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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 28, 2021. 103 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353183

ABSTRACT

El presente Manual tiene como finalidad establecer la información requerida para el adecuado registro, medición, análisis y utilización de estándares de calidad para la toma de decisiones y mejora de los procesos de atención en los establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud


The purpose of this Manual is to establish the information required for the proper registration, measurement, analysis and use of quality standards for decision-making and improvement of care processes in the establishments of the Ministry of Health


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Records , Health , Quality Management , Monitoring , Attention , Decision Making , Information
2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347481

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las cepas de Escherichia coli productoras de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido son patógenos multirresistentes y una de las bacterias que más contribuyen con la resistencia antibiótica bacteriana en la clínica. Sin embargo, se aíslan cada vez con más frecuencia de ambientes naturales, tales como los ecosistemas acuáticos en los cuales se emplea como un indicador de contaminación fecal. Objetivo: Evaluar la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos y la producción de enzimas ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido de aislados de Escherichia coli procedentes de ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de La Habana. Métodos: Se analizaron 43 aislados de E. coli provenientes de los ríos Almendares, Quibú y Luyanó de La Habana. Se determinó la susceptibilidad a 18 antibióticos y la producción fenotípica de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido según las normas del Instituto de Estándares para el Laboratorio Clínico. La detección molecular de las enzimas se realizó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se calculó el índice de multirresistencia a los antibióticos y los patrones de resistencia de cada aislado de E. coli- ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido. Resultados: El 65 por ciento de los aislados de E. coli fueron resistentes al menos a un antibiótico y el 35 por ciento fueron sensibles a todos los antibióticos. El fenotipo ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido fue detectado en siete aislados; de estos, cuatro fueron portadores del gen bla CTX-M-1 y tres presentaron bla TEM. El 37 por ciento de los aislados de E. coli mostraron valores de índices de multirresistencia a los antibióticos menores que 0,22; el 16 por ciento de 0,22; el 9,3 por ciento mayor que 0,5; y el 5 por ciento mayor que 0,7. Los aislados de E. coli-BLEE mostraron corresistencia a las familias de las tetraciclinas, quinolonas, aminoglucósidos y macrólidos. Conclusiones: La presencia de aislados ambientales multirresistentes de E. coli productores de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido en ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de La Habana destaca la necesidad de implementar estrategias de control para prevenir la diseminación de estos aislados en los ambientes naturales(AU)


