to have less contamination impact in a daily basis routine has risen in the past years. The topic of carbón neutrality has come to the table since it is an important complement to have a better understanding of the damage and carbon foot print that is happening in the present. As well, big part of the study was to investigate if the dentists have had any kind of information regarding ecofriendly dental offices and it requirements, as well to see which one is the biggest difficulties dentists think are pushing them back to apply this modality in their day to day routine.


Subject(s)
Dental Care , Medical Waste Disposal , Ecological Damage , Dental Clinics , Carbon , Environmental Health , Costa Rica , Recycling
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1517-1526, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001752

ABSTRACT

Resumo A exposição ocupacional ao mercúrio (Hg) foi avaliada em 4 cooperativas de materiais recicláveis por meio de amostragens de ar em 9 áreas (monte de triagem, balança, prensa, sala de resíduos de equipamentos eletroeletrônicos-REEE, refeitório, escritório, empilhadeira, esteira e pátio externo). Das 83 amostras, apenas 14,5% apresentaram concentrações acima do limite de quantificação (LQ) e 53% entre o LD (limite de detecção) e LQ. A maioria dos valores > LQ ocorreu na cooperativa A, no monte (0,032 µg.m -3 ) e balança (0,029 µg.m -3 ). Nos dias de amostragem houve descarregamento de lâmpadas fluorescentes, o que pode explicar os maiores teores de Hg nessa cooperativa. Na cooperativa B a concentração foi 0,033 µg.m -3 na esteira e < 0,003 µg.m -3 nas outras áreas. Nas cooperativas C e D todos os valores foram < 0,007 µg.m -3 . As áreas de REEE apresentaram baixas concentrações, provavelmente devido ao baixo volume de REEE e forma de processamento do material. Os resultados estiveram abaixo dos valores de referência ocupacional, indicando que os trabalhadores não estão expostos ao Hg. No entanto, o desenho amostral pode não ter sido abrangente devido à intermitência no processamento de REEE e à imprevisibilidade da ocorrência de lâmpadas fluorescentes no material reciclável .


Abstract The occupational exposure to mercury (Hg) was assessed in four cooperatives of recyclable materials by air sampling in nine areas (recyclable materials pile, scale, baling press machine, e-waste room, cafeteria, office, forklift, conveyor belt, and outside patio). Of the 83 samples, only 14.5% showed concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ) while 53% were between the LOD (limit of detection) and LOQ. Most values > LOQ occurred at Cooperative A, at the pile (0.032 μg.m-3) and scale (0.029 μg.m-3). The higher values recorded at this Cooperative might be associated with the unloading of fluorescent lamps on the day of sampling. In cooperative B, the concentration was 0.033 μg.m-3 on the conveyor belt and < 0.003 µg.m-3 in other areas. In cooperatives C and D, all samples showed values < 0.007 μg.m-3. The Hg concentrations were low in areas of e-waste handling and storage, probably due to the small amount of material and way of processing. The results were below the occupational reference values, showing that the workers are not exposed to Hg. However, the sampling design might not have been comprehensive due to the discontinuity of the e-waste processing and the unpredictable occurrence of fluorescent lamps mixed with recyclable materials .


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Recycling , Mercury/analysis , Brazil
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 771-780, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989623

ABSTRACT

Abstract The paper discusses views, perceptions, experiences, knowledge and behaviors related to occupational risks among recycling workers. Data collection involved field observation and two focus groups in each site. Narratives were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes. Findings are presented according to the following topics: economic and environmental value of recycling; aspects of employment in the cooperative system; occupational hazards; and suggestions of improvements. Municipal programs of selective collection, as implemented in most Brazilian municipalities, still need improvements to achieve their goals and objectives. We learned that organizing recycling workers in cooperatives, despite its broad acceptance as a replacement to informal garbage collection in streets and landfills, only brought small progress regarding the safety and quality of life of cooperative workers. Recycling workers noticed the existence of workplace hazards, but seemed resigned to the situation, considered them as part of the job and did not communicate their needs to supervisors. They ignored the existence of some measures to prevent hazards and sometimes even created work practices and alternatives that endangered their own health.