Introduction: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are multiresistant pathogens and one of the bacteria contributing most greatly to bacterial antibiotic resistance in clinical practice. However, they are increasingly isolated from natural environments, such as aquatic ecosystems, where they are used as fecal pollution indicators. Objective: Evaluate antibiotic susceptibility and extended-spectrum ß-lactamase enzyme production in Escherichia coli isolates from freshwater ecosystems in Havana. Methods: An analysis was conducted of 43 E. coli isolates from the rivers Almendares, Quibú and Luyanó in Havana. Determination was made of susceptibility to 18 antibiotics and phenotypic production of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases according to standards from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Molecular detection of the enzymes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Estimation was carried out of the antibiotic multiresistance index and the resistance patterns of each extended-spectrum E. coli ß-lactamase isolate. Results: Of the E. coli isolates studied, 65 percent were resistant to at least one antibiotic, whereas 35 percent were sensitive to all antibiotics. The extended-spectrum ß-lactamase phenotype was detected in seven isolates, of which four were carriers of the gene bla CTX-M-1 and three contained bla TEM. 37 percent of the E. coli isolates displayed antibiotic multiresistance index values below 0.22, 16 percent of 0.22, 9.3 percent above 0.5 and 5 percent above 0.7. ESBL E. coli isolates displayed co-resistance to the families tetracyclines, quinolones, aminoglycosides and macrolides. Conclusions: The presence of multiresistant extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing environmental E. coli isolates in Havana freshwater ecosystems highlights the need to implement control strategies aimed at preventing the spread of these isolates in natural environments(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ecosystem , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Pollution , Escherichia coli , Fresh Water , Reference Standards , Pollution Indicators
3.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1119, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El desempeño competente del personal médico en medicina transfusional implica profundos conocimientos que no recibe durante el proceso formativo. Objetivo: Identificar elementos para la normalización de la competencia en medicina transfusional para la especialidad Anestesiología y Reanimación. Métodos: Estudio educacional de corte transversal. Se realizó un análisis documental sobre normalización de las competencias profesionales en Cuba y sobre los componentes de la competencia en medicina transfusional para la especialidad. Asimismo, se examinaron los contenidos y habilidades de medicina transfusional en el programa de la residencia. Finalmente, fueron entrevistados profesores de la especialidad. Resultados: La competencia abarca conocimientos sobre riesgos de transmisión de infecciones al paciente, prescripción segura de componentes sanguíneos, reconocimiento de las reacciones transfusionales, ejecución y enseñanza al no graduado de los procedimientos para la transfusión de sangre alogénica. Implica conocer y actualizarse en los aspectos éticos, científicos y legales involucrados. Incluye demostrar conocimientos, habilidades y valores para la preparación preoperatoria de los pacientes con anemia, riesgo hemorrágico y otras enfermedades hematológicas, para el empleo de alternativas y para el ahorro de componentes sanguíneos. Los profesores reconocieron que al comenzar la residencia es necesario un entrenamiento, para luego poder realizar una práctica transfusional segura. Conclusiones: Ser competente en medicina transfusional, subdisciplina de la especialidad Anestesiología y Reanimación, demanda movilizar un conjunto de conocimientos, habilidades, actitudes y valores de manera simultánea, interrelacionada y oportuna para transfundir menos y mejor, con más seguridad y menor costo(AU)


Introduction: Competent performance by the health care personnel in transfusion medicine implies deep knowledge not received during training. Objective: Identify elements of competence standardization in transfusion medicine for the specialty of anesthesiology and resuscitation. Methods: A cross-sectional educational study was conducted. A document analysis was carried out about standardization of professional competences in Cuba and about the components of competence in transfusion medicine for the specialty. Examination was also performed of transfusion medicine contents and skills in the residency program. Finally, professors from the specialty were interviewed. Results: Competence comprises knowledge about risks for the transmission of infections to patients, safe prescription of blood components, identification of transfusion reactions, and performance of and undergraduate training in allogeneic blood transfusion procedures. It implies knowledge and updated awareness of the ethical, scientific and legal aspects involved. It includes demonstrating knowledge, skills and values related to preoperative preparation of patients with anemia, hemorrhagic risk and other hematologic diseases, to use alternatives and save blood components. The professors recognized that training is required at the start of the residency program to ensure the performance of safe transfusion practices. Conclusions: Being competent in transfusion medicine, a subdiscipline of the specialty of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, requires mobilization of a set of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values in a simultaneous, interrelated and timely fashion to transfuse less but better, with greater safety and at a lower cost(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Reference Standards , Blood Transfusion , Delivery of Health Care , Transfusion Medicine , Hematologic Diseases , Anesthesiology , Transfusion Reaction
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210500. 39 p. tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1121794

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe los parámetros técnicos estandarizados, para la evaluación de la afectación psicológica de personas, en caso de haber sido víctimas de violencia contra las mujeres y los integrantes del grupo familiar y para contribuir a la recuperación integral y oportuna de las personas víctimas de violencia contra las mujeres e integrantes del grupo familiar que acuden a las Instituciones Prestadoras de Servicios de Salud (IPRESS).


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Guidelines as Topic , Violence Against Women , Reference Parameters , Jurisprudence
5.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(275): 5544-5555, abr.-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1224355

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as ações do enfermeiro no atendimento ao portador de feridas na atenção básica em saúde. Método: Revisão integrativa estruturada em seis etapas a partir da busca de artigos de livre acesso nas bases de dados publicados no intervalo de 10 anos (2009-2019), baseado em critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos e no nível de evidência das publicações. Resultados: Os estudos incluídos para análise apontam a atuação do enfermeiro centrada na garantia de espaço físico em conformidade com as normas sanitárias, na educação em saúde como ação de promoção da autonomia e autocuidado e na observação dos aspectos sociais e culturais do usuário no contexto da melhoria da cicatrização das lesões. Conclusões: Entende-se como necessária a inserção deste profissional enquanto participante ativo da assistência para desenvolvimento de ações respaldadas e na possibilidade da redução do tempo de tratamento do usuário e dos custos da assistência junto ao sistema de saúde.(AU)


Objective: To describe the actions of nurses in the care of patients with wounds in primary health care. Method: Integrative review structured in six stages based on the search for freely accessible articles in the databases published over a 10-year period (2009-2019), based on established eligibility criteria and the level of evidence of the publications. Results: The studies included for analysis point out the role of nurses focused on guaranteeing physical space in accordance with health standards, in health education as an action to promote autonomy and self-care and in observing the social and cultural aspects of the user in the context of improvement of wound healing. Conclusions: It is understood as necessary to insert this professional as an active participant in the assistance for the development of supported actions and in the possibility of reducing the user's treatment time and the costs of assistance with the health system.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir las acciones del enfermero en la atención de pacientes con heridas en la atención primaria de salud. Método: Revisión integradora estructurada en seis etapas a partir de la búsqueda de artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos publicadas durante un período de 10 años (2009-2019), en base a los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos y al nivel de evidencia de las publicaciones. Resultados: Los estudios incluidos para análisis señalan el rol del enfermero enfocado en garantizar el espacio físico de acuerdo con los estándares de salud, en la educación para la salud como una acción para promover la autonomía y el autocuidado y en la observación de los aspectos sociales y culturales del usuario en el contexto de mejora de la cicatrización de heridas. Conclusiones: Se entiende necesario insertar a este profesional como participante activo en la asistencia para el desarrollo de acciones apoyadas y en la posibilidad de reducir el tiempo de tratamiento del usuario y los costos de asistencia con el sistema de salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Wounds and Injuries , Health Education/standards , Nursing Care , Reference Standards , Self Care , Wound Healing
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 91-98, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151240

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Evaluar la reproductibilidad de las pruebas de competencia motriz (CM) de transposición lateral y salto lateral, y estimar percentiles por edad y sexo para niños que viven a altitud modera del Perú.Método. Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la provincia de Arequipa (Perú). Se evaluó el peso, la estatura y la circunferencia de cintura. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal e índice ponderal. Se evaluó la prueba de transposición lateral y salto lateral (ambas de la batería Kopfer test für Kinder).Resultados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 885 niñas y 897 niños de 6,0 a 16,9 años. El error técnico de medida intraevaluador para ambas pruebas de CM oscilaron entre 1,75 y 3,9 repeticiones en ambos sexos, mientras que el coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue de 0,77 a 0,99. Los límites de acuerdo oscilaron entre -7,3 y 6,8 repeticiones en ambas pruebas. Se estimaron percentiles 5º, 15º, 50º, 85º y 95º por el método Least-Mean-Square algorithm. Los puntos de corte adoptados para las pruebas CM fueron bajo: < p15; regular: de p15 a p85; y alto: > p85.Conclusión. Las pruebas de transposición lateral y salto lateral mostraron una elevada capacidad de reproductibilidad. Los percentiles propuestos pueden servir para valorar la CM y podrían ser incluidos y adaptados como indicadores de desempeño en la educación física.


Objective. To assess the reproducibility of two motor competence (MC) tests: moving sideways and jumping sideways, and to estimate age and sex percentiles for children living at moderate altitude in Peru.Method. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the province of Arequipa, Peru. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed. Body mass index and ponderal index were estimated. The moving sideways and jumping sideways tests were assessed (both from the Körper test für Kinder test battery).Results. The sample was made up of 885 girls and 897 boys aged 6.0-16.9 years. The intra-evaluator technical error of measurement for both MC tests ranged between 1.75 and 3.9 repetitions in both males and females, whereas the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.77-0.99. Agreement limits ranged between -7.3 and 6.8 repetitions for both tests. The 5th, 15th, 50th, 85th, and 95th percentiles were estimated using the Least-Mean-Square algorithm. The cut-off points for MC tests were low: < p15; medium: p15-p85; and high: > p85. Conclusion. Moving sideways and jumping sideways showed a high capacity for reproducibility. The proposed percentiles may be useful to assess MC and could be included and adapted as performance indicators in physical education