Resumo O artigo discute pontos de vista, percepções, experiências, conhecimentos e comportamentos relacionados aos riscos ocupacionais entre os trabalhadores de reciclagem. Coleta de dados envolveu observação de campo e dois grupos focais em cada unidade. Narrativas foram gravadas, transcritas e analisadas por temas. Resultados são apresentados de acordo com os seguintes tópicos: valor econômico e ambiental da reciclagem; aspectos do sistema cooperativista; riscos ocupacionais e sugestões de melhorias. Programas municipais de coleta seletiva, tal como implantados na maioria dos municípios brasileiros, ainda precisam de melhorias para atingir suas metas e objetivos. Aprendemos que a organização de trabalhadores da reciclagem em cooperativas, apesar de sua ampla aceitação como um substituto para a coleta de lixo informal nas ruas e aterros, trouxe pouco progresso em relação à segurança e qualidade de vida dos cooperados. Os trabalhadores notaram a existência de riscos no local de trabalho, mas parecem resignados com a situação, consideram como parte do trabalho e não comunicam as suas necessidades aos supervisores. Eles ignoraram a existência de algumas medidas para evitar riscos e, por vezes, até criam práticas de trabalho e alternativas que colocam em perigo a própria saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Recycling/methods , Perception , Brazil , Cities , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Focus Groups , Waste Management/methods , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763031

ABSTRACT

Primary cilia and autophagy are two distinct nutrient-sensing machineries required for maintaining intracellular energy homeostasis, either via signal transduction or recycling of macromolecules from cargo breakdown, respectively. Potential correlations between primary cilia and autophagy have been recently suggested and their relationship may increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of human diseases, including ciliopathies and cancer. In this review, we cover the current issues concerning the bidirectional interaction between primary cilia and autophagy and discuss its role in cancer with cilia defect.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cilia , Homeostasis , Humans , Recycling , Signal Transduction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762803

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic soft tissue defects sometimes require sequential flap coverage to achieve complete healing. In the era of propeller flaps, which were developed to reduce donor site morbidity, Feng et al. introduced the concept of the free-style puzzle flap, in which a previously harvested flap becomes its own donor site by recycling the perforator. However, when a perforator cannot be found with a Doppler device, we suggest performing a new type of flap, the flip-flap puzzle flap, which combines two concepts: the free-style puzzle flap and the flip-flap flap described by Voche et al. in the 1990s. We present the cases of three patients who achieved complete healing through this procedure.


Subject(s)
Extremities , Humans , Perforator Flap , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Recycling , Soft Tissue Injuries , Surgical Flaps , Tissue Donors
20.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 409-419, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786581

ABSTRACT

Although the rare earth elements (REEs) recycling industry is expected to increase worldwide in high-tech industry, regulations for worker safety have yet to be established. This study was conducted to understand the potential hazard/risk of REE recycling and to support the establishment of regulations or standards. We review the extensive literature on the toxicology, occupational safety, and health issues, and epidemiological surveys related to the REEs, and propose suitable management measures. REE recycling has four key steps such as collection, dismantling, separation, and processing. In these processes, hazardous substances, such as REEs-containing dust, metals, and chemicals, were used or occurred, including the risk of ignition and explosion, and the workers can be easily exposed to them. In addition, skin irritation and toxicities for respiratory, nervous, and cardiovascular systems with the liver toxicity were reported; however, more supplementary data are needed, owing to incompleteness. Therefore, monitoring systems concerning health, environmental impacts, and safety need to be established, based on additional research studies. It is also necessary to develop innovative and environment-friendly recycling technologies, analytical methods, and biomarkers with government support. Through these efforts, the occupational safety and health status will be improved, along with the establishment of advanced REE recycling industry.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cardiovascular System , Dust , Environmental Health , Explosions , Hazardous Substances , Liver , Metals , Occupational Health , Recycling , Skin , Social Control, Formal , Toxicology
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