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Reproducibility of Results , Motor Skills , Peru , Physical Education and Training , Reference Standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Altitude
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(1): e502, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1180964

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La transfusión de sangre ha sido identificada como uno de los procedimientos médicos más sobreutilizados en pacientes hospitalizados. Una estrategia que permitiría reducir la exposición de los pacientes a la sangre es a través de la implementación de una política de transfusión de una sola unidad, en lugar de dos, para pacientes estables, sin hemorragia y con anemia sintomática. La decisión de transfundir sangre es compleja y depende de varios factores, además, los riesgos de la transfusión se deben sopesar contra los beneficios esperados. La transfusión de dos unidades de sangre a la vez ya no se considera una forma de tratamiento "estándar" para pacientes anémicos sin sangrado activo. Existe una gran oportunidad para reducir el uso excesivo de la transfusión y fomentar las transfusiones de una sola unidad.


Summary: Blood transfusion has been identified as one of the most overused medical procedures in hospitalized patients. One strategy that would reduce the exposure of patients to blood is through the implementation of a single-unit regime for stable patients without bleeding and with symptomatic anemia. The decision to transfuse blood is complex and depends on several factors, in addition, the risks of transfusion must be weighed against the expected benefits. Transfusion of two units of blood at the same time is no longer considered a "standard" form of treatment for anemic patients without active bleeding. There is a great opportunity to reduce the overuse of transfusion and encourage single-unit transfusions.


Resumo: A transfusão de sangue foi identificada como um dos procedimentos médicos usados de mais em pacientes hospitalizados. Uma estratégia que reduziria a exposição dos pacientes ao sangue é por meio da implantação de uma política transfusional de unidade única para pacientes estáveis, sem sangramento e com anemia sintomática. A decisão de transfundir sangue é complexa e depende de vários fatores, além disso, os riscos da transfusão devem ser analisados em relação aos benefícios esperados. A transfusão de duas unidades de sangue ao mesmo tempo não é mais considerada uma forma "padrão" de tratamento para pacientes anêmicos sem sangramento ativo. Há uma grande oportunidade de reduzir o uso excessivo de transfusões e incentivar as transfusões de uma única unidade.


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Blood Transfusion
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Thinking on the construction of the medical device type archives information system.@*METHODS@#This paper introduces the concept and significance of medical device variety archives, and puts forward the overall construction idea and system framework of medical device variety archives by analyzing its construction difficulties.@*RESULTS@#Considering the long-term nature and complexity of the construction of medical device variety archives, the system can be constructed in accordance with the three steps of system building, platform building and data management, and the overall technical architecture can be designed from the eight aspects of user layer, business application layer, application support layer, data resource layer, infrastructure layer, security, standards and operation and maintenance management.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Architecture design is the foundation of system construction, and its design rationality is very important for the success of system construction. The architecture design proposed in this study has a certain reference role for promoting the construction of medical device variety archives management system.


Subject(s)
Information Systems , Reference Standards
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880452

ABSTRACT

The registration system of medical device Master Files is established to solve the problem that the outsourcing suppliers are not willing to cooperate with the device applicants in the process of providing medical device application documents. After a brief introduction of Master Files systems established by foreign regulatory agencies, this article focuses on the research of establishing a medical device Master Files registration system in China. The results show that the establishment of Chinese Master Files registration system can both improve the standardization and convenience of outsourcing activities of medical devices, and satisfy the needs of the development of medical device industry and regulatory system. At the same time, the probability of additional risk caused by the implementation of the system is low. Therefore, it is expected that the benefits of the system to promote public health outweigh the potential risks, which demonstrates that establishment of the system has important application values.


Subject(s)
China , Industry , Reference Standards
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To understand the current situation of artificial intelligence production enterprise quality management system, so as to provide reference basis for the research and standardization of Artificial Intelligence Medical Device (AIMD) product quality management.@*METHODS@#Based on YY/T 0287-2017 Medical Device Quality Management System for Regulatory Requirements, Medical Equipment Production and the Quality Control Standard for Independent Software Appendix and Xavier GMLP report, the relevant factors were screened and the questionnaire was designed by combining expert consultation and literature review. Then, a total of 32 representative AIMD enterprises were invited to fill in the questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the data results using Excel 2016.@*RESULTS@#Through in-depth analysis of the four themes in product planning and design, result output, product quality control and product change, it was found that it was necessary for enterprises participating in the survey to improve the quality management system of AIMD products to different degrees.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study is the first time to systematically investigate the status quo of quality management of AIMD enterprises. The result will be useful for the establishment and continuous improvement of product quality management system. It will also provide a reference for the research of AIMD product quality management and the establishment of the standard.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Quality Control , Reference Standards , Software
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880429

ABSTRACT

Summarize the quality status and variety quality change characteristics of the sampling products through the Summary and analysis, according to the results of the national medical device supervision and inspection in 2019. Put forward suggestions on the development of the medical device industry and supervisory measures. Thereby, further improve the level of the medical device and ensure the safety use of medical device.


Subject(s)
Equipment and Supplies , Industry , Reference Standards
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878959

ABSTRACT

Amana edulis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant with low propagation coefficient. In recent years, the increasing demands of A. edulis lead to a shortage of its wild resources. In order to analyze the expression of related functional genes in A. edulis, the selection of suitable internal reference genes is crucial to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Eight genes(ACT, TUA, CYP, GAPDH, UBQ, UBI, EF1a, UBC)were chosen as candidate reference genes based on the RNA-Seq. Real-time fluorescence quantitative technique was used to detect the expression level of candidate internal reference genes in different organs(bulb, leaf, flo-wer) and stolons at different development stages of A. edulis. Then GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper softwares and RefFinder website were used for a comprehensive analysis of the expression stability of the candidate genes.The results showed that among the 8 candidate reference genes, the variation range of Ct value of UBC was the smallest, and the expression level was stable, which was suitable for an reference gene. GeNorm and NormFinder software analysis showed that UBC and UBI were the optimal reference genes. BestKeeper analysis showed that CYP and UBC expression were relatively stable. Comprehensive evaluation of RefFinder website showed that UBC and UBI were the most stable genes, and ACT displayed the lowest stability in all software evaluation, indicating UBC and UBI were suitable for reference genes. Additionally, the most stable UBC, UBI and the most unstable ACT were used as internal reference genes to detect the expression of GBSS gene in A. edulis, and expression pattern of GBSS gene was the same under the calibration of UBC and UBI. The expression data of GBSS gene confirmed that UBC and UBI genes were reliable for A. edulis qRT-PCR as internal reference genes. The results would benefit future studies on related gene expression of A. edulis.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878946

ABSTRACT

To verify the appropriate preparation process of extracts for the solid substance benchmark of Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The extracts were prepared by different preparation processes, namely the traditional process(process 1), the extract combined with volatile oil separated from traditional process extract liquid(process 2), the modern secondary reflux extraction process(process 3) and the process that volatile oil was extracted first, then prepared according to the traditional process, and combined with extract(process 4); based on the characteristic spectrum, index components of cinnamaldehyde, glycyrrhizin, ammonium glycyrrhizinate, cinnamic acid, and the dry extract rate of process 1, the differences and similarities of four extracts were compared. The results showed that the similarity of the characteristic spectrum of process 2, process 4 and process 1 were all greater than 0.97, while there was no significant difference for the content of 4 quality control components and dry extract rate; the similarity of the characteristic spectrum of process 3 and process 1 was 0.91, the absolute peak area of 13 out of 21 peaks and the relative peak area of 7 peaks increased significantly, and the content of 3 out of 4 quality control components and dry extract rate also significantly increased. In conclusion, the material standards of extracts by the process 2 and 4 are consistent with that of the traditional process, so the two processes are suitable.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Oils, Volatile , Quality Control , Reference Standards
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878914

ABSTRACT

To select suitable references gene of Polygonum multiflorum for gene expression analysis in different tissues, five candidate reference genes like Actin,GAPDH,SAND,PP2A,TIP41 were selected from the transcriptome data of P. multiflorum, then the specific primers were designed. The expression stability of the five reference genes in different tissues of P. multiflorum was analyzed by Real-time quantitative PCR through avilable analysis methods such as geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder, to ensure the reliability of the analysis results. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels and stability of candidate genes in different tissues of P. multiflorum. Ct distribution analysis of the expression levels of candidate genes showed that the expression levels of Actin and GAPDH genes were relatively high in different tissues, while the expression levels of SAND, PP2A and TIP41 were lower. The stability of each candidate gene was analyzed by different methods. The results of geNorm analysis showed that the expression of PP2A and GAPDH was the most stable, the expression stability of SAND was the worst, the stability of PP2A was the highest in both NormFinder and Delta CT, the stability of SAND was the lowest, and the stability of Actin was the most stable in BestKeeper analysis. Through the comprehensive evaluation and analysis of the stability of candidate genes by RefFinder, it is concluded that the stability of PP2A gene is the highest, followed by GAPDH, Actin, TIP41, SAND, and SAND gene is the worst. Therefore, the PP2A gene is an ideal reference gene for the analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. multiflorum.


Subject(s)
Fallopia multiflora , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878902

ABSTRACT

Standards for seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica are very important to the production, quality control and management of seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica. In this paper, the current standards including international standards, national standards, industry standards, local standards and group standards before 2020, involving relevant standards for seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica, were comprehensively and systematically summarized. Relevant standards for seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica were analyzed based on the standard issue year, the source and types of Chinese materia medica, and whether they are included in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015. It is suggested that the standards for seed and seedling of Chinese materia medica shall be systematic, professional and feasible, so as to ensure the sould and sustainable development of the seed and seedling industry of Chinese materia medica.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Seedlings , Seeds
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877656

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the development necessity of a series of international technical specification of acupuncture-moxibustion from three aspects, the development status of global


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Internationality , Moxibustion , Reference Standards
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877635

ABSTRACT

This article introduces the present development status, medical insurance charges, publicity and influence, legislation and practice of acupuncture-moxibustion in Namibia, and proposes some countermeasures for the current problems in the development of acupuncture-moxibustion in Namibia. Namibia has passed legislation of acupuncture-moxibustion and incorporated acupuncture-moxibustion into the medical insurance system in March 2020. The acupuncture-moxibustion will enter the fast track of development, but the acupuncture-moxibustion education, training and cooperation, talent cultivation mode, reimbursement scope of medical insurance, and standardization construction still need to be steadily improved and strengthened.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Namibia , Reference Standards
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877634

ABSTRACT

To explore the problems and countermeasures existing in acupuncture and moxibustion clinical studies, in the perspective of the key steps of


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Moxibustion , Reference Standards , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877571

ABSTRACT

The teaching effect of "process management and evaluation" was assessed in resident standardization training plan in acupuncture-moxibustion department of hospital for postgraduates of non-acupuncture-moxibustion speciality. A total of 120 postgraduates of non-acupuncture-moxibustion speciality participating in resident standardization training were randomized into an observation group (60 cases) and a control group (60 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the conventional training mode was used. In the observation group, the "process management and evaluation" was adopted, in which, the syllabus was refined, various teaching modes were cooperated and the summary was conducted once a week. The training results were evaluated at the end of 1-month shift test and questionnaire was issued in all of the postgraduates of the two groups. In the observation group, the score for theory and the score of each of the items for technical ability, named differentiation and treatment, technical manipulation and physician-patient communication, as well as the total score were all higher than the control group successively (


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Moxibustion , Reference Standards
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